Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5959bf8d4d-9jk85 Total loading time: 1.349 Render date: 2022-12-08T03:25:02.950Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Commercial application of enzyme technology for poultry production

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 September 2007

T. Acamovic
Affiliation:
Avian Science Research Centre, SAC, Auchincruive, Ayr KA6 5HW, UK
Get access

Abstract

Exogenous enzyme supplements are used widely in poultry diets in an attempt to improve nutrient utilisation, the health and welfare of the birds, product quality and to reduce pollution as well as to increase the choice and content of ingredients which are acceptable for inclusion in diets. Considerable advances have been made during the last decade in the manufacture, activity, quality, thermostability and specificity of supplemental enzymes for use in poultry diets. This paper attempts to give an overview of the advantages and disadvantages, as well as the interesting difficulties and variable effects observed when enzymes are added to poultry diets.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2001

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Acamovic, T. (1993) The advantages and disadvantages of xenobiotics and plant foods and feeds. In: Developments and Ethical Considerations in Toxicology (Weitzner, M.I., Ed.), Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, pp. 129143Google Scholar
Acamovic, T. and McCleary, B.V. (1996) Enzyme special series – optimising the response. Feedmix 4: 1319Google Scholar
Acamovic, T. and Stewart, C.S. (2000) Plant phenolic compounds and gastro-intestinal microorganisms. In: Tannins in Livestock and Human Nutrition (Proceedings of an International Workshop, Adelaide, Australia, May 31-June 2 1999)Canberra, ACIAR Proceedings, No. 92 pp. 127–129Google Scholar
Aman, P. and Graham, H. (1990) Chemical evaluation of polysaccharides in animal feeds. In: Feedstuff Evaluation (Wiseman, J. and Cole, D.J.A., Eds), Butterworths, London, pp. 161177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andersson, A.A.M., Elfverson, C., Andersson, R., Regner, S. and Aman, P. (1999) Chemical and physical characteristics of different barley samples. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79: 9799863.0.CO;2-L>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ankrah, N.O., Campbell, G.L., Tyler, R.T., Rossnagel, B.G. and Sokhansanj, S.R.T. (1999) Hydrothermal and β-glucanase effects on the nutritional and physical properties of starch in normal and waxy hull-less barley. Animal Feed Science and Technobgy 81: 205219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Apajalahti, J. and Bedford, M.R. (1998) Nutrition Effects on the Microflora of the GI Tract. Western Nutrition Conference,Saskatoon,CanadaGoogle Scholar
Bach-knudsen, K.E.C. (2000) Digestibility of the lupin by monogastrics and enzyme treatment: improvement of the nutritive value of white lupins for monogastric animals by means of exogenous enzymes. In: Proceedings of the EU LUPINE (FAIR 3 ct96–1965) Meeting,INRA,Paris, France,14–15 FebruaryGoogle Scholar
Barnes, P.J. (1989) Wheat in milling and baking. In: Cereal Science (Palmer, G.H., Ed.), Aberdeen University Press, Aberdeen, pp. 367412Google Scholar
Bedford, M.R. and Apalajahti, J. (2001) Microbial interactions in the response to exogenous enzyme utilisation. In: Enzymes in Farm Animal Nutrition (Bedford, M.R. and Partridge, G.G., Eds), CABI, Wallingford, pp. 299314Google Scholar
Bedford, M.R. and Morgan, A.J. (1995) The use of enzymes in canola-based diets. In: 2nd European Symposium on Feed Enzymes, Noordwijkerhout, pp. 125131Google Scholar
Bedford, M.R. and Morgan, A.J. (1996) The use of enzymes in poultry diets. World's Poultry Science Journal 52: 6168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bedford, M.R. and Schulze, H. (1998) Exogenous enzymes for pigs and poultry. Nutrition Research Reviews 11: 91114CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bergh, M.O., Razdan, A. and Aman, P. (1999) Nutritional influence of broiler chicken diets based on covered normal, waxy and high amylose barleys with or without enzyme supplementation. Animal Feed Science and Technology 78: 215226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Best, P. (2000) Oligosaccharides – do these feed sugars assist the right bacteria? Feed International 21: 2428Google Scholar
Best, P. and Gill, C. (1999) Post-pelleting micro-liquid application in Britain. Feed International 20: 2232Google Scholar
Beudeker, R.F. (2000) Development and production of enzyme sources. In: Proceedings of the XXI World's Poultry Congress, Montreal (www.wpc2000.org)Google Scholar
Beudeker, R.F. and Pen, J. (1995) Development of plant seeds expressing phytase as a feed additive. In: 2nd European Symposium on Feed Enzymes, Noordwijkerhout, pp. 225235Google Scholar
Biehl, R.R. and Baker, D.H. (1997) Microbial phytase improves amino acid utilisation in young chicks fed diets based on soybean meal but not diets based on peanut meal. Poultry Science 76: 355360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cairns, P., Sun, L., Morris, V.J. and Ring, S.G. (1995) Physicochemical studies using amylose as an in vitro model for resistant starch. Cereal Science 21: 3747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Canadian Wheat Board (2000) http://www.cwb.ca, MarchGoogle Scholar
CarrÉ, B. (1997) The qualities of grain legumes for poultry. In: Proceedings of the Australian Poultry Science Symposium,Sydney, Australia, pp. 46–53Google Scholar
CarrÉ, B., Gomez, J. and Chagneau, A.M. (1995) Contribution of oligosaccharide and polysaccharide digestion, and excreta losses of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids, to dietary metabolisable energy values in broiler chickens and adult cockerels. British Poultry Science 36: 611629CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Casas, J.A. and Garcia-Ochoa, F. (1999) Viscosity of solutions of xanthan/locust bean gum mixtures. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79: 25313.0.CO;2-D>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Caygill, J.C. and Mueller-Harvey, I. (1999) Secondary Plant Products. Anti-Nutritional and Beneficial Actions in Animal Feeding. Nottingham University Press, NottinghamGoogle Scholar
Cheeke, P.R. (1998) Natural Toxicants in Feeds, Forages and Poisonous Plants. 2nd Edition, Interstate Publishers Inc., Danville, IllinoisGoogle Scholar
Chesson, A. (1990) Nutritional significance and nutritive value of plant polysaccharides. In: Feedstuff Evaluation (Wiseman, J. and Cole, D.J.A., Eds), Butterworths, London, pp. 179195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chesson, A. (2000) Non starch degrading enzyme-types and methods of action. In: Proceedings of the XXI World's Poultry Congress, Montreal (www.wpsa.com & www.wpc2000.org at 05 2001)Google Scholar
Choct, M., Hughes, R.J. and Bedford, M.R. (1999) Effects of a xylanase on individual bird variation, starch digestion throughout the intestine, and ileal and caecal volatile fatty acid productions in chickens fed wheat. British Poultry Science 40: 419422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clarkson, K., Jones, B., Bott, R., Bower, B., Chotani, G. and Becker, T. (2001) Enzymes: screening, expression, design and production. In: Enzymes in Farm Animal Nutrition (Bedford, M.R. and Partridge, G.G., Eds), CABI, Wallingford, pp. 315352Google Scholar
Classen, H.L. (1996) Enzymes in action: successful application of enzymes relies on knowledge of the chemical reaction to be affected and the conditions under which the reaction will occur. Feed Mix 4 (2): 2228Google Scholar
Cowan, W.D., Pettersson, D.R. and Ross, G.M. (1999) Investigations into the effect of xylanases and pectinases on broiler performance in sorghum based diets with low levels of wheat. Proceedings of the Australian Poultry Science Symposium 112–115Google Scholar
Cowieson, A.J., Acamovic, T. and Bedford, M.R. (2004a) Enzyme supplementation of diets containing Camelina sativa meal for poultry. British Poultry Science 41: 689690Google Scholar
Cowieson, A.J., Sarkilahti, K.L., Apajalahti, J.H.A., Acamovic, T. and Bedford, M.R. (2000b) Caecal microflora in broilers fed diets containing camelina with and without enzyme supplementation. Proceedings of the XXI World's Poultry Congress, Montreal (www.wpsa.com & www.wpc2000.org at 05 2001)Google Scholar
Danicke, S. (2001) Interaction between cereal identity and fat quality and content in response to feed enzymes in broilers. In: Enzymes in Farm Animal Nutrition (Bedford, M.R. and Partridge, G.G., Eds), CABI, Wallingford, pp. 199236Google Scholar
