Hostname: page-component-7d684dbfc8-v2qlk Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-09-28T21:05:35.273Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForArticlePurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForBookPurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForElementPurchase": false, "coreUseNewShare": true, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Validity and Reliability of the Spanish Version of the Revised Self-Monitoring Scale

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 September 2015

Borja Paredes*
UNED (Spain)
Maria Stavraki
Universidad a Distancia de Madrid (Spain)
Darío Díaz
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (Spain)
Beatriz Gandarillas
IE Universidad (Spain)
Pablo Briñol
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain)
*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Borja Paredes. Department of Social Psychology. Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia. Calle Juan del Rosal, 10. Madrid (Spain). 28040. E-mail:


Self-Monitoring (SM) is a concept that refers to individual differences in this orientation toward regulation of social behavior. The goal of the present research was to provide a Spanish adaptation of Snyder and Gangestad’s (1986) Revised SM Scale. After conducting an initial pilot study, results showed that the Spanish version of the scale had good internal reliability and adequate factor structure. In Study 1, analyses support a unidimensional structure of the scale (χ2/df = 2.64; GFI = .97; IFI = .97; TLI = .96; RMSEA = .06). In Study 2, the scale showed discriminant validity from other individual differences measures, such as Need for Cognition (r = 0.12 p = 0.14), Social Desirability (r = 0.06, p > .45) and Extraversion (r = 0.28 p = .001). In Study 3, the scale showed adequate test-retest reliability (r = 0.71, p < .001). Finally, using a paradigm of attitude-behavior consistenty, Study 4 showed that the validated scale also had good predictive validity (B = –0.819, p = .035).

Research Article
Copyright © Universidad Complutense de Madrid and Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Anderson, L. R. (1991). Test-retest reliability of the Revised Self-Monitoring Scale over a two-year period. Psychological Reports, 68, 10571058. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ajzen, I., Timko, C., & White, J. B. (1982). Self-monitoring and the attitude-behavior relation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 426435. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benet-Martínez, V., & John, O. P. (1998). Los Cinco Grandes across cultures and ethnic groups: Multitrait-multimethod analyses of the Big Five in Spanish and English. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 729750. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bozdogan, H. (1987). Model selection and Akaike’s information criterion (AIC): The general theory and its analytical extensions. Psychometrika, 52, 345370. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Briggs, S. R., & Cheek, J. M. (1988). On the nature of self-monitoring: Problems with assessment, problems with validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 663678. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Briñol, P., DeMarree, K. G., & Petty, R. E. (in press). Validating a primed identity leads to expectations of group-relevant outcomes. International Journal of Social Psychology.
Briñol, P., Horcajo, J., Becerra, A., Valle, C., & Gallardo, I. (2004). El efecto de la ambivalencia evaluativa sobre el cambio de actitudes [The effect of evaluative ambivalenc on attitude change]. Psicothema, 16, 373377.Google Scholar
Briñol, P., & Petty, R. E. (2005). Individual differences in attitude change. In Albarracín, D., Johnson, B. T., & Zanna, M. P. (Eds.), The Handbook of Attitudes and Attitude Change (pp. 575616). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Briñol, P., Petty, R. E., & Tormala, Z. L. (2004). The self-validation of cognitive responses to advertisements. Journal of Consumer Research, 30, 559573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1982). The need for cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 116131. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chartrand, T. L., & Bargh, J. A. (1999). The chameleon effect: The perception–behavior link and social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheng, F. F., West, S. G., & Sousa, K. H. (2006). A comparison of bifactor and second-order models of quality of life. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 41, 189225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cicchetti, D. V. (1994). Guidelines, criteria, and rules of thumb for evaluating normed and standardized assessment instruments in psychology. Psychological Assesment, 6, 284290. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Costa, P. T., & McRae, R. R. (1992). Normal personality assessment in clinical practice: The NEO personality inventory. Psychological Assessment, 4, 513. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 349354. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, S., Shechter, D., & Chaiken, S. (1996). Getting at the truth or getting along: Accuracy versus impression-motivated heuristic and systematic processing. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 71, 262275. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Day, D. V., Schleicher, D. J., Unckless, A. L., & Hiller, N. J. (2002). Self-monitoring personality at work: A meta-analytic investigation of construct validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 390401. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeBono, K. G., & Krim, S. (1997). Compliments and product perception: An individual difference perspective. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 13591366. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeMarree, K. G., Wheeler, S., & Petty, R. E. (2005). Priming a new identity: Self-monitoring moderates the effects of non-self primes on self-judgments and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 657671. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dijksterhuis, A., & Bargh, J. A. (2001). The perception-behavior Expressway: Automatic effects of social perception on social behavior. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 33, 140. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evers, A., Muñiz, J., Hagemeister, C., Hstmaelingen, A., Lindley, P., Sjoberg, A., & Bartram, D. (2013). Assessing the quality of tests: Revision of the EFPA review model. Psicothema, 25, 283291. Google ScholarPubMed
Falces, C., Briñol, P., Sierra, B., Becerra, A., & Alier, E. (2001). Validación de la Escala de Necesidad de Cognición y aplicación al estudio del cambio de actitudes [Validation of the Need for Cognition Scale and its application to the study of attitude change]. Psicothema, 13, 647653.Google Scholar
Ferguson, E., & Cox, T. (1993). Exploratory factor analysis: A users’ guide. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 1, 8494. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferrando, P. J., & Chico, E. (2000). Adaptación y análisis psicométrico de la Escala de Deseabilidad Social de Marlowe y Crowne [Adaptation and psychometric analysis of the Marlowe and Crowne's Social Desirability Scale]. Psicothema, 12, 383389.Google Scholar
Flora, D. B., & Curran, P. J. (2004). An empirical evaluation of alternative methods of estimation for confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data. Psychological Methods, 9, 466491. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Floyd, F. J., & Widaman, K. F. (1995). Factor analysis in the development and refinement of clinical assessment instruments. Psychological Assessment, 7, 286299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flynn, F. J., Reagans, R. E., Amanatullah, E. T., & Ames, D. R. (2006). Helping one’s way to the top: Self-monitors achieve status by helping others and knowing who helps whom. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 11231137. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fuglestad, P. T., & Snyder, M. (2009). Self-monitoring: Appraisal and reappraisal. In Leary, M. R. & Hoyle, R. H. (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior (pp. 574591). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Gangestad, S., & Snyder, M. (1985). “To carve nature at its joints": On the existence of discrete classes in personality. Psychological Review, 92, 317349. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gangestad, S. W., & Snyder, M. (2000). Self-monitoring: Appraisal and reappraisal. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 530555. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Horcajo, J., Briñol, P., & Becerra, (2009). Los efectos de la activación de estereotipos sobre la evaluación de candidatos en un contexto experimental de selección de personal. [Effects of stereotypes activation on the job candidates assessment in an experimental context of personnel selection]. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 41, 349359.Google Scholar
Horcajo, J., Díaz, D., Briñol, P., & Gandarillas, B. (2008). La necesidad de evaluación: Propuesta para su medición en castellano. [Need to evaluate: An assessment proposal in Spanish]. Psicothema, 20, 557562.Google Scholar
Horcajo, J., Díaz, D., Gandarillas, B., & Briñol, P. (2011). Adaptación al castellano del Test de Necesidad de Cierre Cognitivo. [Spanish adaptation of the Need for Closure Scale]. Psicothema, 23, 864870.Google Scholar
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 155. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leary, M. R., & Hoyle, R. H. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of individual differences in social behavior. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Lennox, R. D., & Wolfe, R. N. (1984). Revision of the self-monitoring scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 13491364. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muñiz, J., & Hambleton, R. K. (2000). Adaptación de los tests de unas culturas a otras [Adaptation of tests across cultures]. Metodología de las Ciencias del Comportamiento, 2, 129149.Google Scholar
Nowack, W., & Kammer, D. (1987). Experimental studies of self-monitoring: Validation of the two-factor model. European Journal of Personality, 1, 6177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’connor, B. P. (2000). SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and Velicer’s MAP test. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 32, 396402. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Penner, L. A., & Wymer, W. E. (1983). The moderator variable approach to behavioral predictability: Some of the variables some of the time. Journal of Research in Personality, 17, 339353. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petty, R. E., Briñol, P., Loersch, C., & McCaslin, M. J. (2009). The need for cognition. In Leary, M. R. & Hoyle, R. H. (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior (pp. 318329). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Petty, R. E., & Wegener, D. T. (1998). Matching versus mismatching attitude functions: Implications for scrutiny of persuasive messages. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 227240. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sireci, S., & Faulkner-Bond, M. (2014). Validity evidence based on test content. Psicothema, 26(1), 100107.Google ScholarPubMed
Snyder, M. (1974). Self-monitoring of expressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30, 526537. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Snyder, M. (1979). Self-monitoring processes. Advances in experimental social psychology, 12, 85128. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Snyder, M. (1987). Public appearances, Private realities: The psychology of self-monitoring. New York, NY: Freeman and Company.Google Scholar
Snyder, M., & Gangestad, S. (1986). On the nature of self-monitoring: Matters of assessment, matters of validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 125139. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Snyder, M., Gangestad, S., & Simpson, J. A. (1983). Choosing friends as activity partners: The role of self-monitoring. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 10611072. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Snyder, M., & Simpson, J. A. (1984). Self-monitoring and dating relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 12811291. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Snyder, M., & Swann, W. B. (1976). When actions reflect attitudes: The politics of impression management. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 10341042. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wheeler, S. C., DeMarree, K. G., & Petty, R. E. (2007). Understanding the role of the self in prime-to-behavior effects: The active self account. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 234261. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wirth, R. J., & Edwards, M. C. (2007). Item factor analysis: Current approaches and future directions. Psychological Methods, 12, 5879. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zanna, M. P., Olson, J. M., & Fazio, R. H. (1980). Attitude–behavior consistency: An individual difference perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 432440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar