Skip to main content Accessibility help

The revised Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire (BAVQ–R)

  • Paul Chadwick (a1), Susan Lees (a2) and Max Birchwood (a3)



We present a revised Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire (BAVQ–R), a self-report measure of patients' beliefs, emotions and behaviour about auditory hallucinations.


To improve measurement of omnipotence, a pivotal concept in understanding auditory hallucinations, and elucidate links between beliefs about voices, anxiety and depression.


Seventy-one participants with chronic auditory hallucinations completed the BAVQ–R, and 58 also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.


The mean Cronbach's α for the five sub-scales was 0.86 (range 0.74–0.88). The study supports hypotheses about links between beliefs, emotions and behaviour, and presents original data on how these relate to the new omnipotence sub-scale. Original data are also presented on connections with anxiety and depression.


The BAVQ–R is more reliable and sensitive to individual differences than the original version, and reliably measures omnipotence.


Corresponding author

Paul Chadwick, School of Psychology, University of Exeter, Washington Singer Laboratories, Perry Road, Exeter EX4 4QG, UK


Hide All

Declaration of interest

This study was supported by a University of Southampton grant to the first author.



Hide All
Bauer, S. (1970) The function of hallucinations: an enquiry into the relationship of hallucinatory experience to creative thought. In Origin and Mechanisms of Hallucinations (ed. Keup, W.). New York: Plenum.
Birchwood, M. J. & Chadwick, P. D. J. (1997) The omnipotence of voices: testing the validity of a cognitive model. Psychological Medicine, 27, 13451353.
Chadwick, P. & Birchwood, M. (1994) The omnipotence of voices. A cognitive approach to auditory hallucinations. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 190201.
Chadwick, P. & Birchwood, M. (1995) The omnipotence of voices. II: The Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire. British Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 773776.
Chadwick, P. & Birchwood, M. (1996) Cognitive therapy for voices. In Cognitive–Behavioural Interventions for Psychotic Disorders (eds Haddock, G. & Slade, P. D.). London: Routledge.
Chadwick, P., Sambrooke, S., Rasch, S., et al (2000) Challenging the omnipotence of voices: group cognitive behaviour therapy for voices. Behaviour Research and Therapy, in press.
Close, H. & Garety, P. (1998) Cognitive assessments of voices: further developments in understanding the emotional impact of voices. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 37, 189197.
Romme, M. & Escher, S. (1989) Hearing voices. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 15, 209216.
Zigmond, A. S. & Snaith, R. P. (1983) The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67, 361370.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

The revised Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire (BAVQ–R)

  • Paul Chadwick (a1), Susan Lees (a2) and Max Birchwood (a3)
Submit a response


No eLetters have been published for this article.


Reply to: Submit a response

Your details

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *