Hollander, E, Braun, A, Simeon, D. Should OCD leave the anxiety disorders in DSM-V? The case for obsessive compulsive-related disorders. Depress Anxiety
2008; 25: 317–29.
Bartz, JA, Hollander, E. Is obsessive-compulsive disorder an anxiety disorder?
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry
2006; 30: 338–52.
Storch, EA, Abramowitz, J, Goodman, WK. Where does obsessive-compulsive disorder belong in DSM-V?
2008; 25: 336–47.
Stein, DJ, Fineberg, NA, Bienvenu, OJ, Denys, D, Lochner, C, Nestadt, G, et al. Should OCD be classified as an anxiety disorder in DSM-V?
2010; 27: 495–506.
Bienvenu, OJ, Samuels, JF, Wuyek, LA, Liang, K-Y, Wang, Y, Grados, MA, et al. Is obsessive-compulsive disorder an anxiety disorder, and what, if any, are spectrum conditions? A family study perspective. Psychol Med
2012; 42: 1–13.
American Psychiatric Association.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edn) (DSM-5).
Lochner, C, Stein, DJ. Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders in obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders. Psychopathology
2010; 43: 389–96.
Hollander, E, Zohar, J. Beyond refractory obsessions and anxiety states: toward remission. J Clin Psychiatry
2004; 65 (suppl 1): 3–5.
Stein, DJ, Lochner, C. Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders: a multidimensional approach. Psychiatr Clin North Am
2006; 29: 343–51.
Pallanti, S, Hollander, E. Obsessive-compulsive disorder spectrum as a scientific “metaphor”. CNS Spectr
2008; 13: 6–15.
Neale, MC, Maes, HM. Methodology for Genetic Studies of Twins and Families.
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.
Tambs, K, Czajkowsky, N, Røysamb, E, Neale, MC, Reichborn-Kjennerud, T, Aggen, SH, et al. Structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for dimensional representations of DSM-IV anxiety disorders. Br J Psychiatry
2009; 195: 301–7.
Monzani, B, Rijsdijk, F, Harris, J, Mataix-Cols, D. The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for dimensional representations of DSM-5 obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. JAMA Psychiatry
2014; 71: 182–9.
Monzani, B, Rijsdijk, F, Iervolino, AC, Anson, M, Cherkas, L, Mataix-Cols, D. Evidence for a genetic overlap between body dysmorphic concerns and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in an adult female community twin sample. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet
2012; 159B: 376–82.
Hopper, JL, Bui, QM, Erbas, B, Matheson, MC, Gurrin, LC, Burgess, JA, et al. Does eczema in infancy cause hay fever, asthma, or both in childhood? Insights from a novel regression model of sibling data. J Allergy Clin Immunol
2012; 130: 1117–22.
López-Solà, C, Fontenelle, LF, Alonso, P, Cuadras, D, Foley, D, Pantelis, C, et al. Prevalence and heritability of obsessive-compulsive spectrum and anxiety disorder symptoms: a survey of the Australian Twin Registry. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet
2014; 165B: 314–25.
Foa, EB, Huppert, JD, Leiberg, S, Langner, R, Kichic, R, Hajcak, G, et al. The Obsessive-Complusive Inventory: development and validation of a short version. Psychol Assess
2002; 14: 485–95.
Tolin, DF, Frost, RO, Steketee, G. A brief interview for assessing compulsive hoarding: the Hoarding Rating Scale-Interview. Psychiatry Res
2010; 178: 147–52.
Oosthuizen, P, Lambert, T, Castle, DJ. Dysmorphic concern: prevalence and associations with clinical variables. Aust N Z J Psychiatry
1998; 32: 129–32.
Connor, KM, Davidson, JR, Churchill, LE, Sherwood, A, Foa, E, Weisler, RH. Psychometric properties of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). New self-rating scale. Br J Psychiatry
2000; 176: 379–86.
Reiss, S, Peterson, RA, Gursky, DM, McNally, RJ. Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency and the prediction of fearfulness. Behav Res Ther
1986; 24: 1–8.
Antony, MM, Bieling, PJ, Cox, BJ, Enns, MW, Swinson, RD. Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychol Assess
1998; 10: 176–81.
Box, G, Cox, D. An Analysis of Transformations. J Roy Stat Soc Ser B
1964; 26: 211–52.
Zeegers, M, Rijsdijk, F, Sham, P. Adjusting for covariates in variance components QTL linkage analysis. Behav Genet
2004; 34: 127–33.
Neale, MC, Røysamb, E, Jacobson, K. Multivariate genetic analysis of sex limitation and G x E interaction. Twin Res Hum Genet
2006; 9: 481–9.
Boker, S, Neale, M, Maes, H, Wilde, M, Spiegel, M, Brick, T, et al. OpenMx: an open source extended structural equation modeling framework. Psychometrika
2011; 76: 306–17.
Dite, GS, Gurrin, LC, Byrnes, GB, Stone, J, Gunasekara, A, McCredie, MRE, et al. Predictors of mammographic density: insights gained from a novel regression analysis of a twin study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
2008; 17: 3474–81.
Kirk, KM, Birley, AJ, Statham, DJ, Haddon, B, Lake, RI, Andrews, JG, et al. Anxiety and depression in twin and sib pairs extremely discordant and concordant for neuroticism: prodromus to a linkage study. Twin Res
2000; 3: 299–309.
Taylor, S. Etiology of obsessions and compulsions: a meta-analysis and narrative review of twin studies. Clin Psychol Rev
2011; 31: 1361–72.
Nestadt, G, Samuels, J, Riddle, MA, Liang, KY, Bienvenu, OJ, Hoehn-Saric, R, et al. The relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety and affective disorders: results from the Johns Hopkins OCD Family Study. Psychol Med
2001; 31: 481–7.
Brakoulias, V, Starcevic, V, Sammut, P, Berle, D, Milicevic, D, Moses, K, et al. Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders: a comorbidity and family history perspective. Australas Psychiatry
2011; 19: 151–5.
Pallanti, S, Quercioli, L. Shame and psychopathology. CNS Spectr
2000; 5: 28–43.
Wheaton, MG, Mahaffey, B, Timpano, KR, Berman, NC, Abramowitz, JS. The relationship between anxiety sensitivity and obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry
2012; 43: 891–6.
Calamari, JE, Rector, NA, Woodard, JL, Cohen, RJ, Chik, HM. Anxiety sensitivity and obsessive–compulsive disorder. Assessment
2008; 15: 351–63.
Armstrong, T, Zald, DH, Olatunji, BO. Attentional control in OCD and GAD: specificity and associations with core cognitive symptoms. Behav Res Ther
2011; 49: 756–62.
Stasik, SM, Naragon-Gainey, K, Chmielewski, M, Watson, D. Core OCD symptoms: exploration of specificity and relations with psychopathology. J Anxiety Disord
2012; 26: 859–70.
Rosenbaum, JC, Biederman, J, Faraone, SV, Hirshfeld, DR, Kagan, J. Behavioral inhibition in childhood: a risk factor for anxiety disorders. Biol Psychiatry
1997; 42: 145S.
Coles, ME, Schofield, CA, Pietrefesa, AS. Behavioral inhibition and obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Anxiety Disord
2006; 20: 1118–32.
Eley, TC, Bolton, D, O'Connor, TG, Perrin, S, Smith, P, Plomin, R. A twin study of anxiety-related behaviours in pre-school children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry
2003; 44: 945–60.
Iervolino, AC, Rijsdijk, FV, Cherkas, L, Fullana, MA, Mataix-Cols, D. A multivariate twin study of obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2011; 68: 637–44.
Sachdev, PS, Malhi, GS. Obsessive-compulsive behaviour: a disorder of decision-making. Aust N Z J Psychiatry
2005; 39: 757–63.
Frost, RO, Gross, RC. The hoarding of possessions. Behav Res Ther
1993; 31: 367–81.
Samuels, JF, Bienvenu, OJ, Pinto, A, Fyer, AJ, McCracken, JT, Rauch, SL, et al. Hoarding in obsessive-compulsive disorder: results from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study. Behav Res Ther
2007; 45: 673–86.
Rector, NA, Szacun-Shimizu, K, Leybman, M. Anxiety sensitivity within the anxiety disorders: disorder-specific sensitivities and depression comorbidity. Behav Res Ther
2007; 45: 1967–75.
Stone, J, Dite, GS, Giles, GG, Cawson, J, English, DR, Hopper, JL. Inference about causation from examination of familial confounding: application to longitudinal twin data on mammographic density measures that predict breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
2012; 21: 1149–55.
Lee, SH, Ripke, S, Neale, BM, Faraone, SV, Purcell, SM, Perlis, RH, et al. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs. Nat Genet
2013; 45: 984–94.
Smoller, JW, Ripke, S, Lee, P-H, Neale, B, Nurnberger, JI, Santangelo, S, et al. Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders: a genome-wide analysis. Lancet
2013; 381: 1371–9.