Adam, K. S., Isherwood, J., Taylor, G., et al (1981) Attempted suicide in Christchurch: three-year follow-up of 195 patients. New Zealand Medical Journal, 93, 376–381.
Adam, K. S., Valentine, J., Scarr, G., et al (1983) Follow-up of attempted suicide in Christchurch. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 17, 18–25.
Allard, R., Marshall, M. & Plante, M. C. (1992) Intensive follow-up does not decrease the risk of repeat suicide attempts. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 22, 303–314.
Allgulander, C. & Fisher, L. D. (1990) Clinical predictors of completed suicide and repeated self-poisoning in 8895 self-poisoning patients. European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 239, 270–276.
Aoun, S. (1999) Deliberate self-harm in rural Western Australia: results of an intervention study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 8, 65–73.
Arensman, E., Kerkhof, A. J., Hengeveld, M. W., et al (1995) Medically treated suicide attempts: a four year monitoring study of the epidemiology in The Netherlands. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 49, 285–289.
Bancroft, J. & Marsack, P. (1977) The repetitiveness of self-poisoning and self-injury. British Journal of Psychiatry, 131, 394–399.
Batt, A., Eudier, F., Le Vaou, P., et al (1998) Repetition of parasuicide: risk factors in general hospital referred patients. Journal of Mental Health, 7, 285–297.
Bille-Brahe, U. & Jessen, G. (1994) Repeated suicidal behavior: a two-year follow-up. Crisis, 15, 77–82.
Bocchetta, A., Ardau, R., Burrai, C., et al (1998) Suicidal behaviour on and off lithium prophylaxis in a group of patients with prior suicide attempts. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 18, 384–389.
Boyes, A. P. (1994) Repetition of overdose: a retrospective 5-year study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 20, 462–468.
Braftos, O. (1971) Attempted suicide. A comparative study of patients who have attempted suicide and psychiatric patients in general. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 47, 38–56.
Buglass, D. & McCulloch, J.W. (1970) Further suicidal behaviour: the development and validation of predictive scales. British Journal of Psychiatry, 116, 483–491.
Buglass, D. & Horton, J. (1974) The repetition of parasuicide: a comparison of three cohorts. British Journal of Psychiatry, 125, 168–174.
Carter, G. L., Whyte, I. M., Ball, K., et al (1999) Repetition of deliberate self-poisoning in an Australian hospital-treated population. Medical Journal of Australia, 170, 307–311.
Crawford, M.J. & Wessely, S. (1998) Does initial management affect the rate of repetition of deliberate self-harm? Cohort study. BMJ, 317, 985–990.
Cullberg, J., Wasserman, D. & Stefansson, C. G. (1988) Who commits suicide after a suicide attempt? An 8 to 10 year follow up in a suburban catchment area. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 77, 598–603.
Curran, S., Fitzgerald, M. & Greene, V. (1999) Psychopathology 81/2 years post parasuicide. Crisis, 20, 115–121.
Cusick, T. E., Chang, F. C., Woodson, T. L., et al (1999) Is resuscitation after traumatic suicide attempt a futile effort? A five-year review at a Level 1 trauma centre. American Surgeon, 65, 643–647.
De Moore, G. M. & Robertson, A. R. (1996) Suicide in the 18 years after deliberate self-harm. A prospective study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 489–494.
Ekeberg, O., Ellingsen, O. & Jacobsen, D. (1991) Suicide and other causes of death in a five-year follow-up of patients treated for self-poisoning in Oslo. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 83, 432–437.
Ekeberg, O., Ellingsen, O. & Jacobsen, D. (1994) Mortality and causes of death in a 10-year follow-up of patients treated for self-poisonings in Oslo. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 24, 398–405.
Gardner, R., Hanka, R., O'Brien, V. C., et al (1977) Psychological and social evaluation in cases of deliberate self-poisoning admitted to a general hospital. BMJ, ii, 1567–1570.
Gardner, R., Hanka, R., Roberts, S. J., et al (1982) Psychological and social evaluation in cases of deliberate self-poisoning seen in an accident department. BMJ, 284, 491–493.
Garzotto, N., Siani, R., Tansella, C. Z., et al (1976) Cross-validation of a predictive scale for subsequent suicidal behaviour in an Italian sample. British Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 137–140.
Gharagozlou, H. & Hadjmohammadi, M. (1977) Report on a three-year follow-up of 100 cases of suicidal attempts in Shiraz, Iran. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 23, 209–210.
Gibbons, J. S., Butler, J., Urwin, P., et al (1978) Evaluation of a social work service for self-poisoning patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 133, 111–118.
Gilbody, S., House, A. & Owens, D. (1997) The early repetition of deliberate self harm. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 31, 171–172.
Greer, S. & Bagley, C. (1971) Effect of psychiatric intervention in attempted suicide: a controlled study. BMJ, i, 310–312.
Hall, D. J., O'Brien, F., Stark, C., et al (1998) Thirteen-year follow-up of deliberate self-harm, using linked data. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 239–242.
Hansen, W. & Wang, A. G. (1984) Suicide attempts in a Danish region. Social Psychiatry, 19, 197–201.
Hassanyeh, F., O'Brien, G., Holton, A. R., et al (1989) Repeat self-harm: an 18-month follow-up. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 79, 265–267.
Hawton, K., Bancroft, J., Catalan, J., et al (1981) Domiciliary and outpatient treatment of self-poisoning patients by medical and non-medical staff. Psychological Medicine, 11, 169–177.
Hawton, K., McKeown, S., Day, A., et al (1987) Evaluation of out-patient counselling compared with general practitioner care following overdoses. Psychological Medicine, 17, 751–761.
Hawton, K. & Fagg, J. (1988) Suicide, and other causes of death, following attempted suicide. British Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 359–366.
Hawton, K. & Fagg, J. & McKeown, S. P. (1989) Alcoholism, alcohol and attempted suicide. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 24, 3–9.
Hawton, K., Fagg, J., Simkin, S., et al (1997) Trends in deliberate self-harm in Oxford, 1985–1995. Implications for clinical services and the prevention of suicide. British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 556–560.
Hjelmeland, H. (1996) Repetition of parasuicide: a predictive study. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 26, 395–404.
Hjelmeland, H., Stiles, T. C., Bille-Brahe, U., et al (1998) Parasuicide: the value of suicidal intent and various motives as predictors of future suicidal behaviour. Archives of Suicide Research, 4, 209–225.
Johnsson, F. E., Ojehagen, A. & Traskman-Bendz, L. (1996) A 5-year follow-up study of suicide attempts. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 93, 151–157.
Kaplan, K. J. & Harrow, M. (1999) Psychosis and functioning as risk factors for later suicidal activity among schizophrenia and schizoaffective patients: a disease-based interactive model. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 29, 10–24.
Kennedy, P., Rogers, B., Speer, S., et al (1999) Spinal cord injuries and attempted suicide: a retrospective review. Spinal Cord, 37, 847–852.
Leon, A. C., Keller, M. B., Warshaw, M. G., et al (1999) Prospective study of fluoxetine treatment and suicidal behaviour in affectively ill subjects. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 195–201.
Liberman, R.P. & Eckman, T. (1981) Behaviour therapy vs insight-oriented therapy for repeated suicide attempters. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 1126–1130.
Linehan, M. M., Armstrong, H. E., Suarez, A., et al (1991) Cognitive—behavioral treatment of chronically parasuicidal borderline patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 1060–1064.
Lonnqvist, J. & Karha, E. (1984) Suicide attempts in Helsinki. Psychiatria Fennica, 15, 135–145.
Lonnqvist, J., Niskanen, P., Achte, K. A., et al (1975) Self-poisoning with follow-up considerations. Suicide, 5, 39–46.
Lonnqvist, J. & Ostamo, A. (1991) Suicide following the first suicide attempt: a five year follow-up using a survival analysis. Psychiatria Fennica, 22, 171–179.
McEvedy, C. J. (1997) Trends in self-poisoning: admissions to a central London hospital, 1991–1994. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 90, 496–498.
McFarland, B.H. & Beavers, D. J. (1986) Psychiatric consultation following attempted suicide. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 86, 743–750.
McLeavey, B. C., Daly, R. J., Ludgate, J. W., et al (1994) Interpersonal problem-solving skills training in the treatment of self-poisoning patients. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 24, 382–394.
Moller, H. (1989) Efficacy of different strategies of aftercare for patients who have attempted suicide. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 82, 643–647.
Morgan, H. G., Barton, J., Pottle, S., et al (1976) Deliberate self-harm: a follow-up study of 279 patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 361–368.
Morgan, H. G., Jones, E.M. & Owen, J.H. (1993) Secondary prevention of non-fatal deliberate self-harm: the Green Card Study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 111–112.
Muller-Oerlinghausen, B., Muser-Causemann, B. & Volk, J. (1992) Suicides and parasuicides in a high-risk patientgroup on and off lithium long-term medication. Journal of Affective Disorders, 25, 261–270.
Nielsen, B., Wang, A.G. & Bille-Brahe, U. (1990) Attempted suicide in Denmark (IV). A five-year follow-up. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 81, 250–254.
Nordentoft, M., Breum, L., Munck, L. K., et al (1993) High mortality by natural and unnatural causes: a 10 year follow up study of patients admitted to a poisoning treatment centre after suicide attempts. BMJ, 306, 1637–1641.
Nordstrom, P., Samuelsson, M. & Asberg, M. (1995) Survival analysis of suicide risk after attempted suicide. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 91, 336–340.
Ojehagen, A., Regnell, G. & Traskman-Bendz, L. (1991) Deliberate self-poisoning: repeaters and nonrepeaters admitted to an intensive care unit. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 84, 266–271.
Ojehagen, A., Regnell, G., Danielsson, M. & Traskman-Bendz, L. (1992) Deliberate self-poisoning: treatment follow-up of repeaters and nonrepeaters. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 85, 370–375.
Owens, D., Dennis, M., Jones, S., et al (1991) Self-poisoning patients discharged from accident and emergency: risk factors and outcome. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 25, 218–222.
Paerregaard, G. (1975) Suicide amongattempted suicides: a10-year follow-up. Suicide, 5, 140–144.
Pallis, D. J., Gibbons, J. S. & Pierce, D.W. (1984) Estimating suicide risk among attempted suicides.II. Efficiency of predictive scales after the attempt. British Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 139–148.
Palsson, S. P., Jonsdottir, G. & Petursson, H. (1996) The mortality risk of psychiatric emergency patients. A follow-up study. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 50, 207–216.
Pederson, A. M., Awad, G. A. & Kindler, A. R. (1973) Epidemiological differences between white and nonwhite suicide attempters. American Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 1071–1076.
Pierce, D.W. (1981) The predictive validation of a suicide intent scale: a five year follow-up. British Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 391–396.
Pierce, D.W. (1984) Suicidal intent and repeated self-harm. Psychological Medicine, 14, 655–659.
Rodger, C. R. & Scott, A. I. (1995) Frequent deliberate self-harm: repetition, suicide and cost after three or more years. Scottish Medical Journal, 40, 10–12.
Rosen, D. H. (1970) The serious suicide attempt: epidemiological and follow-up study of 886 patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 764–770.
Rosenman, S. J. (1983) Subsequent deaths after attempted suicide by drug overdose in the western region of Adelaide, 1976. Medical Journal of Australia, 2, 496–499.
Ruchholtz, S., Pajonk, F. G., Waydhas, C., et al (1999) Long-term results and quality of life after parasuicidal multiple blunt trauma. Critical Care Medicine, 27, 522–530.
Rygnestad, T. K. (1982) Prospective study of social and psychiatric aspects in self-poisoned patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 66, 139–153.
Rygnestad, T. K. (1988) A prospective 5-year follow-up study of self-poisoned patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 77, 328–331.
Sakinofsky, I., Roberts, R. S., Brown, Y., et al (1990) Problem resolution and repetition of parasuicide. A prospective study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 395–399.
Salander Renberg, E. E. (1999) Parasuicide in a northern Swedish county 1989–1995 and its relation to suicide. Archives of Suicide Research, 5, 97–112.
Salkovskis, P. M., Atha, C. & Storer, D. (1990) Cognitive-behavioural problem solving in the treatment of patients who repeatedly attempt suicide. A controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 871–876.
Schmidtke, A., Bille-Brahe, U., DeLeo, D., et al (1996) Attempted suicide in Europe: rates, trends and sociodemographic characteristics of suicide attempters during the period 1989–1992. Results of the WHO/ EURO Multicentre Study on Parasuicide. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 93, 327–338.
Siani, R., Garzotto, N., Tansella, C. Z., et al (1979) Predictive scales for parasuicide repetition. Further results. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 59, 17–23.
Steer, R. A., Beck, A. T., Garrison, B., et al (1988) Eventual suicide in interrupted and uninterrupted attempters: a challenge to the cry-for-help hypothesis. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 18, 119–128.
Stocks, R. & Scott, A. I. F. (1991) What happens to patients who frequently harm themselves? A retrospective one-year outcome study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 375–378.
Sundqvist-Stensman, U. (1988) Suicides among persons treated for self-poisoning at an ICU. Opuscula Medica, 33, 71–76.
Suokas, J. & Lonnqvist, J. (1991) Outcome of attempted suicide and psychiatric consultation: risk factors and suicide mortality during a five-year follow-up. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 84, 545–549.
Taylor, S. (1998) Training and supervision of deliberate self-harm assessments. Psychiatric Bulletin, 22, 510–512.
Tejedor, M. C., Diaz, A., Castillon, J. J., et al (1999) Attempted suicide: repetition and survival – findings of a follow-up study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 100, 205–211.
Thies-Flechtner, K., Muller-Oerlinghausen, B., Seibert, W., et al (1996) Effect of prophylactic treatment on suicide risk in patients with major affective disorders — data from a randomized prospective trial. Pharmacopsychiatry, 29, 103–107.
Torhorst, A., Moller, H. J., Kurz, A., et al (1988) Comparing a 3-month and a 12-month outpatient aftercare program for parasuicide repeaters. In Current Issues of Suicidology (eds Moller, H. J., Schmidtke, A. & Welz, R.), pp.419–424. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Van der Sande, R., Van Rooijen, L., Buskens, E., et al (1997) Intensive in-patient and community intervention versus routine care after attempted suicide. A randomised controlled intervention study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 35–41.
Van Heeringen, C., Jannes, S., Buylaert, W., et al (1995) The management of non-compliance with referral to out-patient after-care among attempted suicide patients: a controlled intervention study. Psychological Medicine, 25, 963–970.
Verkes, R. J., Van der Mast, R. C., Hengeveld, M. W., et al (1998) Reduction by paroxetine of suicidal behavior in patients with repeated suicide attempts but not major depression. Amercian Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 543–547.
Wilkinson, G. & Smeeton, N. (1987) The repetition of parasuicide in Edinburgh 1980–1981. Social Psychiatry, 22, 14–19.