Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-n6p7q Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-25T04:06:50.531Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Quality of Life in Disability: Validation of Schalock’s Multi-Dimensional Model in the Portuguese Context

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 June 2013

Ema Loja*
Affiliation:
Universidade do Porto (Portugal)
Maria Emília Costa
Affiliation:
Universidade do Porto (Portugal)
Isabel Menezes*
Affiliation:
Universidade do Porto (Portugal)
*
*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Ema Loja or Isabel Menezes. Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação da Universidade do Porto. Rua Alfredo Allen, 4200-135 Porto (Portugal). E-mails: emaloja@fpce.up.pt; imenezes@fpce.up.pt
*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Ema Loja or Isabel Menezes. Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação da Universidade do Porto. Rua Alfredo Allen, 4200-135 Porto (Portugal). E-mails: emaloja@fpce.up.pt; imenezes@fpce.up.pt

Abstract

This paper aims to evaluate the validation of Schalock’s quality of life multi-dimensional model (1996) in the Portuguese context. We also analyze the quality of life of disabled people by adding a political dimension (adapted from the Minorities’ Rights Support Scale by Nata & Menezes, 2007) to this construct and seeking to understand the impact of discrimination. The sample is composed of 217 participants, most of whom have a physical disability, aged 16 to 81. Validation procedures of the Quality of Life Questionnaire (Schalock & Keith, 1993) and descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were conducted. Confirmatory Factor Analysis revealed good local and global fit indices, and the internal consistency of the scales was satisfactory. An adapted version of the instrument composed of five scales—satisfaction, competence, empowerment, equality of rights and positive discrimination—is proposed. The results reveal the importance of rights and empowerment for the quality of life of disabled people and indicate a strong critical consciousness concerning the experience of discrimination in different contexts. Taken together, the findings indicate the strong need for social and political changes in this domain.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Universidad Complutense de Madrid and Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid 2013 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

We would like to thank Joana Cabral (PhD) for her support in statistics and Professor Schalock for the authorization to use the QoL.Q.

References

Barnes, C., Mercer, T., & Shakespeare, T. (2005). Exploring disability: A sociological introduction, (2 nd ed.), Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
Barton, L. (1993). The struggle for the citizenship: The case of disabled people. Disability and Society, 8(3), 235248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F02674649366780251 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Briggs, S. R., & Cheek, J. M. (1986). The role of factor analysis in the development and evaluation of personality scales. Journal of Personality, 54, 106148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1467-6494.1986.tb00391.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, M. (2006). Participation objective, participation subjective. San Jose, CA: The Center for Outcome Measurement in Brain Injury. Retrieved from http://www.tbims.org/combi/pops Google Scholar
Bryman, A., & Cramer, D. (2003). Análise de dados em ciências sociais. Introdução às técnicas utilizando o SPSS para windows [Quantitative data analysis for social sciences: introduction to the techniques using the SPSS for Windows] (3 rd ed.). Oeiras, Portugal: Celta.Google Scholar
Byrne, B. M. (2006). Structural equation modelling with EQS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. (2 nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Cummins, R. A. (1997). Self-rated quality of life scales for people with an intellectual disability: A review. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 10, 119216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1468-3148.1997.tb00017.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cummins, R. A. (2000). Objective and subjective quality of life: An interactive model. Social Indicators Research, 52, 5572. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1007027822521 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cummins, R. A. (2001). Self-rated quality of life scales for people with an intellectual disability: A reply to Ager & Hatton. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 14, 111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046%2Fj.1360-2322.2001.00057.x Google Scholar
De Mayer, J., Vanderplasschen, W., & Broekaert, E. (2009). Exploratory study on drug users’ perspectives on quality of life: More than health-related quality of life? Social Indicators Research, 90, 107126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs11205-008-9315-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farquhar, M. (1995). Definitions of quality of life: A taxonomy. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 22, 502508. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046%2Fj.1365-2648.1995.22030502.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Felce, D. & Perry, J. (1996). Assessment of quality of life. In Schalock, R. L. (Ed.), Quality of life: Volume I: Conceptualization and measurement (pp. 6373). Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.Google Scholar
Ferdinand, R., & Smith, M. A. (2003). Nebraska developmental disabilities provider profiles. Nebraska, Lincoln: The Arc of Nebraska.Google Scholar
Gardner, J. F., & Nudler, S. (1997). Beyond compliance to responsiveness: Accreditation reconsidered. In Schalock, R. L. (Ed.), Quality of life: Volume II: Application to persons with disabilities (pp. 135–48). Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.Google Scholar
Garratt, A., Schmidt, L., Mackintosh, A., & Fitzpatrick, R. (2002). Quality of life measurement: Bibliographic study of patient assessed health outcome measures. BMJ, 324, 14171419. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136%2Fbmj.324.7351.1417 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gettings, R. M. & Bradley, V. J. (1997). Core Indicators Project. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Developmental Disabilities Services, Inc.Google Scholar
Gilson, S., & DePoy, E. (2002). Theoretical approaches to disability content in social work education. Journal of Social Work Education, 38, 153165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hays, R. D., Hahn, H., & Marshall, G. (2002). Use of the SF-36 and other health-related quality of life measures to assess persons with disabilities. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 83(Supplement 2), S4S9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053%2Fapmr.2002.36837 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herrmann, P. (2005). Empowerment: The core of social quality. European Journal of Social Quality, 5(1/2), 289299. http://dx.doi.org/10.3167%2F146179105780337558 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hu, L.-T., & Bentler, P. M. (1995). Evaluating model fit. In Hoyle, R. H. (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 7699). Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage.Google Scholar
Hughes, C., Hwang, B., Kim, J., Eisenman, L. T., & Killian, D. J. (1995). Quality of life in applied research: A review and analysis of empirical measures. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 99, 623641.Google ScholarPubMed
Huppert, F., & Whittington, J. (2003). Evidence for the independence of positive and negative well-being: Implications for quality of life assessment. British Journal of Health Psychology, 8, 107122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348%2F135910703762879246 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Instituto de Emprego e Formação Profissional (2004). Valor acrescentado do Trabalhador com (d)eficiência [Added value of the worker with (dis)abilities] . Lisboa, Portugal: Palmigráfica.Google Scholar
Joyce, C. R. B., McGee, H. M., & O’Boyle, C. A. (1999). Individual quality of life: Approaches to Conceptualization and Assessment. Australia, AU: Harwood.Google Scholar
Keith, K. D., & Schalock, R. L. (2000). Cross-cultural perspectives on quality of life. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.Google Scholar
Lachapelle, Y., Wehmeyer, M. L., Haelewyck, M.-C., Courbois, Y., Schalock, K., Verdugo, M. A., & Walsh, P. N. (2005). The relationship between quality of life and self-determination: An international study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49, 740744. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1365-2788.2005.00743.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Little, T. D., Cunningham, W. A., Shahar, G., & Widaman, K. F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 151173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207%2FS15328007SEM0902_1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maroco, J. (2007). Análise estatística – com utilização de SPSS [Statistical analysis – using the SPSS] . Lisboa, Portugal: Edições Sílabo.Google Scholar
McCarthy, H. (2003). The disability rights movement: Experiences and perspectives of selected leaders in the disability community. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 46, 209223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177%2F003435520304600402 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meekosha, H. (2004). Drifting down the gulf stream: Navigating the cultures of disability studies. Disability & Society, 19(7), 721733. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F0968759042000284204 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nata, G., & Menezes, I. (2007). Escala de Suporte dos Direitos das Minorias [Minorities’ Rights Support Scale], In Diferença cultural e democracia: Identidade, cidadania e tolerância na relação entre maioria e minorias [Cultural difference and democracy: Identity, citizenship and tolerance between the majority and the minorities] (Doctoral dissertation). University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.Google Scholar
