Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-v5vhk Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-22T22:53:31.517Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Residential Security Maps and Neighborhood Appraisals

The Home Owners' Loan Corporation and the Case of Philadelphia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 January 2016

Rights & Permissions [Opens in a new window]

Abstract

Core share and HTML view are not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

At the request of the Home Loan Bank Board, the Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC) created color-coded maps for cities across the country between 1935 and 1940 that indicated risk levels for long-term real estate investment. Involvement in this City Survey Program marked a departure from the original mission of HOLC to provide new mortgages on an emergency basis to homeowners at risk of losing their homes during the Depression. This article considers why HOLC made these maps, how HOLC created them, and what the basis was for the grades on the maps. Geographic information systems and spatial regression models are used to show that racial composition was a significant predictor of map grades, controlling for housing characteristics.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Social Science History Association 2005 

References

Babcock, Frederick M. (1932) The Valuation of Real Estate. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Babcock, Frederick M. (1935) “The determination of mortgage risk.” Journal of the American Institute of Real Estate Appraisers 3: 316–23.Google Scholar
Babcock, Frederick M., Massey, Maurice R. Jr., and Greene, Walter L. (1938) “Techniques of residential location rating.” Journal of the American Institute of Real Estate Appraisers 6: 133–40.Google Scholar
Bailey, Trevor C., and Gatrell, Anthony C. (1995) Interactive Spatial Data Analysis. Essex, U.K.: Longman Scientific and Technical.Google Scholar
Bartelt, David (1979) “Redlines and breadlines: Depression recovery and the structure of urban space.” Unpublished paper, Temple University.Google Scholar
Bartelt, David (1993) “Housing the ‘Underclass,’” in Katz, Michael B. (ed.) The “Underclass” Debate: Views from History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University: 118–57.Google Scholar
Beauregard, Robert A. (2001) “Federal policy and postwar urban decline: A case of government complicity?Housing Policy Debate 12: 129–51.Google Scholar
Bloch, Ernest (1963) “The Federal Home Loan Bank system,” in Federal Credit Agencies. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
Cohen, Lizabeth (1990) Making a New Deal: Industrial Workers in Chicago, 1919–1939. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press Google Scholar
Colean, Miles L. (1944) American Housing: Problems and Prospects. New York: Twentieth Century Fund.Google Scholar
Cressie, Noel C. (1993) Statistics for Spatial Data. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
DuBois, Ayers J. (1935) “The valuation of mortgage risk rating systems of the Federal Housing Administration.” Journal of the American Institute of Real Estate Appraisers 3: 324–34.Google Scholar
Fahey, John H. (1934) “The government's program for the organization of the nation’s home-financing system.” Federal Home Loan Bank Review 1 (October): 1–14.Google Scholar
Federal Home Loan Bank Administration (FHLBA) (1942) “Federal Home Loan Bank Administration and its agencies.Washington, DC: Federal Home Loan Bank Administration.Google Scholar
Federal Home Loan Bank Board (FHLBB) (1934a)“‘Introducing the Review.’Federal Home Loan Bank Review 4 (January): 18 .Google Scholar
Federal Home Loan Bank Board (FHLBB) (1934b) “The need for new homes.” Federal Home Loan Bank Review 1 (October): 14–18.Google Scholar
Federal Home Loan Bank Board (FHLBB) (1935a) “;Effect on home values of appraisals by the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation.” Federal Home Loan Bank Review 1 (January): 123 .Google Scholar
Federal Home Loan Bank Board (FHLBB) (1935b) “Dwelling condition in sixty-four cities.” Federal Home Loan Bank Review 1(June): 324–27.Google Scholar
Federal Home Loan Bank Board (FHLBB) (1935c) “Neighborhood standards as they affect investment risk.” Federal Home Loan Bank Review 1(August): 404–6.Google Scholar
Federal Home Loan Bank Board (FHLBB) (1936) “Security maps for the analysis of mortgage lending areas.” Federal Home Loan Bank Review 2 (August): 389–91.Google Scholar
Federal Home Loan Bank Board (FHLBB) (1937) “Appraisal methods and policies.” Federal Home Loan Bank Review 4(January): 110–13.Google Scholar
Federal Home Loan Bank Board (FHLBB) (1940) Waverly: A Study in Neighborhood Conservation. Washington, DC: FHLBB.Google Scholar
Federal Home Loan Bank Board (FHLBB), Division of Research and Statistics (1936a) “Map consultants and sectional descriptions.” Record Group 195, Records of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, Home Owners’ Loan Corporation, Records Relating to the City Survey File, 1935–1940, National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD.Google Scholar
Federal Home Loan Bank Board (FHLBB) (1936b) “Los Angeles, California: Reports by Mssrs. Boyd, Bowden, Helming,” September 18. Record Group 195, Records of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, Home Owners’ Loan Corporation, Records Relating to the City Survey File, 1935–1940, National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD.Google Scholar
Federal Home Loan Bank Board (FHLBB) (1937) “Philadelphia PA: Explanation and area description.” Record Group 195, Records of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, Home Owners’ Loan Corporation, Records Relating to the City Survey File, 1935–1940, National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD.Google Scholar
Federal Housing Administration (FHA) (1935) Underwriting Manual. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Federal Housing Administration (FHA) (1936) Underwriting Manual. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Federal Housing Administration (FHA) (1938) Underwriting Manual. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Federal Housing Administration (FHA) (1947) Underwriting Manual. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Federal Works Progress Administration for Pennsylvania (1934) Report of the Philadelphia Real Property Survey: Summary, Residential Structures and Family Accommodations. Philadelphia: Federal Works Progress Administration for Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
Hanchett, Thomas W. (1998) Sorting Out the New South City: Race, Class, and Urban Development in Charlotte, 1875–1975. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Harriss, C. Lowell (1951) History and Policies of the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
Hillier, Amy E. (2003a) “ Redlining and the Home Owners' Loan Corporation.” Journal of Urban History 29: 394–420.Google Scholar
Hillier, Amy E. (2003b) “Who received loans? Home Owners'Loan Corporation lending and discrimination in Philadelphia in the 1930s.” Journal of Planning History 2 : 3–24.Google Scholar
Hirsch, Arnold R. (2000) “Choosing segregation: Federal housing policy between Shelly and Brown ,” in Bauman, John F., Biles, Roger, and Szylvian, Kristin M. (eds.) From Tenements to the Taylor Homes: In Search of an Urban Housing Policy in Twentieth-Century America. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press: 206–25.Google Scholar
Holdcamper, Forrest R., comp. (1965) “City Survey Program: A review of the objectives, achievements, administrative operations, and related policies.” Undated memo in Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the Federal Home Loan Bank System, Record Group 195, National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD.Google Scholar
Hoyt, Homer (1933) One Hundred Years of Land Value in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Hoyt, Homer (1939) The Structure and Growth of Residential Neighborhoods in American Cities. Washington, DC: FHA.Google Scholar
Jackson, Kenneth T. (1985) Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Keefer, D. (1938) “Risk rating homes.” Review of the Society of Residential Appraisers 4 (January): 3–5.Google Scholar
Leon, George (1985) “Ghost towns, ghettos and gold coasts: A sociological analysis of housing abandonment.” PhD diss., Temple University.Google Scholar
Marvell, Thomas B. (1969) The Federal Home Loan Bank Board. New York: Frederick A. Praeger.Google Scholar
Metzger, John T. (1999) “Social capitalism in American cities.” PhD diss., Columbia University.Google Scholar
Mohl, Raymond A. (1987) “Trouble in paradise: Race and housing in Miami during the New Deal era.” Prologue 19: 7 21.Google Scholar
Mohl, Raymond A. (1997) “The second ghetto,” in Thomas, June Manning and Ritzdorf, Marsha (eds.) Urban Planning and the African American Community. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage: 58–74.Google Scholar
Mohl, Raymond A., and Betten, Neil (1986) Steel City: Urban and Ethnic Patterns in Gary, Indiana, 1906–1950. New York: Holmes and Meier.Google Scholar
National Association of Real Estate Boards (NAREB) (1935) “New manual gives FHA method of rating mortgage risk.” National Real Estate Journal 36(April): 25–26.Google Scholar
Park, Robert E., Burgess, Ernest W., and McKenzie, Roderick D. (1925) The City: Suggestions for the Investigation of Human Behavior in the Urban Environment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Pratt, Louis M. (1937) “Appraising fractional parts of residential property.” Review of the Society of Residential Appraisers 3 (March): 10–13.Google Scholar
Russell, Horace (1935) “Appraisal for long term mortgage loans.” Journal of the American Institute of Real Estate Appraisers 3: 265 .Google Scholar
Stark, Paul E. (1937) “Neighborhood protection.” National Real Estate Journal 38 (3): 25.Google Scholar
Sugrue, Thomas J. (1996) The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar