Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7f7b94f6bd-lv2sk Total loading time: 1.156 Render date: 2022-06-29T20:40:18.446Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Are Positive Interventions Always Beneficial?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 June 2020

Pablo Briñol*
Affiliation:
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain)
Richard E. Petty
Affiliation:
The Ohio State University (USA)
Beatriz Gandarillas
Affiliation:
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain)
Lorena Moreno
Affiliation:
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain)
*
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Pablo Briñol. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain). 28049 Madrid (Spain). E-mail: pablo.brinnol@uam.es

Abstract

Can people improve their lives by smiling more, trying to have a better posture, and by thinking about good memories? Can individuals become more successful by deliberatively engaging in positive actions and thoughts? Do people feel better by following recommendations from naïve psychology? In the present article we discuss these questions, noting that although some popular interventions thought to be universally beneficial (e.g., inductions of happiness, self-affirmation, empowerment, self-distancing) can sometimes yield positive outcomes, at other times the outcomes can also be negative. Taking an empirical approach based on experimental evidence, we postulate that understanding the underlying processes discovered in the science of persuasion is the key for specifying why, when, and for whom these practical initiatives are more likely to work or to backfire.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© Universidad Complutense de Madrid and Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

Conflicts of Interest: None.

This work was supported by the Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad, Gobierno de España (ES) [PSI2017-83303-C2-1-P]. Grant to the first author.

References

Arnold, A. J., & Winkielman, P. (2020). The mimicry among us: Intra and inter-personal mechanism of spontaneous mimicry. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 44, 195212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10919-019-00324-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bailey, A. H., LaFrance, M., & Dovidio, J. F. (2017). Could a woman be superman? Gender and the embodiment of power postures. Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology, 2, 627. https://doi.org/10.1080/23743603.2016.1248079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bandura, A., & Locke, E. A. (2003). Negative self-efficacy and goal effects revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(1), 8799. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.1.87CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baumeister, R., Campbell, J., Krueger, J., & Vohs, K. (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(1), 144. https://doi.org/10.1111/1529-1006.01431CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blankenship, K. L., & Holtgraves, T. (2005). The role of different markets of linguistic powerlessness in persuasion. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 24, 324. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X04273034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bernstein, A., Hadash, Y., Lichtash, Y., Tanay, G., Shepherd, K., & Fresco, D. (2015). Decentering and related constructs: A critical review and Metacognitive Processes Model. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10(5), 599617. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691615594577CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Briñol, P., & DeMarree, K. G. (2012) (Eds.). Social metacognition. Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203865989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Briñol, P., Gascó, M., Petty, R. E., & Horcajo, J. (2013). Treating thoughts as material objects can increase or decrease their impact on evaluation. Psychological Science, 24, 4147. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612449176CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Briñol, P., Paredes, B., & Gandarillas, B. (2019). Introduction to meta-cognitive processes of thought separation: An illustrative review. International Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 479505. https://doi.org/10.1080/02134748.2019.1651023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Briñol, P., & Petty, R. E. (2009). Persuasion: Insights from the self-validation hypothesis. In Zanna, M. P. (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology. Advances in experimental social psychology, Vol. 41 (pp. 69118). Elsevier Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)00402-4Google Scholar
Briñol, P., Petty, R. E., & Barden, J. (2007). Happiness versus sadness as determinants of thought confidence in persuasion: A self-validation analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 711727. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.93.5.711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Briñol, P., Petty, R. E., Durso, G. R. O., & Rucker, D. D. (2017). Power and persuasion: Processes by which perceived power can influence evaluative judgments. Review of General Psychology, 21, 223241. https://doi.org/10.1037/gpr0000119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Briñol, P., Petty, R. E., Gallardo, I., & DeMarree, K. G. (2007). The effect of self- affirmation in non threatening persuasion domains: Timing affects the process. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 15331546. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167207306282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Briñol, P., Petty, R. E., & Requero, B. (2017). Aggressive primes can increase reliance on positive and negative thoughts affecting self-evaluation. Self and Identity, 16, 194214. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2016.1255251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Briñol, P., Petty, R. E., Santos, D., Mello, J., & (2018). Meaning moderates the persuasive effect of physical actions: Buying, selling, touching, carrying, and cleaning thoughts as if they were commercial products. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, 2, 460471. https://doi.org/10.1086/693561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Briñol, P., Petty, R. E, Stavraki, M., Lamprinakos, G., Wagner, B., & Díaz, D. (2018). Affective and cognitive validation of thoughts: An appraisal perspective on anger, disgust, surprise, and awe. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114, 693718. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspa0000118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Briñol, P., Petty, R. E., & Tormala, Z. L. (2006). The malleable meaning of subjective ease. Psychological Science, 17, 200206. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01686.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Briñol, P., Petty, R. E., Wagner, B. C. (2009). Body postures effects on self-evaluation: A self-validation approach. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 10531064. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Briñol, P., Rucker, D. D., & Petty, R. E. (2015). Naïve theories about persuasion: Implication for information processing and consumer attitude change. International Journal of Advertising, 34, 85106. https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2014.997080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brummelman, E., Thomaes, S., Overbeek, G., Orobio de Castro, B., van den Hout, M. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2014). On feeding those hungry for praise: Person praise backfires in children with low self-esteem. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 914. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031917CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burkeman, O. (2013). The antidote: Happiness for people who can't stand positive thinking. W. F. Howes Limited.Google Scholar
Burgmer, P., & Englich, B. (2012). Bullseye! How power improves motor performance. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4(2), 224232. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550612452014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carroll, P. J., Briñol, P., Petty, R. E., & Ketchman, J. (2020). Feeling prepared increases confidence in any accessible thoughts affecting evaluations unrelated to the original domain of preparation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 89, 103962. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2020.103962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cesario, J., & Johnson, D. J. (2018). Power poseur: Bodily expansiveness does not matter in dyadic interactions. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 9(7), 781789. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550617725153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cesario, J., & McDonald, M. M. (2013). Bodies in context: Power poses as a computation of action possibility. Social Cognition, 31, 260274. https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.2013.31.2.260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clarkson, J. J., Otto, A. S., Hirt, E. R., & Egan P, M. (2016). The malleable efficacy of willpower theories. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42, 14901504. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167216664059CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clarkson, J. J., Tormala, Z. L., & Rucker, D. D. (2008). A new look at the consequences of attitude certainty: The amplification hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 810825. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, G. L., Garcia, J., Purdie-Vaughns, V., Apfel, N., & Brzustoski, P. (2009). Recursive processes in self-affirmation: Intervening to close the minority achievement gap. Science, 324, 400403. http://doi.org/10.1126/science.1170769CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeCelles, K. A., DeRue, D. S., Margolis, J. D., & Ceranic, T. L. (2012). Does power corrupt or enable? When and why power facilitates self-interested behavior. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(3), 681689. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026811CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeMarree, K. G., Briñol, P., & Petty, R. E. (2014). The effects of power on prosocial outcomes: A self-validation analysis. Journal of Economic Psychology, 41, 2030. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2012.07.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeMarree, K. G., Loersch, C., Briñol, P., Petty, R. E., Payne, B. K., & Rucker, D. D. (2012). From primed construct to motivated behavior: Validation processes in goal pursuit. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 16591670. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167212458328CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Durso, G. R. O., Briñol, P., & Petty, R. E. (2016). From power to inaction: Ambivalence gives pause to the powerful. Psychological Science, 27, 16601666. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797616669947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferrer, R. A., & Cohen, G. L. (2019). Reconceptualizing self-affirmation with the trigger and channel framework: Lessons from the health domain. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 23(3), 285304. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868318797036CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Finkel, E. J., Slotter, E. B., Luchies, L. B., Walton, G. M., & Gross, J. J. (2013). A brief intervention to promote conflict reappraisal preserves marital quality over time. Psychological Science, 24, 15951601. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612474938CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ford, B. Q., & Troy, A. S. (2019). Reappraisal reconsidered: A closer look at the costs of an acclaimed emotion-regulation strategy. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 28, 195203. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721419827526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Forgas, J. P. (1995). Mood and judgment: The affect infusion model (AIM). Psychological Bulletin, 117, 3966. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.1.39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gallardo, I., Briñol, P., Petty, R. E., DeMarree, K. G., & Pinto, J. (2020). Self-affirmation can validate any mental content: A meta-cognitive approach [Manuscript submitted for publication].Google Scholar
Galinsky, A. D., Gruenfeld, D. H., & Magee, J. C. (2003). From power to action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 453466. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.85.3.453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gandarillas, B., Briñol, P., Petty, R. E., & Díaz, D. (2018). Attitude change as a function of the number of words in which thoughts are expressed. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 74, 196211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2017.09.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gascó, M., Briñol, P., Santos, D., Petty, R. E., & Horcajo, J. (2018). Where did this thought come from? A self-validation analysis of the perceived origin of thoughts. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 44, 16151628. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167218775696CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Geers, A. L., Briñol, P., & Petty, R. E. (2019). An analysis of the basic processes of formation and change of placebo expectations. Review of General Psychology, 23, 211229. https://doi.org/10.1037/gpr0000171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grant, A. M., & Schwartz, B. (2011). Too much of a good thing: The challenge and opportunity of the inverted U. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(1), 6176. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691610393523CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guyer, J. J., Briñol, P., Petty, R. E., & Horcajo, J. (2019). Nonverbal behavior of persuasive sources: A multiple process analysis. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 23, 203231. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10919-018-00291-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hart, R., Ivtzan, I., & Hart, D. (2013). Mind the gap in mindfulness research: A comparative account of the leading schools of thought. Review of General Psychology, 17, 453466. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0035212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hertwig, R., & Grüne-Yanoff, T. (2017). Nudging and boosting: Steering or empowering good decisions. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12, 973986. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691617702496CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hirsh, J. B., Galinsky, A. D., & Zhong, C.-B. (2011). Drunk, powerful, and in the dark: How general processes of disinhibition produce both prosocial and antisocial behavior. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(5), 415427. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691611416992CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holland, E., Wolf, E. B., Looser, C., & Cuddy, A. (2017). Visual attention to powerful postures: People avert their gaze from nonverbal dominance displays. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 68, 6067. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2016.05.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horcajo, J., Paredes, B., Higuero, G., Briñol, P., & Petty, R. E. (2019). The effects of overt head movements on physical performance after positive versus negative self-talk. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 41, 3645. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2018-0208CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Howell, K. H., Miller, L. E., Lilly, M. M., Burlaka, V., Grogan-Kaylor, A. C., & Graham-Bermann, S. A. (2015). Strengthening positive parenting through intervention: Evaluating the moms’ empowerment program for women experiencing intimate partner violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(2), 232252. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260514533155CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huang, S. C., & Aaker, J. (2019). It’s the journey, not the destination: How metaphor drives growth after goal attainment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 117(4), 697720. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspa0000164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, L., Galinsky, A. D., Gruenfeld, D. H., & Guillory, L. E. (2011). Powerful postures versus powerful roles: Which is the proximate correlate of thought and behavior? Psychological Science, 22, 95102. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797610391912CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huntsinger, J. R. (2013). Incidental experiences of affective coherence and incoherence influence persuasion. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39, 792802. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167213482588CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huntsinger, J. R., Isbell, L. M., & Clore, G. L. (2014). The affective control of thought: Malleable, not fixed. Psychological Review, 121(4), 600618. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0037669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jakubiak, B. K., & Feeney, B. C. (2017). Affectionate touch to promote relational, psychological, and physical well-being in adulthood: A theoretical model and review of the research. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 21, 228252. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868316650307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jorm, A. F. (2012). Mental health literacy: Empowering the community to take action for better mental health. American Psychologist, 67(3), 231243. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0025957CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Judge, T. A., & Ilies, R. (2004). Affect and job satisfaction: A study of their relationship at work and at home. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(4), 661673. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.4.661CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kang, Y., Gruber, J., & Gray, J. R. (2013). Mindfulness and de-automatization. Emotion Review, 5, 192201. https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073912451629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kifer, Y., Heller, D., Perunovic, W. Q. E., & Galinsky, A. D. (2013). The good life of the powerful: The experience of power and authenticity enhances subjective well-being. Psychological Science, 24(3), 280288. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612450891CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim, M., Beehr, T. A., & Prewett, M. S. (2018). Employee responses to empowering leadership: A meta-analysis. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 25, 257276. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051817750538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kleitman, S., & Stankov, L. (2007). Self-confidence and metacognitive processes. Learning and Individual Differences, 17(2), 161173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2007.03.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klofstad, C. A. (2016). Candidate voice pitch influences election outcomes. Political Psychology, 37(5), 725738. https://doi.org/10.1111/pops.12280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Körner, R., Petersen, L. E., & Schütz, A. (2019). Do expansive or contractive body postures affect feelings of self-worth? High power poses impact state self-esteem. Current Psychology, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-019-00371-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kross, E., & Ayduk, O. (2017). Self-distancing: Theory, research and current directions. In Olson, J. & Zanna, M. (Eds.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, (Vol. 55, pp.81136). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.aesp.2016.10.002Google Scholar
Labroo, A. A., & Kim, S. (2009). The “instrumentality” heuristic: Why meta-cognitive difficulty is desirable during goal pursuit. Psychological Science, 20, 127134. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02264.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Labroo, A. A., Mukhopadhyay, A., & Dong, P. (2014). Not always the best medicine: Why frequent smiling can reduce wellbeing. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 53, 156162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2014.03.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Labroo, A. A., & Pocheptsova, A. (2016). Metacognition and consumer judgment: Fluency is pleasant but disfluency ignites interest. Current Opinion in Psychology, 10, 154159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2016.01.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lammers, J., Dubois, D., Rucker, D. D., & Galinsky, A. D. (2017). Ease of retrieval moderates the effects of power on agency: Implications for the replicability of power recall effects. Social Cognition, 35(1), 117. https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.2017.35.1.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lammers, J., Dubois, D., Rucker, D. D., & Galinsky, A. D. (2013). Power gets the job: Priming power improves interview outcomes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 776779. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2013.02.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, S. W. S., & Schwarz, N. (2011). Wiping the slate clean: Psychological consequences of physical cleansing. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 307311. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721411422694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lerner, J. S., & Keltner, D. (2001). Fear, anger, and risk. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(1), 146159. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.81.1.146CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lerner, J. S., Li, Y., Valdesolo, P., & Kassam, K. S. (2015). Emotion and decision making. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 799823. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115043CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lindsay, E. K., Chin, B., Greco, C. M., Young, S., Brown, K. W., Wright, A. G. C., Smyth, J. M., Burkett, D., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). How mindfulness training promotes positive emotions: Dismantling acceptance skills training in two randomized controlled trials. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 115(6), 944973. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspa0000134CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lomas, T., & Ivtzan, I. (2015) Second wave psychology: Exploring the positive-negative dialectics of well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(4), 17531768. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-015-9668-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luttrell, A., Petty, R. E., & Briñol, P. (2016). Ambivalence and certainty can interact to predict attitude stability over time. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 63, 5668. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2015.11.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyubomirsky, S., & Layous, K. (2013). How do simple positive activities increase well- being? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 5762. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721412469809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyubomirsky, S., Sousa, L., & Dickerhoof, R. (2006). The costs and benefits of writing, talking, and thinking about life's triumphs and defeats. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 692708. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.90.4.692CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mackie, D. M., & Worth, L. T. (1989). Processing deficits and the mediation of positive affect in persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 2740. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.1.27CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Martin, R. A. (2001). Humor, laughter, and physical health: Methodological issues and research findings. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 504519. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.127.4.504CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mauss, I. B., Tamir, M., Anderson, C. L., & Savino, N. S. (2011). Can seeking happiness make people unhappy? Paradoxical effects of valuing happiness. Emotion, 11, 807815. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022010CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCaslin, M. J., Petty, R. E., & Wegener, D. T. (2010). Self-enhancement and theory-based correction processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 830835. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2010.05.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mello, J., Garcia-Marques, T., Briñol, P., Cancela, A., & Petty, R. E. (2020). The influence of physical attractiveness on attitude confidence and resistance to change [Manuscript submitted for publication].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Michalak, J., Mischnat, J., & Teismann, T. (2014). Sitting posture makes a difference: Embodiment effects on depressive memory bias. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 21(6), 519524. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.1890Google ScholarPubMed
Mirels, H. L., Greblo, P., & Dean, J. B. (2002). Judgmental self-doubt: Beliefs about one's judgmental prowess. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(5), 741758. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00189-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nair, S., Sagar, M., Sollers, J., Consedine, N., & Broadbent, E. (2014). Do slumped and upright postures affect stress responses? A randomized trial. Health Psychology, 34(6), 632641. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000146CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O’Keefe, P. A., Dweck, C. S., & Walton, G. M. (2018). Implicit theories of interest: Finding your passion or developing it? Psychological Science, 29, 16531664. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797618780643CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paredes, B., Guyer, J. J., Briñol, P., & Petty, R. E. (2019). Subtle priming of subtraction vs. addition: A spill-over effect of math. International Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 590622. https://doi.org/10.1080/02134748.2019.1649890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paredes, B., Stavraki, M., Briñol, P., & Petty, R. E. (2013). Smiling after thinking increases reliance on thoughts. Social Psychology, 44, 349353. https://doi.org/10.1027/1864-9335/a000131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peper, E., Harvey, R., Mason, L., & Lin, I.-M. (2018). Do better in math: How your body posture may change stereotype threat response. Neuroregulation, 5, 6774. https://doi.org/10.15540/nr.5.3.105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petty, R. E., & Briñol, P. (2008). Persuasion: From single to multiple to meta-cognitive processes. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 137147. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6916.2008.00071.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petty, R. E., & Briñol, P. (2015). Emotion and persuasion: Cognitive and meta-cognitive processes impact attitudes. Cognition and Emotion, 29, 126. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2014.967183CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petty, R. E., & Briñol, P. (2020). A process approach to influencing attitudes and changing behavior: Revisiting classic findings in persuasion and popular interventions. In Forgas, J. P., Crano, W. D., & Fiedler, K. (Eds.), Applications of social psychology: How social psychology can contribute to real world problems (pp. 82103). Psychology Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion. In Berkowitz, L. (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 19, pp. 123205). Academic Press.Google Scholar
Petty, R. E., Schumann, D. W., Richman, S. A., & Strathman, A. J. (1993). Positive mood and persuasion: Different roles for affect under high and low elaboration conditions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 520. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.64.1.5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pratto, F. (2016). On power and empowerment. British Journal of Social Psychology, 55, 120. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjso.12135CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pierce, J. R., & Aguinis, H. (2013). The too-much-of-a-good-thing effect in management. Journal of Management, 39(2), 313338. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311410060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Price, T. F., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2016). Embodying approach motivation: A review of recent evidence. Advances in Motivation Science, 3, 81111. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.adms.2015.12.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Provine, R. R. (2004). Laughing, tickling, and the evolution of speech and self. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13, 215218. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0963-7214.2004.00311.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reich, C. M., Berman, J. S., Dale, R., & Levitt, H. M. (2014). Vocal synchrony in psychotherapy. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 33(5), 481494. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2014.33.5.481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roscoe, L. A. (2017). Sometimes laugher is the best medicine. Health Communication, 32(11), 14381440. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2016.1227295CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rusting, C. L., & DeHart, T. (2000). Retrieving positive memories to regulate negative mood: Consequences for mood-congruent memory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 737752. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.78.4.737CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Santos, D., Briñol, P., Petty, R. E., Gascó, M., Gandarillas, B., & Horcajo, J. (2019). Separating thoughts from the self by selling them to others: The moderating role of self-esteem. International Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 506534. https://doi.org/10.1080/02134748.2019.1649891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schooler, J. W., Ariely, D., & Lowenstein, G. (2003). The pursuit and monitoring of happiness can be self-defeating. In Carrillo, J. & Brocas, I. (Eds.), Psychology and Economics (pp. 4170). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Schubert, T. W. (2020). Grounding of rank: Embodiment, space, and magnitude. Current Opinion in Psychology, 33, 222226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2019.09.012CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. L. (1983). Mood, misattribution, and judgments of well-being: Informative and directive functions of affective states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 513523. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.45.3.513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sedikides, C., & Skowronski, J. J. (2020). In human memory, good can be stronger than bad. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 29, 8691. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721419896363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60, 410421. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.60.5.410CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Söderkvist, S., Ohlén, K., & Dimberg, U. (2018). How the experience of emotion is modulated by facial feedback. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 42, 129151. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10919-017-0264-1CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Strack, F., Martin, L. L., & Stepper, S. (1988). Inhibiting and facilitating conditions of the human smile: A nonobtrusive test of the facial feedback hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(5), 768777. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.5.768CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stone, D. N. (1994). Overconfidence in initial self-efficacy judgments: Effects on decision processes and performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 59, 452474. https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1994.1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tamir, M., & Ford, B. Q. (2012). When feeling bad is expected to be good: Emotion regulation and outcome expectancies in social conflicts. Emotion, 12(4), 807816. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024443CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Teeny, J. D., Siev, J. J., Briñol, P., & Petty, R. E. (in press). A review and conceptual framework for understanding personalized matching effects in persuasion. Journal of Consumer Psychology.Google Scholar
Tormala, Z. L., Falces, C., Briñol, P., & Petty, R. E. (2007). Ease of retrieval effects in social judgment: The role of unrequested cognitions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 143157. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.93.2.143CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Unkelbach, C. (2006). The learned interpretation of cognitive fluency. Psychological Science, 17, 339345. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01708.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Der Wal, C., & Kok, R. (2019). Laughter-inducing therapies: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Social Science & Medicine, 232, 473488. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.02.018CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vancouver, J. B., & Kendall, L. N. (2006). When self-efficacy negatively relates to motivation and performance in a learning context. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(5), 11461153. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.5.1146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vohs, K. D., Park, J. K., & Schmeichel, B. J. (2013). Self-affirmation can enable goal disengagement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(1), 1427. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030478CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Walton, G. M., & Wilson, T. D. (2018). Wise interventions: Psychological remedies for social and personal problems. Psychological Review, 125(5), 617655. https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000115CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1997). The flexible correction model: The role of naive theories of bias in bias correction. In Zanna, M. P. (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol., 29, pp. 141208). Academic Press.Google Scholar
Wegener, D. T., Petty, R. E., & Smith, S. M. (1995). Positive mood can increase or decrease message scrutiny: The hedonic contingency view of mood and message processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 515. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.69.1.5CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wegner, D. M., Erber, R., & Zanakos, S. (1993). Ironic processes in the mental control of mood and mood-related thought. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(6), 10931104. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.65.6.1093CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Werner-Seidler, A., & Moulds, M. L. (2012). Mood repair and processing mode in depression. Emotion, 12(3), 470478. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025984CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wichman, A. L., Briñol, P., Petty, R. E., Rucker, D. D., Tormala, Z. L., & Weary, G. (2010). Doubting one’s doubt: A formula for confidence? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(2), 350355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2009.10.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, T. D., Centerbar, D. B., Kermer, D. A., & Gilbert, D. T. (2005). The pleasures of uncertainty: Prolonging positive moods in ways people do not anticipate. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(1), 521. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.88.1.5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, T. D., Westgate, E. C., Buttrick, N. R., & Gilbert, D. T. (2019). The mind is its own place: The difficulties and benefits of thinking for pleasure. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 60, 175221. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.aesp.2019.05.001Google Scholar
Wiseman, R. (2012). Rip it up: How small movements can change your live. Free Press.Google Scholar
Wiseman, R. (2013). The as if principle: The radically new approaching to changing your life. Pan Books.Google Scholar
Wood, J. V., Perunovic, W. Q. E., & Lee, J. W. (2009). Positive self-statements: Power for some, peril for others. Psychological Science, 20, 860866. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02370.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Xu, A. J., Zwick, R., & Schwarz, N. (2012). Washing away your (good or bad) luck: Physical cleansing affects risk-taking behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141(1), 2630. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023997CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zhang, T., Kim, T., Brooks, A. W., Gino, F., & Norton, M. I. (2014). A “present” for the future: The unexpected value of rediscovery. Psychological Science, 25, 18511860. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797614542274CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
3
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Are Positive Interventions Always Beneficial?
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Are Positive Interventions Always Beneficial?
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Are Positive Interventions Always Beneficial?
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *