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Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale in Brazil and Portugal

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 November 2013

Vanessa B. R. Leme*
Universidade Federal de São Carlos (Brazil)
Susana Coimbra
Universidade do Porto (Portugal)
Jorge Gato
Universidade do Porto (Portugal)
Anne Marie Fontaine
Universidade do Porto (Portugal)
Zilda A. P. Del Prette
Universidade Federal de São Carlos (Brazil)
*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Vanessa B. R. Leme. Av. Frederico Ozanan, 633. Jardim São Vicente. Santa Rita do Passa Quatro. São Paulo (Brazil). CEP: 13670–000. Phone: +55–2198069526. E-mail:


This study aims to evaluate the construct validity, internal consistency and cross-cultural invariance of the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale-Portuguese version (GSE) in a Brazilian and Portuguese sample. The GSE is composed of 10 items, designed to parsimoniously and comprehensively assess self-efficacy beliefs to deal with a wide range of stress-inducing situations. The construct validity (factorial, convergent and discriminant) and internal consistency of the instrument were established within a sample of 304 Portuguese adolescents (study 1) and a sample of 477 Brazilian adolescents (study 2). Then, the invariance of the GSE was tested in a sample of Brazilian adolescents (study 3), using Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MGCFA). In the first two studies, the construct validity of the GSE was demonstrated in its three components and the reliability of the scales was confirmed based on satisfactory levels of internal consistency. In the third study, the cross-cultural invariance of the instrument was established. This work adds to previous research on generalized self-efficacy instruments, with good psychometric qualities. Moreover, comparisons can now be made with confidence using this instrument among adolescent samples from Portugal and Brazil.

Research Article
Copyright © Universidad Complutense de Madrid and Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid 2013 

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