Danicke, S., Jeroch, H., Bottcher, W., Bedford, M.R. and Ortwin, S. (1999a) Effects of dietary fat type, pentosan level and xylanases on digestibility of fatty acids, liver lipids and vitamin E in broilers. Fett/Lipid 101(3): 901003.0.CO;2-Q>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Danicke, S., Simon, O. and Jeroch, H. (1999b) Effect of supplementation of xylanase or β-glucanase containing enzyme preparations to either rye- or barley-based broiler diets on performance and nutrient digestibility. Archiv für Gefliigelkunde 63: 252259Google Scholar
Danicke, S., Simon, O., Jeroch, H., Keller, K., Glaser, K., Kluge, H. and Bedford, M.R. (1999c) Effects of dietary fat type, pentosan level and xylanase supplementation on digestibility of nutrients and metabolizability of energy in male broilers. Archives of Animal Nutrition-Archives für Tierernährung 52: 245261CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Denbow, D.M., Grabau, E.A., Lacy, G.H., Kornegay, E.T., Russell, D.R. and Umbeck, P.F. (1998) Soybeans transformed with a fungal phytase gene improve phosphorus availability for broilers. Poultry Science 77: 878881CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
D'mello, J.P.F. (1997) Handbook of Plant and Fungal Toxicants. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
Farrell, D.J. and Martin, E.A. (1998) Strategies to improve the nutritive value of rice bran in poultry diets. 1. The addition of food enzymes to target the non-starch polysaccharide fractions in diets of chickens and ducks gave no response. British Poultry Science 39: 549554CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fengler, A.I. and Marquardt, R.R. (1988) Water soluble pentosans from rye: II. Effects on rate of dialysis and on the retention of nutrients by the chick. Cereal Chemistry 65: 298302Google Scholar
Ferket, P.R. and Middleton, T. (1999) Anti-nutrients in feedstuffs. Poultry International 38: 4655Google Scholar
Ferraz de oliveira, M.I. (1998) Enzyme treated Lupinus spp. seeds as an alternative source of protein for broilers. PhD Thesis, University of AberdeenGoogle Scholar
Garland, T. and Barr, A.C. (1998) Toxic Plants and Other Natural Toxicants. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
Gdala, J., Jansman, A.J.M., Buraczewska, L., Huisman, J. and Van Leeuwen, P. (1997) The influence of a-galactosidease supplementation on the ileal digestibility of lupin seed carbohydrates and dietary protein in young pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 67: 115125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
George, J. and Mccracken, K.J. (2000) Studies on the measurement of in vitro viscosity of wheat using wet chemistry and near-infra red reflectance spectroscopy. British Poultry Science 41: 689690Google Scholar
Gibson, K. (1995) The pelleting stability of animal feed enzymes. In: 2nd European Symposium on Feed Enzymes, Noordwijkerhout, pp. 157162Google Scholar
Gidley, M.J. and Robertson, G. (1990) Techniques for studying interactions between polysaccharides. Methods in Plant Biochemistry 2: 607641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilbert, C., Acamovic, T. and Bedford, M.R. (2000a) The effect of enzyme supplementation and lupin cultivar on chicks fed on lupin-based diets. British Poultry Science 41: 692693Google Scholar
Gilbert, C., Sarkilahti, L., Apajalahti, J., Acamovic, T. and Bedford, M.R. (2000b) The effect of lupin-based diets, with and without enzyme supplementation on microbial populations in caecal digesta analysed by DNA profiling. Proceedings of the XXI World's Poultry Congress, Montreal (www.wpsa.com & www.wpc2000.org at 05 2001)Google Scholar
Gill, C. (1999) Keeping enzyme dosing simple. Feed International 20: 3238Google Scholar
Gill, C. (2000) Growth recovering, slowly. But global industry faces daunting array of challenges. Feed International 21: 46Google Scholar
Grant, G. (1999a) Protein protease inhibitors from plants. In: Secondary Plant Products. Anti-Nutritional and Beneficial Actions in Animal Feeding (Caygill, J.C. and Mueller-Harvey, I., Eds), Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, pp. 7186Google Scholar
