This chapter begins by considering three Athenian texts of the fifth and fourth centuries BC. The first is a fragment of what was probably a satyr play. The second text is from drama: Aristophanes' comedy The Clouds. A young man's choice between good and evil is the theme of the final text, a summary written in the first half of the fourth century of a fifth-century prose work that has not itself survived. Plato presents the sophists as a group of itinerant and rival individuals, mainly from poleis other than Athens, where they make their greatest impact. Herodotus, and his successor Thucydides, the founders of Greek historiography, took as their main theme the two great crises of fifth century Greek history: the Persian War of 480-479; and the Peloponnesian War of 431-404. Herodotus and Thucydides belong in a history of political thought above all because, whether as norm or problem, the polis is itself centrally at issue in their works.