Nata, G., & Menezes, I. (2010). Ciclos de vida e atitudes perante a vida: Satisfação com a vida, religiosidade e redes de relações sociais. [Life cycle and attitudes towards life: Satisfaction with life, religiousness and social networks]. In Pais, J. M. & Ferreira, V. S. (Eds.), Tempos e transições de vida: Portugal ao espelho da Europa [Times and life transitions: Portugal in the mirror of Europe] (pp.225254). Lisboa, Portugal: Imprensa de Ciências Sociais.Google Scholar
Nelson, G., & Prilleltensky, I. (2005). Community psychology: In pursuit of liberation and well-being. New York, NY: Pallgrave MacMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nelson, G., Lord, J., & Ochocka, J. (2001). Shifting the paradigm in community mental health: Towards empowerment and community. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
O’Brien, J., & Dempsey, I. (2004). Comparative analysis of employment services for people with disabilities in Australia, Finland, and Sweden. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 1, 126135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1741-1130.2004.04027.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oliver, M. (1990). The politics of disablement. Basingstoke, UK: McMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pallant, J. (2001). SPSS survival manual- a step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS for Windows. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.Google Scholar
Pfeiffer, D. (2000). The devils are in the details: The ICIDH2 and the disability movement. Disability & Society, 15, 10791082. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F713662020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prilleltensky, I., Nelson, G., & Peirson, L. (2001). The role of power and control in children’s lives: An ecological analysis of pathways towards wellness, resilience and problems. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 11, 143158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002%2Fcasp.616 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Renwick, R., Brown, I., & Rafael, D. (2000). Person-centered quality of life: Contributions from Canada to an international understanding. In Keith, K. D. & Schalock, R. L. (Eds.), Cross-cultural perspectives on Quality of Life (pp. 522). Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.Google Scholar
Schalock, R. L., & Keith, K. D. (1993). Quality of Life Questionnaire. Worthington, OH: IDS Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar
Schalock, R. (2004). The emerging disability paradigm and its implications for policy and practice. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 14, 204215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177%2F10442073040140040201 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schalock, R. L. (1996). Reconsidering the conceptualization and measurement of quality of life. In Schalock, R. L. (Ed.), Quality of life: Volume I: Conceptualization and measurement (pp. 123139). Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.Google Scholar
Schalock, R. L., & Verdugo, M. A. (2003). Calidad de vida: Manual para profesionales de la educación, salud y servicios sociales. Madrid, Spain: Alianza Editorial.Google Scholar
Sousa, J., Casanova, J. L., Pedroso, P., Moita, A., Gomes, A. T., Seiceira, F., ... Alves, T. (2007). Mais qualidade de vida para as pessoas com deficiências e incapacidades – uma estratégia para Portugal [More quality of life for people with disabilities and impairment – a strategy for Portugal] . Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal: CRPG.Google Scholar
Stancliffe, R. J. (2001). Living with the support in the community: Predictors of choice and self-determination. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 7, 9198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002%2Fmrdd.1013 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tate, D. G., Kalpakjian, C. Z., & Forchheimer, M. B. (2002). Quality of life issues in individuals with spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 83(Suppl 2), S18S25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053%2Fapmr.2002.36835 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thompson, V. L., Noel, J. G., & Campbell, J. (2004). Stigmatization, discrimination, and mental health: The impact of multiple identity status. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 74, 529544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037%2F0002-9432.74.4.529 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ubel, P., Loewenstein, G., & Jepson, C. (2003). Whose quality of life? A commentary exploring discrepancies between health state evaluations of patients and the general public. Quality of Life Research 12, 599607.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Campen, C., & Iedema, J. (2007). Are persons with physical disabilities who participate in society healthier and happier? Structural equation modelling of objective participation and subjective well-being. Quality of Life Research, 16, 635645. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs11136-006-9147-3 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vash, C. (2004). Viewing disability through differing lenses: Medical, political and psychological. Rehabilitation Counselling Bulletin, 47, 247250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177%2F00343552040470040601 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verdugo, M. A., Prieto, G., Caballo, C., & Peláez, A. (2005). Factorial structure of the Quality of Life Questionnaire in a Spanish sample of visually disabled adults. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 21, 4455. http://dx.doi.org/10.1027%2F1015-5759.21.1.44 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verdugo, M. A., Schalock, R. L., Keith, K. D., & Stancliffe, R. J. (2005). Quality of life and its measurement: Important principles and guidelines. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49, 707717. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1365-2788.2005.00739.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wagner, C., Armstrong, A., Frase, R., Vandergoot, D., & Thomas, D. (2006). Evidence-based employment practices in vocational rehabilitation. In Hagglund, K. J. & Heinemann, A. W. (Eds.), Handbook of applied disability and rehabilitation research (pp.179210). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.Google Scholar
Ware, J. E., Kosinski, M., & Keller, S. D. (1996). A 12-item short-form health survey. Medical Care, 34, 220233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097%2F00005650-199603000-00003 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ware, J. E., Kosinski, M., & Keller, S. D. (2002). How to score version 2 of SF-36 health survey. Lincoln, RI: Quality Metric.Google Scholar
Wehmeyer, M. L., & Schalock, R. (2001). Self-determination and quality of life: Implications for special education services and supports. Focus on Exceptional Children, 33(8), 116.Google Scholar
Wehmeyer, M. L., & Schwartz, M. (1998). The relationship between self-determination, quality of life, and life satisfaction for adults with mental retardation. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 33, 312.Google Scholar
World Health Organisation (2001). The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health—icf . Geneve, Switzerland, Author.Google Scholar
World Health Organisation (2004). The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF —icf . Geneve, Switzerland, Author.Google Scholar
World Health Organisation Quality of Life Group (1998). The World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL): Development and general psychometric properties. Social Science & Medicine, 46, 15691585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar