Women's mental health as an intersectoral matter has drawn the attention of major international organizations such as the United Nations (UN) and its agencies, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and major foundations. This chapter describes various psychosocial issues, specific risks, and diagnostic and service biases that relate to women. It makes some reference to the role of education, family planning availability, and economic opportunities, as illustrated by experience from microfinancial strategies. A variety of factors have been identified as likely to impinge on the mental health of women and girls. These factors include financial and economic stressors, poverty, socioeconomic status, violence, education, and family of origin, as well as refugee, immigration, and minority status. The chapter re-examines the traditional beliefs about sex/gender in psychopathology and diagnosis.