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Alcohol use in schizophrenia: prevalence, patterns, correlates and clinical outcomes in Goa, India

  • Anil Rane (a1), Abhijit Nadkarni (a2), Jaiprada Kanekar (a1), Wenona Fernandes (a1), Hirabai A. Borker (a1) and Yvonne Pereira (a1)...
Aims and method

To explore the patterns of alcohol consumption and its impact on clinical outcomes in schizophrenia in low- and middle-income countries. We performed a cross-sectional survey of 315 patients with schizophrenia and calculated the prevalence of alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder. The patients' sociodemographic profiles and clinical outcomes, including Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores, were compared between abstainers and drinkers using the χ2- and t-tests.


The 1-year prevalence of drinking, hazardous drinking and alcohol dependence was 16.8% (95% CI 12.9–21.4), 5.7% (95% CI 3.4–8.9) and 2.5% (95% CI 1.1–4.9), respectively. Male gender, single or post-marital status, higher education and being economically active were significantly associated with alcohol consumption. Alcohol drinkers were significantly more likely to be on combination psychotropics compared with abstainers. The mean total BPRS score was significantly lower in alcohol drinkers compared with abstainers. Drinking alcohol was associated with fewer deficit symptoms.

Clinical implications

Cultural settings have a significant impact on the prevalence of alcohol use disorder in schizophrenia.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Anil Rane (
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Alcohol use in schizophrenia: prevalence, patterns, correlates and clinical outcomes in Goa, India

  • Anil Rane (a1), Abhijit Nadkarni (a2), Jaiprada Kanekar (a1), Wenona Fernandes (a1), Hirabai A. Borker (a1) and Yvonne Pereira (a1)...
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