Grant, G. (1999b) Plant lectins. In: Secondary Plant Products. Anti-Nutritional and Beneficial Actions in Animal Feeding (Caygill, J.C. and Mueller-Harvey, I., Eds), Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, pp. 87110Google Scholar
Grimes, J.L., Ferket, P.R. and Crouch, A.N. (1997) Enzyme supplementation of broiler and turkey diets to enhance wheat utilization. In: Proceedings of Alltech's 13th Annual Symposium, pp. 131–139Google Scholar
Grosjean, F., Maupetit, P. and Beaux, M.F. (1999a) Variability of wheat and other cereal water extract viscosity. 2 Range and causes of variation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79: 1231303.0.CO;2-E>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grosjean, F., Sauinier, L., Maupetit, P., Beaux, M.F., Flatres, M.C., Magnin, M., le Pavec, P. and Victore, C. (1999b) Variability of wheat and other cereal water extract viscosity. 1: Improvements in measuring viscosity. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79: 1161223.0.CO;2-H>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haralampu, S.G. (2000) Resistant starch a review of the physical properties and biological impact of RS3. Carbohydrate Polymers 41: 285292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heidenreich, E. (1998) Benefits and side effects of expanding. Feed Technology 3: 2123Google Scholar
Hofman, P. (2000) Market developments accelerate consolidation in feed industry. Feed Technology 4: 1519Google Scholar
Holm, J., Bjorck, I. and Eliasson, A-C. (1988) Effects of thermal processing of wheat on starch 1. Physico-chemical and functional properties. Cereal Science 8: 249260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, R.J. and Zviedrans, P. (1999) Influence of dietary inclusion rate of wheat on AME, digesta viscosity and enzyme response. In: Proceedings of Australian Poultry Science Symposium,Sydney, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
Iji, P.A. (1999) The impact of cereal non-starch polysaccharides on intestinal development and function in broiler chickens. World's Poultry Science Journal 55: 375387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Inborr, J. (1994) Supplementation of pig starter diets with carbohydrate-degrading enzymes – stability, activity and mode of action. Agricultural Science in Finland 3(2): 720Google Scholar
Irish, G.G., Maenz, D.D. and Classen, H.L. (1999) A new assay for functional lectins. The brush border lectin agglutination assay (BBLAA). Animal Feed Science and Technology 76: 321333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ito, T., Saito, K., Sugawara, M., Mochida, K. and Nakakuki, T. (1999) Effect of raw and heat-moisture-treated high-amylose corn starches on the process of digestion in the rat digestive tract. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79: 120312073.0.CO;2-T>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jin, S-H., Corless, A. and Sell, J.L. (1998) Digestive system development in post-hatch poultry. World's Poultry Science Journal 54: 335345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kluntner, A-M., Devaud, A. and Wolker, L. (1995). Influence of liquid feed enzymes on performance and nutrient retention of broiler chickens fed a cereal diet. In: 2nd European Symposium on Feed Enzymes, Noordwijkerhout, pp. 293296Google Scholar
Kocher, A., Hughes, R.J. and Choct, M. (1999) Lupin oligosaccharides: nutrients or antinutrients? In: Proceedings of the Australian Poultry Science Symposium,Sydney, Australia pp. 120–123Google Scholar
Langhout, D.J., Schutte, J.B., Van Leeuwen, P., Wiebenga, J. and Tamminga, S. (1999) Effect of dietary high- and low-methylated citrus pectin on the activity of the ileal microflora and morphology of the small intestinal wall of broiler chicks. British Poultry Science 40: 340347CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larsen, F.M., Moughan, P.J. and Wilson, M.N. (1993) Dietary fibre viscosity and endogenous protein excretion at the terminal ileum of growing rats. Nutrient requirements and interactions. Journal of Nutrition 123: 18941904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lynn, A. (1992) The effect of processing on starch granules. PhD Thesis, Heriot-Watt University, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
