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Paradoxical dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 by herd immunity and antibody-dependent enhancement

Authors

Abstract

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China caused a pandemic of COVID-19. However, it remains enigmatic why the mortality rate is variable among countries. Here we show that at least three types of SARS-CoV-2 virus, type S, K, and G. have spread globally and formed complex infectious trends in terms of transmissibility and virulence. Type K establishes herd immunity and protects against the most virulent type G. Immunity to type S is involved in aggravating type G infections through antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). Epidemiological tools based on influenza and SARS-CoV-2 epidemic curves explain why COVID-19 mortality varies among Japan prefectures and European countries, and warns of high fatality in the United States. An equation was developed to quantify the severity of COVID-19. Our tools and equations also detect new infectious disease explosions and bioterrorism early, and guide containment of the virus with therapeutic approaches and local policies efficiently inducing herd immunity.

Content

Thumbnail image of Kamikubo_all.pdf

Supplementary material

Thumbnail image of Kamikubo_Extended Data Fig.pdf
Extended Data Figures
Supplementary figures.

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