The formation mechanism and chemical form of insoluble C-14 found in PWR need to be examined in order to predict its environmental behavior after disposal. This study investigates the alteration of ion-exchange resin by heating and irradiation, because past studies indicated the ion-exchange resin may be the origin of insoluble C-14.
Resin was heated at 300 °C in solution with low oxygen content to simulate the environment of PWR coolant. The sulfo group was found to detach within 8 h, and structures similar to polystyrene were remained. This is followed by detachment of H from the alkyl group, condensation reaction, and the formation of amorphous carbon-like structure. After heating for 24 and 96 h, the resin was irradiated by 60Co γ-rays in the solution. The FT-IR and TG measurements after irradiation suggested that OH and COOH groups were formed on the surface of the resin. These functional groups may be involved in reactions that finally form the amorphous carbon.
In addition, the characteristics of heated and irradiated resin were compared to real insoluble-C (CRUD) sample in PWR (in Appendix).