Lyons, T.P. and Jacques, K.A. (1999) Under the microscope. Biotechnology in the feed industry. In: Proceedings of Alltech's 15th Annual Symposium, pp. 451–522Google Scholar
Maenz, D.D., Irish, G.G. and Classen, H.L. (1999) Carbohydrate-binding and agglutinating lectins in raw and processed soybean meals. Animal Feed Science and Technology 76: 335343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maisonnier, S., Gomez, J., Chagneau, A.M. and Carre, B. (2001a) Analysis of variability in nutrient digestibilities in broiler chickens. British Poultry Science 42: 7076CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maisonnier, S., Gomez, J. and CarrÉ, B. (2001b) Nutrient digestibility and intestinal viscosities in broiler chicks fed on wheat diets, as compared to maize diets with added guar gum. British Poultry Science 42: 102110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mansoori, B. and Acamovic, T. (1996a) Effect of tannic acid on endogenous calcium, phosphorus and magnesium losses in broilers. British Poultry Science 37 (Supplement): S67–68Google Scholar
Mansoori, B. and Acamovic, T. (1996b) Effect of tannic acid on excretion of endogenous, nitrogen-rich compounds from broilers. British Poultry Science 37 (Supplement): S68–69Google Scholar
Mansoori, B. and Acamovic, T. (1998) The influence of tannic acid on amino acid digestibility in broilers. In: Toxic Plants and Other Natural Toxicants (Garland, T. and Barr, A.C., Eds), CABI, Wallingford, pp.106110Google Scholar
Marounek, M., Suchorska, O. and Savka, O. (1999) Effect of substrate and feed antibiotics on in vitro production of volatile fatty acids and methane in caecal contents of chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology 80: 223230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matveev, Y.I., Van Soest, J.J.G., Neiman, C., Wasserman, L.A., Protserov, V.A., Exernitskaja, M. and Yuryev, V.P. (2001) The relationship between thermodynamic and structural properties of low and high amylose maize starches. Carbohydrate Polymers 44: 151160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCleary, B.V. (1995) Problems in the measurement of β-xylanase, β-gluconase and β-amylase in feed enzymes and animal feeds. In: 2nd European Symposium on Feed Enzymes, Noordwijkerhout, pp. 135141Google Scholar
McCleary, B.V. (2001) Analyses of feed enzymes. In: Enzymes in Farm Animal Nutrition (Bedford, M.R. and Partridge, G.G., Eds), CABI, Wallingford, pp. 85108Google Scholar
McCracken, K.J., Clegg, S., Bedford, M.R. and Preston, C.M. (1999) Effects of diet formulation and enzyme inclusion on apparent metabolisable energy (AME) concentration in wheat-based diets and on broiler performance. British Poultry Science 40 (Supplement): S37–38CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCracken, K.J. and Mcnab, J.M. (2000) Variety differences and impact of IB/IR rye gene on nutritive value of wheat for broilers. British Poultry Science 41: 695696Google Scholar
McLean, J.A., Acamovic, T., Bedford, M.R., Brown, D. and Nevison, I. (2000) The influence of various enzyme mixtures on the growth, food intake, food conversion and intestinal viscosity of broilers fed maize soyabean diets. Proceedings of the XXI World's Poultry Congress, Montreal (www.wpsa.com & www.wpc2000.org at 05 2001)Google Scholar
Medel, P., Salado, S., de Blas, J.C. and Mateos, G.G. (1999) Processed cereals in diets for early-weaned piglets. Animal Feed Science and Technology 82: 145156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Medel, P., Garcia, M., Lazaro, R., de Blas, C. and Mateos, G.G. (2000) Particle size and heat treatment of barley in diets for early-weaned piglets. Animal Feed Science and Technology 84: 1221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, W.J. (1972) Physical Chemistry. 5th Edition. Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
Morrison, W.R. and Karkalas, J. (1990) Starch. Methods in Plant Biochemistry. Volume 2. Academic Press, London, pp. 323352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mustafa, A.F., Christensen, D.A., Mckinnon, J.J. and Hucl, P.J. (1999) Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79: 165916653.0.CO;2-E>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Naveed, A. (1999) The effect of enzyme supplementation of UK grown lupin seeds on growth and nutrient digestibility in broilers. MSc Thesis, University of AberdeenGoogle Scholar
Naveed, A., Acamovic, T. and Bedford, M.R. (1999) The influence of carbohydrase and protease supplementation on amino acid digestibility of lupin-based diets for broiler chicks. Proceedings of the Australian Poultry Science Symposium 93–96Google Scholar
Nokes, S.E. (1999) Enzyme production using surface culture fermentation. In: Under the Microscope – Focal points for the new millennium. Proceedings of Alltech's 15th Annual Symposium, pp. 451–460Google Scholar
Palmer, G.H. (1989) Cereals in malting and brewing. In: Cereal Science and Technology (Palmer, G.H., Ed.), Aberdeen University Press, Aberdeen, pp. 6190Google Scholar
Parthasarathy, M. (2000) Particle size distribution and its importance in feed processing. Feed Technology 4: 910Google Scholar
Petersen, S.T. and Wiseman, J. (1995) The effect of increasing inclusion levels of β-glucanase on the feeding of hulled and hulless barley fractions to chickens. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science, Winter Meeting,ScarboroughCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petersen, S.T., Wiseman, J. and Bedford, M.R. (1999) Effects of age and diet on the viscosity of intestinal contents in broiler chicks. British Poultry Science 40: 364370CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ray, S., Pubois, M.H. and Mcginnis, J. (1982) The effect of a purified guar degrading enzyme on chick growth. Poultry Science 6: 488494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reddy, C.V. (1999) Improving the nutritional quality of feed. Poultry International 38: 3644Google Scholar
Reid, C.A. and Hillman, K. (1999) The effects of retrogradation and amylose/amylopectin ratio of starches on carbohydrate fermentation and microbial populations in the porcine colon. Animal Science 68: 503510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salawu, M.B., Acamovic, T., Scaife, J.R. and Michie, W. (1995) Effects of mixed enzyme treatment on ileal dry matter and nitrogen digestibility in laying hen diets containing four different varieties of faba beans. British Poultry Science 36: 867868Google Scholar
Savory, C.J. (1992a) Gastro-intestinal morphology and absorption of monosaccharides in fowls conditioned to different types and levels of dietary fibre. British Journal of Nutrition 67: 7789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Savory, C.J. (1992b) Enzyme supplementation, degradation and metabolism of three U-14C-labelled cell-wall substrates in the fowl. British Journal of Nutrition 67: 91102CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Savory, C.J. (1992c) Metabolic fates of U-14C-labelled monosaccharides and an enzyme-treated cell-wall substrate in the fowl. British Journal of Nutrition 67: 102114Google ScholarPubMed
Scheele, C.W., den Dekker, F., van der Klis, J.D., Kwakernaak, C. and Orsel, R. (1995) Enzymes affecting the feeding value of wheat containing poultry diets. In: 2nd European Symposium on Feed Enzymes, Noordwijkerhout, pp. 117123Google Scholar
Short, F.L., Wiseman, J. and Boorman, K.N. (1999) Application of a method to determine ileal digestibility in broilers of amino acids in wheat. Animal Feed Science and Technology 79: 195209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silversides, F.G. and Bedford, M.R. (1999) Effect of pelleting temperature on the recovery and efficacy of a xylanase enzyme in wheat-based diets. Poultry Science 78: 11841190CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sklan, D. (2000) Development of the digestive tract of poultry. In: Proceedings of the XXI World's Poultry Congress, Montreal (www.wpsa.com & www.wpc2000.org at 05 2001)Google Scholar
Smits, C.H.M., Veltman, A., Verstegen, N.W.A. and Beynen, A.C. (1997) Dietary carboxymethylcellulose with high instead of low viscosity reduces macronutrient digestion in broiler chickens. Journal of Nurition 127: 483487Google ScholarPubMed
Smits, C.H.M., Veltman, A., Verstegen, N.W.A. and Beynen, A.C. (1998) The inhibitory effect of carboxymethylcellulose with high viscosity on lipid absorption in broiler chickens coincides with reduced bile salt concentration and raised microbial numbers in the small intestine. Poultry Science 77: 15341539CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spring, P. (1997) Understanding the development of the avian gastro-intestinal microflora: an essential key for developing competitive exclusion products. Biotechnology in the feed industry. In: Proceedings of Alltech's 13th Annual Symposium, pp. 313–324Google Scholar
Svihus, B., Edvardsen, D.H., Bedford, M.R. and Gullord, M. (2000) Effect of methods of analysis and heat treatment on viscosity of wheat, barley and oats. Animal Feed Science and Technology 88: 112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thompson, A. and Queenborough, R. (1993) Feed enzyme production, stability and analysis. In: Micro-organisms and Enzyme Preparations in Animal Nutrition (Castanon, J.I.R., Ed.), European Commission, Brussels, pp. 8994Google Scholar
Timbrell, J.A. (1992) Principles of Biochemical Toxicology. 2nd Edition. Taylor and Francis, OxfordGoogle Scholar
Tucker, L. (1999) Cereal quality – a user's guide. Poultry International 38: 6467Google Scholar
Van Barneveld, R.J. (1999) Understanding the nutritional chemistry of lupin (Lupinus spp.) seed to improve livestock production efficiency. Nutrition Research Reviews 12: 203230CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van der Poel, A.F.B., Huisman, J. and Saini, H.S. (1993) Recent Advances of Research in Anti- Nutritional Factors in Legume Seeds. EAAP Publication No. 70, Wageningen PressGoogle Scholar
Viveros, A., Brenes, A., Elices, R. and Canales, R. (1993) Effect of enzyme addition (protease plus amylase and tannase) on the nutritive value of faba bean hulls in chickens. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Anti-Nutritional Factors (ANFs)in Legume Seeds,Wageningen Press,The Netherlands, pp. 523–528Google Scholar
Williams, P.E.V. and Chesson, A. (1989) Cereal raw materials and animal production. In: Cereal Science and Technology (Palmer, G.H., Ed.), Aberdeen University Press, Aberdeen, pp. 413442Google Scholar
Wiseman, J. (2000) Correlation between physical measurements and dietary energy values of wheat for poultry and pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 84: 111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yin, Y-L., Mcevoy, J.D.G., Schulze, H. and Mccracken, K.J. (2000) Studies on cannulation method and alternative indigestible markers and the effects of food enzyme supplementation in barley-based diets on ileal and overall apparent digestibility in growing pigs. Animal Science 70: 6372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yu, B., Tsai, C-C., Hsu, J-C. and Chiou, P.W-S. (1998) Effect of different sources of dietary fibre on growth performance, intestinal morphology and caecal carbohydrases of domestic geese. British Poultry Science 39: 560567CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zdunczyk, Z., Juskiewicz, J., Frejnagel, S. and Gulewicz, K. (1998) Influence of alkaloids and oligosaccharides from white lupin seeds on utilisation of diets by rats and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. Animal Feed Science and Technology 72: 143154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ziggers, D. (1998) Liquid enzymes take over when pellet quality is important. Feed Technology 2: 2123Google Scholar
Ziggers, D. (1999) The importance of particle size in layer feed. Feed Technology 3: 1420Google Scholar
Zyla, K., Gogal, D., Koreleski, J., Swiatkiewicz, S. and Ledoux, D.R. (1999a) Simultaneous application of phytase and xylanase to broiler feeds based on wheat in vitro measurements of phosphorus and pentose release from wheats and wheat-based feeds. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79: 183218403.0.CO;2-Q>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zyla, K., Gogal, D., Koreleski, J., Swiatkiewicz, S. and Ledoux, D.R. (1999b) Simultaneous application of phytase and xylanase to broiler feeds based on wheat: feeding experiment with growing broilers. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79: 184118483.0.CO;2-G>CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Commercial application of enzyme technology for poultry production
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Commercial application of enzyme technology for poultry production
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Commercial application of enzyme technology for poultry production
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *