A new method of image texture analysis is presented, based on the mean and standard deviation of gray levels within domains in an image. The calculations are performed recursively on domains of various sizes within the images. These gray level calculations are used as the input matrix for principal component analysis. The technique analyzes the entire image as a whole and is not for image segmentation. The analysis routine operates across all distances, frequencies and directions in the image, and is not computationally burdensome. The method was applied to scanning electron microscope images of reverse osmosis membranes on domains from 23 nm to 3 µm. The texture analysis technique performed well in identifying the surface morphology and, once calibrated, in predicting the surface roughness as measured by atomic force microscopy.