Mueser, KT, Yarnold, PR, Levinson, DF, Singh, H, Bellack, AS, Kee, K, et al. Prevalence of substance abuse in schizophrenia: demographic and clinical correlates. Schizophr Bull
1990; 16: 31–56.
Regier, DA, Farmer, ME, Rae, DS, Locke, BZ, Keith, SJ, Judd, LL, et al. Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuses. J Am Med Assoc
1990; 264: 2511–8.
Schizophrenia and substance abuse. In Review of Psychiatry, Vol. 11) (eds Tasman, A, Riba, MR): 379–401. American Psychiatric Press, 1992.
Drake, RE, Osher, FC, Noordsy, DL, Hurlbut, SC, Teague, GB, Beaudett, MS. Diagnosis of alcohol use disorders in schizophrenia, Schizophr Bull
1990; 16: 57–67.
El-Guebaly, N, Hodgkins, DC. Schizophrenia and substance abuse: prevalence issues. Can J Psychiatry
1992; 37: 704–10.
Selzer, JA, Lieberman, JA. Schizophrenia and substance abuse. Psychiatr Clin North Am
1993; 16: 401–12.
Abou-Saleh, MT, Janca, A.
The epidemiology of substance misuse and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Acta Neuropsychiatr
2004; 16: 3–8.
European dimensions of dual diagnosis. In Dual Diagnosis: Substance Misuse and Psychiatric Disorders (ed. Rassool, GH): 58–65. Blackwell Science, 2002.
Menezes, PR, Johnson, S, Thornicroft, G, Marshall, J, Prosser, D, Bebbington, P, et al. Drug and alcohol problems among individuals with severe mental illnesses in south London. Br J Psychiatry
1996; 168: 612–9.
Cantwell, R, Brewin, J, Glazebrook, C, Dalkin, T, Fox, R, Medley, I, et al. Prevalence of substance misuse in first-episode psychosis. Br J Psychiatry
1999; 174: 150–3.
Graham, HL, Maslin, J, Copello, A, Birchwood, M, Mueser, K, McGovern, D, et al. Drug and alcohol problems amongst individuals with severe mental health problems in an inner city area of the UK. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
2001; 36: 448–55.
Duke, PJ, Pantelis, C, Barnes, TR. South Westminster schizophrenia survey. Alcohol use and its relationship to symptoms, tardive dyskinesia and illness onset. Br J Psychiatry
1994; 164: 630–6.
Fowler, IL, Can, VJ, Carter, NT, Lewin, TJ. Patterns of current and lifetime substance use in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull
1998; 24: 443–55.
Menezes, PR, Ratto, LR. Prevalence of substance misuse among individuals with severe mental illness in São Paulo. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
2004; 39: 212–7
Verma, SK, Subramaniam, M, Chong, S, Kua, EH. Substance abuse in schizophrenia: a Singapore perspective. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
2002; 37: 326–8.
Swofford, CD, Scheller-Gilkey, G, Miller, AH, Woolwine, B, Mance, R.
Double jeopardy: schizophrenia and substance use. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse
2000; 26: 343–53.
Inderbitzin, LB, Scheller-Gilkey, G, Lewine, RJ. A double-blind dosage reduction trial of fluphenazine decanoate in chronic, unstable schizophrenic patients. Am J Psychiatry
1994; 151: 1753–9.
Bowers, MB, Mazure, CM, Nelson, CJ, Jatlow, PI. Psychotogenic drug use and neuroleptic response. Schizophr Bull
1990; 16: 81–5.
Swofford, CD, Kasckow, JW, Scheller-Gilkey, G, Inderbitzin, LB. Substance use: a powerful predictor of relapse in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res
1996; 20: 145–51.
Haywood, TW, Kravitz, HM, Grossman, LS, Cavanaugh, JL Jr, Davis, JM, Lewis, DA. Predicting the revolving door phenomenon among patients with schizophrenic, schizoaffective, and affective disorders. Am J Psychiatry
1995; 152: 856–61.
Drake, RE, Wallach, MA. Substance abuse among the chronic mentally ill. Hosp Community Psychiatry
1989; 40: 1041–6.
Drake, RE, Osher, FC, Wallach, MA. Alcohol use and abuse in schizophrenia. J Nerv Ment Dis
1989; 177: 408–13.
Margolese, HC, Negrete, JC, Tempier, R, Gill, K.
A 12-month prospective follow-up study of patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and substance abuse: changes in psychiatric symptoms and substance use. Schizophr Res
2006; 83: 65–75.
Cournos, F, Empfield, M, Horwath, E, McKinnon, K, Meyer, I, Schrage, H, et al. HIV prevalence among patients admitted to two psychiatric hospitals. Am J Psychiatry
1991; 148: 1225–9.
Rosenberg, SD, Goodman, LA, Osher, FC, Swartz, MS, Essock, SM, Butterfield, MI, et al. Prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in people with severe mental illness. Am J Public Health
2001; 91: 31–7.
Bartels, SJ, Drake, RE, McHugo, G.
Alcohol abuse, depression, and suicidal behavior in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry
1992; 149: 394–5.
Swartz, MS, Swanson, JW, Hiday, V, Borum, R, Wagner, HR, Burns, BJ, et al. Violence and severe mental illness: the effects of substance abuse and non-adherence to medication. Am J Psychiatry
1998; 15: 226–31.
Goodman, LA, Salyers, MP, Mueser, KT, Rosenberg, SD, Swartz, M, Essock, SM, et al. Recent victimization in women and men with severe mental illness: prevalence and correlates. J Trauma Stress
2001; 14: 615–32.
Abram, K, Teplin, L.
Co-occurring disorders among mentally ill jail detainees: implications for public policy. Am J Psychologist
1991; 46: 1036–44.
Caton, C, Shrout, P, Eagle, P, Opler, LA, Felix, A, Dominguez, B.
Risk factors for homelessness among schizophrenic men: a case–control study. Am J Public Health
1994; 84: 265–70.
Dixon, L, McNary, S, Lehman, A.
Substance abuse and family relationships of persons with severe mental illness. Am J Psychiatry
1995; 152: 456–8.
Brunette, MF, Mueser, KT, Xie, H, Drake, RE. Relationships between symptoms of schizophrenia and substance abuse. J Nerv Ment Dis
1997; 185: 13–20.
Alterman, AI, Ayre, FR, Williford, WO. Diagnostic validation of conjoint schizophrenia and alcoholism. J Clin Psychiatry
1984; 5: 300–3.
Cuffel, BJ, Heithhoff, KA, Lawson, W.
Correlates of patterns of substance abuse among patients with schizophrenia. Hosp Community Psychiatry
1993; 44: 247–51.
Serper, MR, Alpert, M, Richardson, NA, Dickson, S, Allen, MH, Werner, A.
Clinical effects of recent cocaine use on patients with acute schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry
1995; 152: 1464–9.
Rosenthal, RN, Hellerstein, KJ, Miner, CR. Positive and negative syndrome typology in schizophrenic patients with psychoactive substance use disorders. Compr Psychiatry
1994; 35: 91–8.
Sevy, S, Kay, SR, Opler, LA, van Praag, HM. Significance of cocaine history in schizophrenia. J Nerv Ment Dis
1990; 178: 642–8.
Xafenias, A, Diakogiannis, I, Iacovides, A, Fokas, K, Kaprinis, G.
Factors affecting hospital length of stay: is substance use disorder one of them? A study in a Greek public psychiatric hospital. Am J Addict
2008; 17: 447–51.
Saunders, JB, Aasland, OG, Babor, TF, Fuente, JR, Grant, M.
Development of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): WHO collaborative project on early detection of persons with harmful alcohol consumption – II. Addiction
1993; 88: 791–804.
Babu, RS, Sengupta, SN. A study of problem drinkers in a general hospital. Indian J Psychiatry
1997; 39: 13–7.
