Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The Symptoms of Chronic Schizophrenia: A Re-examination of the Positive-Negative Dichotomy

  • Peter F. Liddle (a1)
Extract

The relationships between symptoms in 40 schizophrenic patients, selected for persistence of symptoms, were examined. The symptoms segregated into three syndromes: psychomotor poverty (poverty of speech, lack of spontaneous movement and various aspects of blunting of affect): disorganisation (inappropriate affect, poverty of content of speech, and disturbances of the form of thought): and reality distortion (particular types of delusions and hallucinations). Both the psychomotor poverty and disorganisation syndromes were associated with social and occupational impairment; in particular, the psychomotor poverty syndrome was associated with impairment of personal relationships, and the disorganisation syndrome with poor self-care and impersistence at work.

Copyright
References
Hide All
American Psychiatric Association (1980) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed.)(DSM-III). Washington DC: APA.
Andreasen, N. C. (1982) Negative symptoms in schizophrenia; definition and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 784788.
Andreasen, N. C. (1983) Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH). Iowa City: The University of Iowa College of Medicine.
Andreasen, N. C. & Olsen, S. (1982) Negative v. positive schizophrenia: definition and validation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 789794.
Bleuler, E. (1911) Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias (trans. 1950 by Zinklin, J. New York: International Universities Press).
Crow, T. J. (1980a) Molecular pathology of schizophrenia: more than one disease process? British Medical Journal, 280, 19.
Crow, T. J. (1980b) Positive and negative schizophrenic symptoms and the role of dopamine. British Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 383386.
Davis, J. M. (1976) Comparative doses and costs of antipsychotic medication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 858861.
Harrow, M., Silverstein, M. & Marengo, J. (1983) Disordered thinking: does it identify nuclear schizophrenia? Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 765771.
Huber, G. (1957) Pneumoencephalographische und Psychopathologische Bilder bei Endogen Psychosen. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Huber, G., Gross, G. & Schuttler, R. (1975) A long term follow-up of schizophrenia: psychiatric course of illness and prognosis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 52, 4957.
Johnstone, E. C., Crow, T. J., Frith, C. R., Stevens, M., Kreel, L. & Husband, J. (1978) The dementia of dementia praecox. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 57, 305324.
Lewine, R. R. J., Fogg, L. & Meltzer, H. Y. (1983) Assessment of negative and positive symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 9, 368376.
Nie, N. H., Hull, N. C., Jenkins, J. G., Steinbrenner, K. & Bent, D. H. (1975) Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Pogue-Geile, M. F. & Harrow, M. (1984) Negative and positive symptoms in schizophrenia and depression: a follow-up. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 10, 331387.
Wing, J. K. (1961) A simple and reliable sub-classification of chronic schizophrenia. Journal Mental Science, 107, 862875.
Wing, J. K. (1978) Schizophrenia: Towards a New Synthesis. London: Academic Press.
Wing, J. K. & Brown, G. W. (1970) Institutionalization and Schizophrenia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wing, J. K., Cooper, J. E. & Sartorius, N. (1974) The measurement and classification of psychiatric symptoms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Venables, P. H. (1957) A short scale for rating “activity-withdrawal” in schizophrenics. Journal of Mental Science, 103, 197199.
Wing, J. K. & Wing, J. K. (1962) Level of arousal and subclassification of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 7, 114119.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

The Symptoms of Chronic Schizophrenia: A Re-examination of the Positive-Negative Dichotomy

  • Peter F. Liddle (a1)
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *