Garnetiferous pelitic to psammopelitic migmatites widespread across the central and eastern part of the Aravalli–Delhi Fold Belt in NW India record two distinct orogenies, e.g. the Aravalli Orogeny (1.7–1.6 Ga) and the Delhi Orogeny (1.0 Ga). In this study, we integrate field geological studies with textural and mineral–chemical analyses, P–T pseudosection modelling and in situ monazite dating in anatectic migmatites in the Aravalli Supergroup occurring along the Deoli–Shahpura segment. The study reveals formation of peak assemblages of garnet + sillimanite + biotite + K-feldspar + melt and garnet + muscovite + K-feldspar + melt in two anatectic migmatite samples. P–T pseudosection modelling suggests that anatexis in the gneisses occurred at ~8 kbar and 700–800°C along a tight-loop clockwise P–T path. Monazite ages from the migmatites indicate that the anatexis occurred at ~1.73–1.74 Ga. This age is similar to the Palaeoproterozoic anatexis (at 7–8 kbar) and charnockite emplacement in the Sandmata and the Mangalwar complexes, the subsolidus amphibolite-facies metamorphism in the Rajpura–Dariba and Pur–Banera supracrustal belts, and the A-type granite magmatism in the North Delhi Fold Belt. We propose that the Palaeoproterozoic migmatites in central and eastern Rajasthan are part of the one crustal unit that underwent anatexis during an accretion event along the NE–SW-trending Aravalli orogenic belt.