Gaunekar, G, Patel, V, Rane, A.
The impact and patterns of hazardous drinking amongst male industrial workers in Goa, India. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
2005; 40: 267–75.
Gaunekar, G, Patel, V, Jacob, KS, Vankar, G, Mehan, D, Rane, A, et al. Drinking patterns of hazardous drinkers: a multicenter study in India. In Moonshine Markets: Issues in Unrecorded Alcohol Beverage Production and Consumption (eds Howarth, A, Simpson, R): 122–41. Brunner-Routledge, 2004.
Silva, MC, Gaunekar, G, Patel, V, Kukalekar, DS, Fernandes, J.
The prevalence and correlates of hazardous drinking in industrial workers: a study from Goa, India. Alcohol Alcohol
2003; 38: 79–83.
World Health Organization. ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, Diagnostic Criteria for Research. WHO, 1993.
Overall, JE, Gorham, DR. The brief psychiatric rating scale. Psychol Rep
1962; 10: 799–812.
Nagaraj, AK, Pai, NB, Rao, S.
A comparative study of sexual dysfunction involving risperidone, quetiapine and olanzapine. Indian J Psychiatry
2009; 51: 265–71.
D'Costa, G, Nazareth, I, Naik, D, Vaidya, R, Levy, G, Patel, V, et al. Harmful alcohol use in Goa, India, and its associations with violence: a study in primary care. Alcohol Alcohol
2007; 42: 131–7.
Ray, R, Mondal, AB, Gupta, K, Chatterjee, A, Bajaj, P.
The Extent, Pattern and Trends of Drug Abuse in India: National Survey. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes and Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India, 2004.
Reddy, MV, Chandrashekar, CR. Prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders in India: a meta-analysis. Indian J Psychiatry
1998; 40: 149–57.
Mueser, KT, Yarnold, PR, Rosenberg, ST, Swett, C Jr, Miles, KM, Hill, D.
Substance use disorder in hospitalised severely mentally ill psychiatric patients: prevalence, correlates and subgroups. Schizophr Bull
2000; 26: 179–92.
Hall, W, Teesson, M, Lynskey, M, Degenhardt, L.
The 12-month prevalence of substance use and ICD-10 substance use disorders in Australian adults: findings from National Survey of Mental Health and Well Being. Addiction
1999; 94: 1541–50.
Fischer, EP, McSweeney, JC, Pyne, JM, Williams, DK, Naylor, AJ, Blow, FC, et al. Influence of family involvement and substance use on sustained utilisation of services for schizophrenia. Psychiatr Serv
2008; 59: 902–8.
Aich, TK, Sinha, VK, Khess, C, Singh, S.
Substance abuse co-morbidity in schizophrenia: an in-patient study of course and outcome. Indian J Psychiatry
2005; 47: 33–8.
Blow, FC, Barry, KL, Bootsmiller, BJ, Copeland, LA, McCormick, R, Visnic, S.
Longitudinal assessment of inpatient use and functioning of seriously mentally ill veterans with and without co-occurring substance use disorders. J Psychiatr Res
2008; 32: 311–9.
Arndt, S, Tyrrell, G, Flaum, M, Andreasen, NC
Comorbidity of substance abuse and schizophrenia: the role of pre-morbid adjustment. Psychol Med
1992; 22: 379–88.
Dixon, L, Haas, G, Weiden, PJ, Sweeney, J, Frances, AJ. Drug abuse in schizophrenic patients: clinical correlates and reasons for use. Am J Psychiatry
1994; 148: 224–30.
Salyers, MP, Mueser, KT. Social functioning, psychopathology, and medication side effects in relation to substance use and abuse in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res
2001; 48: 109–23.
Potvin, S, Sepehry, A, Stip, E.
A meta-analysis of negative symptoms in dual diagnosis schizophrenia. Psychol Med
2006; 36: 431–40.
Cohen, M, Klein, DF. Drug abuse in a young psychiatric population. Am J Orthopsychiatry
1970; 40: 448–55.