Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Authoritarian Origins of Democratic Party Systems in Africa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 34
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Why have seemingly similar African countries developed very different forms of democratic party systems? Despite virtually ubiquitous conditions that are assumed to be challenging to democracy - low levels of economic development, high ethnic heterogeneity, and weak state capacity - nearly two dozen African countries have maintained democratic competition since the early 1990s. Yet the forms of party system competition vary greatly: from highly stable, nationally organized, well-institutionalized party systems to incredibly volatile, particularistic parties in systems with low institutionalization. To explain their divergent development, Rachel Beatty Riedl points to earlier authoritarian strategies to consolidate support and maintain power. The initial stages of democratic opening provide an opportunity for authoritarian incumbents to attempt to shape the rules of the new multiparty system in their own interests, but their power to do so depends on the extent of local support built up over time.

Reviews

'This well-designed comparative study helps to explain the structure of political party competition in Africa’s new democracies. The author shows how and why authoritarian precedents continue to shape institutional outcomes. Future analysts of party systems and democratic stability will have no choice but to take Riedl’s important and challenging findings into account.'

Michael Bratton - University Distinguished Professor of Political Science and African Studies, Michigan State University

'The most thorough, wide-ranging and important study of African political parties to date. If students of democratization and African politics want to know about African parties and party systems - and Reidl convincingly argues that they should - this is the place to start.'

Nic Cheeseman - African Studies Centre, University of Oxford

'In this model work of comparative-historical analysis, Rachel Beatty Riedl unravels an important puzzle in contemporary African politics: why party competition is more stable in some African democracies than others. In so doing, she advances an argument with truly global resonance: how democracies work in the present depends on how dictatorships tried to accumulate power and rewire authority in the authoritarian past. Authoritarian Origins of Democratic Party Systems in Africa is a major achievement.'

Dan Slater - University of Chicago

'In this first-rate former dissertation, Riedl asserts that the nature of authoritarian regimes significantly influences the strength of ensuing democratic governments … An excellent bibliography and useful tables and figures add to Riedl's book's utility. Summing up: highly recommended.'

C. E. Welch Source: Choice

'Africa’s fledgling democracies feature both stable, strong political parties, in countries such as Ghana, and fractious, weak, and unstable parties, in countries such as Benin. In this finely crafted book, Riedl argues convincingly that the main factor in determining the strength of parties in any given country in the region is the extent to which the authoritarian regime that dominated politics prior to the country’s democratic transition was able to influence the terms of democratization. But the relationship is somewhat counter-intuitive: the greater the staying power of the old regime, the more likely it is that the opposition coalesced into a well-institutionalized, strong party. The book’s best sections smartly observe and carefully compare the electoral politics of Benin, Ghana, Senegal, and Zambia. Riedl demonstrates that in contemporary Africa, single-party authoritarian rule might well have left a positive legacy.'

Nicolas van de Walle Source: Foreign Affairs

'Rachel Beatty Riedl’s Authoritarian Origins of Democratic Party Systems in Africa represents one of the most important contributions to the study of African politics in recent memory. Meticulously researched and theoretically innovative, the book is essential reading for those seeking to comprehend the character and dynamics of political life in Africa’s democratic societies.'

Peter VonDoepp Source: Journal of Modern African Studies

'There is much to commend about Riedl’s work - recognized in awards by two sections of the American Political Science Association - including her careful situation of her research in the broader literatures on parties and regime change, her close examination of the nature of authoritarian strategies and transitions in her four disparate cases, and the logical and convincing unfolding of her argument.'

Jeffrey Conroy-Krutz Source: African Affairs

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Contents

References

Acemoglu, D. and J. A. Robinson (2006). Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Cambridge and New York:Cambridge University Press.
Adamon, A. (1995). Le renouveau Democratique au Benin, la conference des Forces Vives et la Periode de Transition. Paris:l’Harmattan.
Adamon, A. D. (1995). Le Renouveau Démocratique au Bénin: la conférence Nationale des Forces Vives et la Période de Transition. Paris:Harmattan.
Adamon, A. D. (1995). Le Renouveau Démocratique au Bénin: les Elections de la Période de Transition. Porto-Novo, Bénin:Editions du Journal Officiel.
Adande, J. K. (2005). Directeur de la Cooperation Technique du Ministre de l’Analyze Economique de la Statistique et du Plan. Author Interview. Cotonou: Benin.
Adeloui, A.-J. (1998). “Democratisation et Cooperation Francaise en Afrique de l’Ouest (1990–99): Cas du Benin.” Collection des Mémoires et Théses. Chaire UNESCO des Droits de la Personne et de la Démocratie (Abomey-Calavi).
Afrobarometer Survey Data, Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR). http://www.icpsr.umich.edu.
Ahwoi, K. (2006). PNDC Minister for Decentralization (charged with the District Assembly Election Process implementation). Author Interview. Accra, Ghana.
Ali, H. (November 2005). Former Minister of Information under the PRPB. Author Interview. Cotonou, Benin.
Archive (April 1991). Daily Graphic Newspaper.
Archives, L. (1991–1992). Register of Consultative Assembly Members. Accra, Ghana.
Asamoah, O. (2006). Foreign Minister and Attorney General of Ghana under Jerry Rawlings from 1981 to 1997. 2002 head of the NDC. Founding member of the NDC, leading PNDC to NDC transition. Author Interview. Lusaka, Zambia.
Asante, D. N. S. K. B. (April 2006). Chairman of the Committee of Experts for the Draft Constitution of the Democratic Transition. Author Interview. Accra, Ghana.
Assogba, T. and W. Lassissi. Bilan et Perspective du Role des Parties Politiques dans l'enracinement de la Democratie au Benin de l'ere du Renouveau Democratique. Mémoire, Universite du Benin.
Austin, Dennis (1976). Ghana Observed: essays on the politics of a West African republic. Holmes & Meier Pub.
Azonhiho, M. C. D. (2005). Former Minister of Defense; PRPB Bureau Politique. Author Interview. Cotonou, Benin.
Bagbin, Alban S. K. (March 2005). NDC MP from Nadowli West (Parliamentary Minority Leader). Author Interview. Accra, Ghana.
Bako-Arifari (1995). “Democratie et Logiques du Terroir au Benin.” Politique Africaine 59(Le Benin): 2–119.
Bako-Arifari, N. (1998). La Democratie a Founougo (Borgou): Paysans et ‘Descolarises’ en Competition pour le Pouvoir Local. In Les Pouvoirs au Village: le Bénin Rural entre Démocratisation et Décentralisation, edited by T. Bierschenk and J.-P. Olivier de Sardan, pp. 57–100. Paris:Editions Karthala.
Baldwin, K. (2013). “Why Vote with the Chief? Political Connections and Public Goods Provision in Zambia.” American Journal of Political Science.
Banda, D. A. (1997). The Trade Union Situation in Zambia: An Overview of the Law, Practice and the Way Forward; a Monogram. Lusaka: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.
Banegas, R. (2003). La Démocratie à pas de Caméléon: Transition et Imaginaires Politiques au Bénin. Paris:Karthala.
Bartlett, D. M. C. (2000). “Civil Society and Democracy: A Zambian Case Study.” Journal of Southern African Studies 26(3): 429–446.
Bartolini, S. and P. Mair (1990). Identity, Competition, and Electoral Availability: The Stabilisation of European Electorates 1885–1985. Cambridge and New York:Cambridge University Press.
Bates, R. and P. Collier (1995). “The Politics and Economics of Policy Reform in Zambia.” Journal of African Economies, Oxford University Press 4(1): 115–43.
Bates, R. H. (1981). Markets and States in Tropical Africa: The Political Basis of Agricultural Policies. Berkeley:University of California Press.
Bates, R. (1971). Unions, Parties, and Political Development, a Study of Mineworkers in Zambia. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Bayart, J.-F. (1989). L’Etat en Afrique: La Politique du Ventre. Paris:Fayard.
Beck, Linda (2008). Brokering Democracy in Africa: The Rise of Clientelist Democracy in Senegal. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Berman, S. (1997). “Civil Society and the Collapse of the Weimar Republic.” World Politics 49(3): 401–429.
Bermeo, N. G. (2003). Ordinary People in Extraordinary Times: The Citizenry and the Breakdown of Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bermeo, N. and P. Nord (2000). Civil Society before Democracy: Lessons from Nineteenth-Century Europe. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield.
Bierschenk, T. and R. Mongbo (1995). “Le terroir en quete de democratie.” Politique Africaine 59.
Bierschenk, T. and J.-P. Olivier de Sardan (1998). Les pouvoirs au village: le Bénin rural entre démocratisation et décentralisation. Paris:Editions Karthala.
Bierschenk, Thomas (1998). Les pouvoirs aux villages. Le Bénin rural ente démocratisation et décentralisation, Paris: Karthala.
Birch, S. (2001). Electoral Systems and Party System Stability in Post-Communist Europe. American Political Science Association Annual Conference. San Francisco.
Birch, S. (2003). Electoral Systems and Political Transformation in Post-Communist Europe. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York:Palgrave Macmillan.
Blay, F. (2006). CPP Member of Parliament. Author Interview. Accra, Ghana.
Bleck, Jaimie and Nicolas van de Walle (2013). “Valence Issues in African Elections: Navigating Uncertainty and the Weight of the Past.” Comparative Political Studies 46(11).
Bluwey, G. (1998). Extent of Authoritarian Regime. Ghana: Transition to Democracy, ed. K. A. Ninsin. Dakar, Senegal: Codesria.
Bluwey, G. (1998). State Organisations in the Transition. Ghana: Transition to Democracy, ed. K. A. Ninsin. Dakar, Senegal: Codesria.
Boafo-Arthur, K., ed. (2007). Ghana, One Decade of the Liberal State. Dakar, Codesria Books.
Boateng, E. A. and Institute of Economic Affairs (Ghana) (1996). Government and the People: Outlook for Democracy in Ghana. Accra, Ghana: Institute of Economic Affairs.
Bogaards, M. (2004). “Counting Parties and Identifying Dominant Party Systems in Africa.” European Journal of Political Research 43(2): 173–197.
Bogaards, M. (2008). “Measuring Democracy through Election Outcomes – A Critique with African Data.” Comparative Political Studies 40(10): 1211–1237.
Bogaards, M. (2008). “Dominant Party Systems and Electoral Volatility in Africa – A Comment on Mozaffar and Scarritt.” Party Politics 14(1): 113–130.
Bohrer, R. E. and A. C. Tan (2000). “Left turn in Europe? Reactions to Austerity and the EMU.” Political Research Quarterly 53(3): 575–595.
Boix, C. (1999). “Setting the Rules of the Game: The Choice of Electoral Systems in Advanced Democracies.” American Political Science Review 93(3): 609–624.
Boix, C. (2007). The Emergence of Parties and Party Systems. The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Politics, ed. C. Boix and S. C. Stokes. Oxford; New York:Oxford University Press.
Boone, C. (1991). Politics under the Specter of Deindustrialization: “Structural Adjustment” in Practice. The Political Economy of Senegal under Structural Adjustment. SAIS Studies on Africa, ed. C. L. Delgado and S. C. Jammeh. New York: Praeger: xi, 219 p.
Boone, C. (1998). “State Building in the African Countryside: Structure and Politics at the Grassroots.” Journal of Development Studies 34(4): 1–31.
Boone, Catherine (1992). Merchant Capital and the Roots of State Power in Senegal, 1930–1985. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Boone, Catherine (2003). Political Topographies of the African State: Territorial Authority and Institutional Choice. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Brambor, Thomas, William Clark, Matt Golder (2007). “Are African Party Systems Different?” Electoral Studies 26: 315–323. (Golder Dataverse).
Brancati, Dawn (2007). “The Origins and Strength of Regional Parties.” British Journal of Political Science 38(1): 135–159.
Bratton, M. (1980). The Local Politics of Rural Development: Peasant and Party-State in Zambia. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.
Bratton, M., P. Alderfer, and N. Simutanyi (1997). “Political Participation in Zambia, 1991–1996: Trends and Determinants.” Michigan State University Working Papers on Political Reform in Africa (No. 16).
Bratton, M. and N. van de Walle (1994). “Neopatrimonial Regimes and Political Transitions in AfricaWorld Politics 46(4): 453–489.
Bratton, M. and N. Van de Walle (1997). Democratic Experiments in Africa: Regime Transitions in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Brownlee, Jason (2007). Authoritarianism in an Age of Democratization. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Brusco, Valeria, Marcelo Nazareno and Susan Stokes (2004). “Vote Buying in Argentina.” Latin American Research Review. Vol. 39, No. 2: 66–88.
Bunce, Valerie (2003). “Rethinking Recent Democratization: Lessons from the Postcommunist Experience,” World Politics. Vol. 55, No. 1: 167–192.
Burdette, M. M. (1988). Zambia: Between Two Worlds. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Burnell, P. (2001). The Party System and Party Politics in Zambia: Continuities Past, Present and Future. ECPR Workshop “Party, Party Systems and Democratic Consolidation in the Third World.Grenoble.
Callaghy, T. (1987). The State as Lame Leviathan: The Patrimonial Administrative State in Africa. The African State in Transition, ed. Z. Ergas. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire:Macmillan.
Callaghy, T. M. (1990). Lost between State and Market: The Politics of Adjustment in Ghana, Zambia, and Nigeria. Economic Crisis and Policy Choice: The Politics of Adjustment in the Third World, ed. J. Nelson. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Callaghy, Thomas (1984). The State-Society Struggle: Zaire in Comparative Perspective. New York: Columbia University Press.
Calvo, Ernesto and Maria Victoria Murillo (2005). A New Law of Argentine Politics In Argentine Democracy: the Politics of Institutional Weakness, Steven Levitsky and Maria Victoria Murillo, eds., pp. 207–227. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Caporaso, J. A. and D. P. Levine (1992). Theories of Political Economy. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Caramani, D. (2004). The Nationalization of Politics: The Formation of National Electorates and Party Systems in Western Europe. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Carey, J. and S. Hix (2011). “The Electoral Sweet Spot: Low-Magnitude Proportional Electoral Systems,” American Journal of Political Science. Vol. 55, No. 2: 383–397.
Chandler, W. M. (1977). “Canadian Socialism and Policy Impact – Contagion from Left.” Canadian Journal of Political Science-Revue Canadienne De Science Politique 10(4): 755–780.
Chandra, K. (2004). Why Ethnic Parties Succeed: Patronage and Ethnic Head Counts in India. Cambridge, UK; New York:Cambridge University Press.
Chazan, N. (1982). Development, Underdevelopment and the State in Ghana. Occasional Paper No. 59, Boston University, African Studies Center.
Chazan, N. (1983). An Anatomy of Ghanaian Politics: Managing Political Recession, 1969–1982. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Chhibber, P. K. and K. Kollman (1998). “Party aggregation and the number of parties in India and the United States.” American Political Science Review 92(2): 329–342.
Chhibber, P. K. and K. Kollman (2004). The Formation of National Party Systems: Federalism and Party Competition in Canada, Great Britain, India, and the United States. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Chongwe, R. (2006). Former Cabinet Minister. Author Interview. Lusaka, Zambia.
Ciss, G. (1997). Les Fondements Democratiques du Systeme Politique Senegalais. PhD diss., Universite Cheikh Anta DIOP de Dakar.
Collier, R. B. (1982). Regimes in Tropical Africa: Changing Forms of Supremacy, 1945–1975. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Collier, R. B. (1999). Paths toward Democracy: The Working Class and Elites in Western Europe and South America. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Collier, R. B. and D. Collier (1991). Shaping the Political Arena: Critical Junctures, the Labor Movement, and Regime Dynamics in Latin America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Commey, L. (2006). NPP National Organizer. Author Interview. Accra, Ghana. NPP Headquarters.
Converse, P. E. (1969). “Time and Partisan Stability.” Comparative Political Studies 2(2): 139–171.
Coppedge, M. (1994). Strong Parties and Lame Ducks: Presidential Partyarchy and Factionalism in Venezuela. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Cox, G. W. (1997). Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World's Electoral Systems. Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cox, G. and M. McCubbins (2001). The Institutional Determinants of Economic Policy Outcomes. In Presidents and Parliaments, ed. Haggard, S. and M. McCubbins. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Craig, A. and W. Cornelius (1995). Houses Divided: Parties and Political Reform in Mexico. In Building Democratic Institutions: Party Systems in Latin America, eds. S. Mainwaring and T. Scully. 250–254. Stanford, CA:Stanford University Press.
Cruise O’Brien, D., M. C. Diop, and M. Diouf (2002). La Construction de l’Etat au Sénégal. Paris: Karthala.
Cruise O’Brien, Donal (2004). Symbolic Confrontations: Muslims Imagining the State in Africa. London: C. Hurst.
Cruise O’Brien, Donal (2009). Saints and Politicians. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Dahl, Robert (1972). Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Daily Graphic (1992). Report on the Consultative Assembly. Accra, Ghana.
Deets, S. (2006). Reds, Greens, Blues and Browns: Party Development, Electoral Volatility and On-Going Surprises in East European Elections. Washington, DC: East European Studies.
Delgado, C. L. and S. C. Jammeh, eds. (1991). Introduction: Structural Change in a Hostile Environment. In The Political Economy of Senegal under Structural Adjustment. SAIS studies on Africa. 219 New York: Praeger.
Delgado, C. L., S. C. Jammeh, eds. (1991). The Political Economy of Senegal under Structural Adjustment. New York: Praeger.
Deme, I. (2005). Constituency Representative, Alliance des Forces de Progrès (AFP). Author Interview. Podor, Senegal.
Diamond, J. M. (1997). Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: W. W. Norton & Co.
Diamond, L. J. and M. F. Plattner (1996). The Global Resurgence of Democracy. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Diamond, L. J. and M. F. Plattner (1999). Democratization in Africa. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Diamond, Larry (1999). Developing Democracy: Towards Consolidation. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press.
Diaw, A. (2005). Professor of Political Philosophy, Faculté des Lettres, UCAD, Dakar. General Secretary of Senegalese National Council of Women. Author Interview. Dakar, Senegal.
Diaw, A. and M. Diouf (1998). The Senegalese Opposition and its Quest for Power. In The Politics of Opposition in Contemporary Africa, ed. A. O. Olukoshi. 113–143. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
Dijkstra, J. P. and K. Kumado. (2004). Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy. Evaluation Report: NIMD Programme in Ghana.
Dimaggio, P. J. and W. W. Powell (1983). “The Iron Cage Revisited – Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields.” American Sociological Review 48(2): 147–160.
Dioh, T. (2002). “Sous l’étiquette libérale,” Jeuneafrique, October 21, 2002.
Diop, M. C. (1992). Sénégal: Trajectoires d'un Etat. Dakar, Sénégal; Paris: CODESRIA; Diffusion, Karthala.
Diop, M. C. and M. Diouf (1990). Le Sénégal sous Abdou Diouf: Etat et Société. Paris:Karthala.
Diop, M. C. and M. Diouf (2002). L’Administration, les Confreries Religieuses et les Paysanneries. In La Construction de l’Etat au Sénégal. 29–47. eds. D. B. Cruise O’Brien, M. C. Diop and M. Diouf. Paris: Karthala.
Diop, M. C. and M. Diouf (2002). Senghor, Diouf, Wade, et Apres?. La Construction de l’Etat au Sénégal. 128. eds. D. B. Cruise O’Brien, M. C. Diop and M. Diouf. Paris: Karthala.
Diop, O. (2006). Partis Politiques et Processus de Transition Démocratique en Afrique Noire: Recherches sur les Enjeux Juridiques et Sociologiques du Multipartisme dans quelques Pays de l’Espace Francophone. Paris: Publibook.
Diop, S. (1990). “La Transition Democratique: L’Exemple du Senegal.” Les Processus Democratiques.
Diop, Y. (2005). PDS Representative in Tambacounda. Author Interview. Tambacounda, Senegal.
Directive Principles of State Policy (PNDCL 42) (1981). National Democratic Congress Archives.
Doorenspleet, R. and L. Nijzink. (2011). “Patterns of One-Party Dominance in Africa's Democracies.” Centre for Studies in Democratisation 2011: Party Systems and the Future of Democracy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Centre for Studies in Democratisation, University of Warwick, 22–24, Sep 2011.
Dossou, R. (1993). Le Bénin: Du Monolithisme à la Démocratie Pluraliste, un Témoignage. In L’Afrique en Transition vers le Pluralisme Politique: Colloque, Paris, 12–13 Decembre 1990. La Vie du Droit en Afrique, 517. eds. M. Alliot and G. Conac. Paris: Economica.
Dossou, R. (2000). L’experience Beninoise de la Conference Nationale. Bilan des Conferences Nationales et Outres Processus de Transition Democratique. Fevrier 19–23. Actes de la Conference Regionale Africaine Perparatoire. IV Conference Internatioanle sur les Democraties Nouvelles ou Retablies, Cotonou, Benin, 4–6 Decembre 2000. Editions Pedone. Paris, France.
Dossou, R. (November 2005). Former Minister of Foreign Affairs and Member of Preparatory Committee for the National Conference. Author Interview. Cotonou, Benin.
Dossou, R. and R. Ahouansou (2000). Systematique de la Transition Democratique des Annees 1990 en Afrique. In Publie a l’Occasion du 10eme Anniversaire de la Conference Nationale du Benin par le Departement de l’Information et de la Documentation de l’ASD. Fevrier 2000. Dakar: Senegal (Premiere Conference Panafricaine de Dakar).
Doussou, F. C. (1993). Les Forces Armées Dans La Vie Politique Beninoise sous le Regime de Mathieu Kerekou: 1972–1990. Codesria: 9–10.
Downs, A. (1957). An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper.
Dowouhna, M. (2006). CPP General Secretary. Author Interview. Accra, Ghana.
Dramé, L. (2005). PDS Secretaire Chargé des Affaires Sociaux for the Mouvement des Anciens Responsable du Section. Author Interview. Ziguinchor, Senegal.
Duverger, M. (1954). Political Parties, Their Organization and Activity in the Modern State. London, New York, Methuen: Wiley.
Duverger, M. (1972). Party Politics and Pressure Groups; A Comparative Introduction. New York: Crowell.
Easter, G. M. (1997). “Preference for Presidentialism – Postcommunist Regime Change in Russia and the NIS.” World Politics 49(2): 184–211.
Editor (March 6, 1992). “Report on Government's Transitional Programme for the Restoration of Democratic Rule (following March 5 broadcast of Chairman of PNDC, Flt. Lt. Rawlings, outline of the programme). Daily Graphic. Accra.
Erdmann, Gero (2004). “Party Research: Western Bias and the ‘African labyrinth.’Democratization. Vol. 11, No. 3: 63–87.
Erdmann, Gero and Matthias Basedau (2007). “Problems of Categorizing and Explaining Party Systems in Africa.” GIGA Research Programme: Legitimacy and Efficiency of Political Systems. No. 40.
Espana-Najera, A. (2009). Party Systems and Democracy after the Conflicts: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua. PhD diss., University of Notre Dame.
Fatodji, P. (2005). Leader, Parti Communiste du Dahomey. Author Interview. Cotonou, Benin.
Fatton, R. (1987). The Making of a Liberal Democracy: Senegal's Passive Revolution, 1975–1985. Boulder, CO: L. Rienner Publishers.
Ferree, K. (September 2004). Ethnic Demographics and Electoral Volatility in Africa. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago.
Ferree, Karen (2011). Framing the Race in South Africa: The Political Origins of Racial Census Elections. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Folson, K. G. (1993). Ideology, Revolution and Development – The Years of Jerry John Rawlings. Ghana under PNDC Rule, ed. E. Gyimah-Boadi. 221 Senegal: Codesria.
Freedom House (May 2005). “How Freedom is Won: From Civic Resistance to Durable Democracy,” Special Report. <http://www.freedomhouse.org/research/specreports/civictrans/index.htm>.
Galvan, Dennis (2004). The State Must Be Our Master of Fire: How Peasant Craft Culturally Sustainable Development in Senegal. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Galvan, Dennis (2007). Syncretism and Local Level Democracy in Rural Senegal. In Reconfiguring Institutions across Time and Space: Syncretic Responses to challenges of Political and Economic Transformation, eds. Galvan, D. and RudraSil, pp. 33–60. New York: Palgrave/Macmillan.
Galvan, D. and Rudra Sil (2007). The Dilemma of Institutional Adaptation and the Role of Syncretism. In Reconfiguring Institutions across Time and Space: Syncretic Responses to Challenges of Political and Economic Transformation, eds. Galvan, D. and Rudra Sil, pp. 3–31. New York: Palgrave/Macmillan.
Garba, R. (2005). Former PRPB Bureau Politique. Author Interview. Cotonou, Benin.
Geddes, B. (1999). “What Do We Know about Democratization after Twenty Years?Annual Review of Political Science 2: 115–144.
General, U. D. S. (2006). Author Interview. Lusaka, Zambia.
Gerring, J. (2007). Case Study Research: Principles and Practices. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gertzel, C. J., C. Baylies, and M. Szeftel. (1984). The Dynamics of the One-Party State in Zambia. Manchester, UK; Dover, NH: Manchester University Press.
Ghana Center for Democratic Development and Institut für Afrika-Kunde (Hamburg Germany) (2005). A Report of a Survey on Political Parties and Party Systems in Ghana Conducted in December 2003. Accra, Ghana: Center for Democratic Development.
Girigissou, G. (2005). PRPB Bureau Politique. Ancien Député de l’Assemblée Nationale du Bénin. Ancien Vice-Président du Groupe National de l’Assemblée nationale. Author Interview. Cotonou, Benin.
Greene, Kenneth (2007). Why Dominant Parties Lose: Mexico's Democratization in Comparative Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Greif, A. (2006). Institutions and the Path to the Modern Economy: Lessons from Medieval Trade. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gros, J.-G. (1998). Democratization in Late Twentieth-Century Africa: Coping with Uncertainty. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Grzymala-Busse, A. (2006). “Authoritarian Determinants of Democratic Party Competition – The Communist Successor Parties in East Central Europe.” Party Politics 12(3): 415–437.
Grzymala-Busse, A. M. (2002). Redeeming the Communist Past: The Regeneration of Communist Parties in East Central Europe. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gueye, B. O. (2005). Prefet, Chef de la Division des Affaires Politiques et Syndicales (Ministere de L’Interieur et des Collectivites Locales) – Direction des Affaires Generales et de l’Administration Territoriale. Author Interview. Dakar, Senegal.
Guèye, S. P. (2003). Du Bon Usage de la Démocratie en Afrique: Contribution à Une Ethique et à Une Pédagogie du Pluralisme: Essai. Dakar:Nouvelles Éditions Africaines du Sénégal.
Gulhati, R. (1988). The Political Economy of Reform in Sub-Saharan Africa: Report of the Workshops on the Political Economy of Structural Adjustment and the Sustainability of Reform: Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada, November 20–22, 1986, World Bank, Washington, D.C., December 3–5, 1986. Washington, DC:World Bank.
Gulhati, R. (1989). Impasse in Zambia: The Economics and Politics of Reform. T. W. Bank.
Gyimah-Boadi, E. (1993). Ghana under PNDC Rule. Senegal:Codesria.
Gyimah-Boadi, E. (2006). Executive Director, Centre for Democratic Development. Author Interview. Accra, Ghana.
Gyimah-Boadi, E., and M. Oquaye. (2002). Civil society organization and Ghanaian democratization. Accra, Ghana:Center for Democratic Development. Research Paper No. 6.
GyimahBoadi, E. (1996). “Civil society in Africa.” Journal of Democracy 7(2): 118–132.
Habasonda, L. (2006). Director SACCORD. Author Interview. Lusaka, Zambia.
Habyarimana, J., M. Humphreys, D. N. Posner, and J. M. Weinstein (2009). Co-Ethnicity: Diversity and the Dilemmas of Collective Action. New York: Russell Sage.
Haggard, S. and R. R. Kaufman (1995). The Political Economy of Democratic Transitions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hagopian, F. (1990). “Democracy by Undemocratic Means – Elites, Political Pacts, and Regime Transition in Brazil.”Comparative Political Studies 23(2): 147–170.
Hagopian, Frances (2007). Parties and Voters in Emerging Democracies. In Comparative Politics, Oxford Handbooks of Political Science, ed. Robert E. Goodin, 582–603 Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hagopian, Frances (2005). Inclusions: Government Performance, Political Representation, and Public Perceptions of the Quality of Democracy in Latin America in the 1990s and Beyond. In The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America: Advances and Setbacks, eds. Frances Hagopian and Scott Mainwaring, 319–362. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hansen, E. (1991). Ghana under Rawlings: Early Years. Lagos:Malthouse Press.
Harbeson, J. W., D. S. Rothchild, and N. Chazan, eds. (1994). Civil Society and the State in Africa. Boulder, CO: L. Rienner Publishers.
Hartlyn, J. (1998). Political Continuities, Missed Opportunities, and Institutional Rigidities: Another Look at Democratic Transitions in Latin America. In Politics, Society, and Democracy: Latin America, eds. Mainwaring, S. and A. Valenzuela, pp. 101–120. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Hayward, F. M. and S. N. Grovogui (1987). Persistence and Change in Senegalese Electoral Processes. In Elections in Independent Africa, ed. F. M. Hayward, pp. 239–265. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Heath, O. (2005). “Party Systems, Political Cleavages and Electoral Volatility in India – A State-Wise Analysis, 1998–1999.” Electoral Studies 24(2): 177–199.
Heilbrunn, J. R. (1993). “Social Origins of National Conferences in Benin and Togo.” Journal of Modern African Studies 31(2): 277–299.
Helmke, Gretchen and Steven Levitsky (2006). Informal Institutions and Democracy. Lessons from Latin America. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Herbst, J. (2001). “Political Liberalization in Africa after Ten Years.” Comparative Politics 33(3): 357–375.
Herbst, J. I. (1993). The Politics of Reform in Ghana, 1982–1991. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Herbst, J. I. (2000). States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hessling, A. G. H. J. A., Gerti Hesseling (1985). Histoire Politique du Senegal – Institutions, Droit et Societe. Paris: Macmillan.
Hevou, Theodore (2005). RB Lokassa Secretaire Executive. Author Interview, Benin.
Hicken, A. (2006). “Stuck in the Mud: Parties and Party Systems in Democratic Southeast Asia.” Taiwan Journal of Democracy 2(2): 23–46.
Hicken, Allen (2009). Building Party Systems in Developing Democracies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Holo, Theodore (October 2005). UNESCO Chair at the Université d’Abomey. Author Interview. Calavi, Benin.
Holo, T. (2006). “UNESCO Chair of Human Rights and Democracy, University of Benin and Member of the Constitutional Court. Column on Legislative Election Preparations.” Le Matinal. Cotonou, Benin.
Houdou, A. (2005). Former Minister of Information. Author Interview. Cotonou, Benin.
Hounkpe, M. and F. Laleye (2005). Directors, Analyses Politiques et Socio-Economiques. Author Interview. Porto-Novo, Benin.
Huber, E., Rueschemeyer, D. and Stephens, J. (1992). Capitalist Development and Democracy. University of Chicago Press.
Hunter, W. (1997). “Continuity or change? Civil-military relations in democratic Argentina, Chile, and Peru.” Political Science Quarterly 112(3): 453–475.
Hunter, W. (1997). Eroding Military Influence in Brazil: Politicians against Soldiers. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Hunter, W. (2007). “The Normalization of an Anomaly: The Workers’ Party in Brazil.” World Politics 59(3): 440–475.
Huntington, S. P. and Harvard University. Center for International Affairs (1968). Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Hydén, G. (1980). Beyond Ujamaa in Tanzania: Underdevelopment and an Uncaptured Peasantry. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hydén, G. (2005). African Politics in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge; New York:Cambridge University Press.
Hydén, G. and M. Bratton (1992). Governance and Politics in Africa. Boulder, CO:L. Rienner Publishers.
Ichino, Nahomi and Noah Nathan (2012). “Primaries on Demand? Intra-Party Politics and Nominations in GhanaBritish Journal of Political Science 42(4): 769–91.
IDEA (2007). Political Parties in Africa: Challenges for Sustaining Multiparty Democracy.
Institute of Economic Affairs (Ghana) (2004). Joint Symposia of the Registered Political Parties of Ghana. Accra, Ghana: Institute of Economic Affairs.
Institute of Economic Affairs (Ghana) (2005). Joint Political Parties Symposia 2004: Another Giant Stride in Ghana's Growing Democracy. Accra, Ghana: Institute of Economic Affairs.
Jackson, R. H. and C. G. Rosberg (1982). “Why Africa's Weak States Persist – The Empirical and the Juridical in Statehood.” World Politics 35(1): 1–24.
Jackson, Robert and Carl Rosberg (1984). “Personal Rule: Theory and Practice in Africa.” Comparative Politics 16(4): 421–442.
Jebuni, C. and Oduro, A. (1998). “Structural adjustment programme and the transition to democracy.” In Ninsin, K. A. and Codesria. Ghana: transition to democracy. Dakar, Senegal, Codesria.
Jonah, K. (2006). Acting Head, Governance Center at the Institute for Economic Affairs in Ghana. Author Interview. Accra, Ghana.
EJowitt, K. (1992). New World Disorder: The Leninist Extinction. Berkeley:University of California Press.
Kalale, D. (July 2006). Director, Electoral Commission of Zambia. Author Interview. Lusaka, Zambia.
Kane, A. and A. Ka (February 1986). Responsabilisation des Agropasteurs ou la Dépérissement d’Une Structure d’Encadrement: Le Projet de Développement de l’Elevage au Sénégal-Oriental (PDESO). Tambacounda. Report Presented at the “Méthodes de Recherche sur les Systèmes d’Elevage en Afrique Intertropicale” Workshop held in Mbour, ISRA. Dakar.
Kangah, D. (2006). Electoral Commission Director. Author Interview. Accra, Ghana.
Karinthi, J. (1999). Le Multipartisme du Renouveau Democratique au Benin. Memoire de Maitrise, Departement de Science Politique. Paris: Universite de Paris VIII.
Kaunda, K. (2006). Former President of Zambia. Author Interview. Lusaka, Zambia.
Kebemere, A. (2005). Assistant to Quester, Assemble Nationale. Author Interview. Dakar, Senegal.
Kenemé, K. B. (2005). PS Regional Secretary (Saint Louis). Author Interview. Podor, Senegal.
Kitschelt, H., Mansfeldova, Z., Markowski, R., and Toka, G. (1999). Post-Communist Party Systems: Competition, Representation, and Inter-Party Cooperation. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kitschelt, Herbert and Dan Kselman (2013). “Economic Development, Democratic Experience, and Political Parties’ Linkage Strategies.” Comparative Political Studies 46 (11).
Kitschelt, Herbert (2007). Party Systems. In The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Politics, eds. C. Boix and S. C. Stokes, pp. 522–554. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
Kohli, A. (2004). State-Directed Development: Political Power and Industrialization in the Global Periphery. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Koo, H. (1993). Strong State and Contentious Society. In State and Society in Contemporary Korea, H. Koo, ed. New York: Cornell University Press.
Koter, Dominika (2009). “Ties and Votes: Social Structure and Electoral Politics in Africa.” Paper presented at the meetings of the American Political Science Association, Toronto, Canada.
Kuenzi, M. and G. Lambright (2001). “Party System Institutionalization in 30 African Countries.” Party Politics 7(4): 437–468.
Kuenzi, M. and G. Lambright (2005). “Party Systems and Democratic Consolidation in Africa's Electoral Regimes.” Party Politics 11(4): 423–446.
Kuhonta, E. and Hicken, A., eds. (2014). Party System Institutionalization in Asia: Democracies, Autocracies, and the Shadow of the Past. Cambridge University Press
Laakso, M. and R. Taagepera (1979). “Effective Number of Parties: A Measure with Application to West Europe.” Comparative Political Studies 12: 3–27.
Landau, J. M., ed. (1984). Atatürk and the Modernization of Turkey. Boulder, CO; Leiden, the Netherlands: Westview Press; E. J. Brill.
Langston, J. (2002). “Breaking Out is Hard to Do: Exit, Voice, and Loyalty in Mexico's One-Party Hegemonic Regime.” Latin American Politics and Society 44(3): 61–88.
LeBas, Adrienne (2011). From Protest to Parties: Party-Building and Democratization in Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Levitsky, S. (2001). “Organization and Labor-Based Party Adaptation – The Transformation of Argentine Peronism in Comparative Perspective.” World Politics 54(1): 27–56.
Levitsky, Steven and Lucan Way (2010). Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes After the Cold War. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lewis, Peter (1992). “Political Transitions and the Dilemma of Civil Society in Africa.” Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 42, No. 1: 31–54.
Lewis, P. M. (1996). “Hemmed in: Responses to Africa's Economic Decline – Callaghy, TM, Ravenhill, J.” World Politics 49(1): 92–129.
Lijphart, A. and B. Grofman (1984). Choosing an Electoral System: Issues and Alternatives. New York:Praeger.
Lijphart, A., R. Rogowski, and R. K. Weaver (1993). Separation of Powers and Cleavage Management: Political Institutions and Cleavage Management. In Do Institutions Matter?: Government Capabilities in the United States and Abroad, eds. R. K. Weaver and B. A. Rockman, pp. 302–344. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
Lindberg, S. I. (2005). “Consequences of Electoral Systems in Africa: A Preliminary Inquiry.” Electoral Studies 24(1): 41–64.
Lindberg, S. I. (2007). “Institutionalization of Party Systems? Stability and Fluidity among Legislative Parties in Africa's Democracies.” Government and Opposition 42(2): 215–241.
Lindberg, S. I. and Minion K. Morrison (2005). “Exploring Voter Alignments in Africa: Core and Swing Voters in Ghana.” Journal of Modern African Studies 43(4): 1–22.
Linz, J. J. and A. C. Stepan (1996). Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and Post-Communist Europe. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lipset, S. M. (1959). “Some Social Requisites of Democracy – Economic Development and Political Legitimacy.” American Political Science Review 53(1): 69–105.
Lipset, S. M. and S. Rokkan (1967). Party Systems and Voter Alignments: Cross-National Perspectives. New York: Free Press.
Lupu, N. and R. Beatty Riedl (2013). “Political Parties and Uncertainty in Developing Democracies.” Comparative Political Studies 46(11).
Lupu, N. and S. C. Stokes (2010). “Democracy, Interrupted: Regime Change and Partisanship in Twentieth-Century Argentina.” Electoral Studies 29(1): 91–104.
Lust-Okar, E. (2002). “Rulers and Rules – Reassessing the Influence of Regime Type on Electoral Law Formation.” Comparative Political Studies 35(3): 337–366.
MacLean, Lauren M. (2010). Informal Institutions and Citizenship in Rural Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Magaloni, Beatriz (2006). Voting for Autocracy: Hegemonic Party Survival and its Demise in Mexico. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Magnusson, B. A. (2001). “Democratization and Domestic Insecurity – Navigating the Transition in Benin.” Comparative Politics 33(2): 211–230.
Mainwaring, S. (1999). Rethinking Party Systems in the Third Wave of Democratization: The Case of Brazil. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Mainwaring, S. and T. Scully (1995). Building Democratic Institutions: Party Systems in Latin America. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Mainwaring, S. and M. Torcal (2006). Party System Institutionalization and Party System Theory after the Third Wave of Democratization. In. Handbook of party politics, eds R. S. Katz and W. J. Crotty, 204–227. London; Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Mainwaring, S. and E. Zoco (2007). “Political Sequences and the Stabilization of Interparty Competition – Electoral Volatility in Old and New Democracies.” Party Politics 13(2): 155–178.
Mahoney, J. and K. Thelen, eds. (2010). Explaining Institutional Change: Ambiguity, Agency and Power. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mamdani, Mahmoud (1996). Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Manning, C. (2005). “Assessing African party systems after the third wave.” Party Politics 11(6): 707–727.
Masheke, G. M. (2006). UNIP Central Committee member during democratic transition. Army Commander and Minister of Defence 1985–1988; Minister of Home Affairs 1988–89; Prime Minister of Zambia from 15 March 1989 to 31 August 1991. Author Interview. Lusaka, Zambia.
Mbikusita-Lewanika, A. (July 2006). Founding Member of the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD). Author Interview. Lusaka, Zambia.
Mbikusita-Lewanika, A. and D. Chitala (1990). The Hour has Come: Proceedings of the National Conference on the Multi-party Option, Held at Garden House Hotel, Zambia, 20–21 July, 1990. Lusaka, Zambia: Zambia Research Foundation.
Mboji, M. (1991). The Politics of Independence: 1960–1986. In The Political Economy of Senegal under Structural Adjustment. SAIS Studies on Africa, eds. C. L. Delgado and S. C. Jammeh. 219. New York: Praeger.
Métinhoué, P. G. (2005). Les Gouvernements du Dahomey et du Bénin: Mai 1957– février 2005. Porto-Novo: Centre National de Production de Manuels Scolaires.
Michels, R. 1915). Political Parties; A Sociological Study of the Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy. New York: Hearst's International Library Co.
Migdal, J. S. (1988). Strong Societies and Weak States: State-Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Migdal, J. S. (1994). Introduction: Developing a state-in-society perspective. In State power and social forces: domination and transformation in the Third World, eds. J. S. Migdal, A. Kohli and V. Shue. 333. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Migdal, J. S., A. Kohli et al. (1994). State Power and Social Forces: Domination and Transformation in the Third World. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ministere d’Etat Charge de la Coordination de l’Action Gouvernementale, d. P., du Developpement et de la Promotion de l’Emploi (1999). La Classe Politique Beninoise: Evolution, Enjeux, Perspectives. Etudes Nationales de Perspectives a Long Terme NLTPS-Benin 2025. P. d. N. U. p. l. Developpement. Cotonou, Benin. PRCIG-NLTPS-BEN/96/001.
Momba, J. C. (2005). Political Parties and the Quest for Democratic Consolidation in Zambia. Johannesburg: EISA.
Morrison, M. K. C. (2004). “Political Parties in Ghana through Four Republics – A Path to Democratic Consolidation.” Comparative Politics 36(4): 421–442.
Moser, R. G. (1999). “Electoral Systems and the Number of Parties in Postcommunist States.” World Politics 51(3): 359–384.
Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD). (1991). MMD Democratic Transition Assessment. MMD. Lusaka, Zambia.
Mozaffar, S. and J. R. Scarritt (2005). “The Puzzle of African Party Systems.” Party Politics 11(4): 399–421.
Mozaffar, Shaheen, James R. Scarrit and Glen Galaich (2003). “Electoral Institutions, Ethnopolitical Cleavages, and Party Systems in Africa's Emerging Democracies.” American Political Science Review 97: 379–390.
Muunga, A. (2006). Consultant, Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy (IMD). Author Interview. Lusaka, Zambia.
Mwanakatwe, John M. (1994). End of Kaunda Era. Lusaka, Zambia: Multimedia Zambia.
Mwanakatwe, John M. (2003). John M. Mwanakatwe: Teacher, Politician, Lawyer: My Autobiography. Lusaka, Zambia: Bookworld Publishers.
Narli, N. (1999). “The Rise of the Islamist Movement in Turkey.” Middle East Review of International Affairs 3(3).
National Commission for Democracy (Ghana) Annual report. Blue Book Report. Accra, Ghana, PNDC Internal Report. National Commission for Democracy.
National Commission for Democracy (Ghana) and Provisional National Defense Council (Ghana) (1991). Evolving a True Democracy: Summary of NCD's Work towards the Establishment of a New Democratic Order: Report Presented to the PNDC. Accra, Republic of Ghana: National Commission for Democracy.
National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI) and Foundation for Democratic Process (FODEP) (2003). The State of Political Parties in Zambia: Final Report. Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy (IMD). Lusaka, Zambia.
National Electoral Commission (CENA) (2003). Fiche Recapitulative des Suffrages Obtenus par Parti ou Alliance aux Elections Legislative de 2003. Porto-Novo, Benin, CENA.
Ndegbure, M. (2006). PNC Member of Parliament. Author Interview. Accra, Ghana.
Negri, J. B. (2005). Constituency Representative, PDS. Author Interview. Podor, Senegal.
New Patriotic Party (Ghana) (1993). The Stolen Verdict: Ghana, November 1992 Presidential Election: Report of the New Patriotic Party. Accra, Ghana: The Party.
Ninsin, K. A. (1991). The Informal Sector in Ghana's Political Economy. Accra, Ghana: Freedom Publications.
Ninsin, K. A. (1996). Ghana's Political Transition, 1990–1993: Selected Documents. Accra, Ghana: Freedom Publications.
Ninsin, K. A. (1998). Civic Associations and the Transition to Democracy. In Ghana: Transition to Democracy. Codesria Book Seriesed. K. A. Ninsin, 42–71. Dakar, Senegal: Codesria.
Ninsin, K. A. (2006). Professor of Political Science, University of Ghana, Legon. Author Interview. Legon, Ghana.
Ninsin, K. A. and Codesria. (1998). Ghana: Transition to Democracy. Dakar, Senegal: Codesria.
Ninsin, K. A. and F. K. Drah (1987). The Search for Democracy in Ghana: A Case Study of Political Instability in Africa. Accra, Ghana: Asempa Publishers.
Ninsin, K. A. and F. K. Drah (1991). Ghana's Transition to Constitutional Rule: Proceedings of a Seminar Organised by the Department of Political Science, University of Ghana, Legon. Accra: Ghana Universities Press.
Ninsin, K. A., and F. K. Drah (1993). Political Parties and Democracy in Ghana's Fourth Republic: Proceedings of a Seminar Organized by the Department of Political Science, University of Ghana, Legon on 2nd and 3rd July, 1992. Accra, Ghana: Woeli Publishing Services.
Niyrenda, C. U., S. U. Mumba et al. (1991). Party Memorandum to All Chairman of the Provinces on Sept. 19, 1991. Re: Delinking of the UNIP from the Government. Report of the Committee on the Proposed Political and Staff Structure for Party Headquarters, Provincial District Offices, Future Status of Party Institutions and surrender of Seconded Staff. Lusaka, Zambia.
Nohlen, D., M. Krennerich, and B. Thibaut. (1999). Elections in Africa: A Data Handbook. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
Nooruddin, I. and P. Chhibber (2008). “Unstable Politics – Fiscal Space and Electoral Volatility in the Indian States.” Comparative Political Studies 41(8): 1069–1091.
Noudjenoume, P. (1999). La Démocratie au Bénin, 1988–1993: Bilans et Perspectives. Paris: L’Harmattan.
O’Brien, D. B. C. (2006). “Between Kinship and Politics: Development and Clientelism in the Senegal Delta.” Africa 76(2): 278–279.
O’Donnell, G., P. Schmitter, and L. Whitehead. (1986). Transitions from Authoritarian Rule. Comparative perspectives. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Obeng, P. (2006). Former Presidential Advisor on Governmental Affairs. Author Interview. Accra, Ghana.
Ollawa, P. E. (1979). Participatory Democracy in Zambia: The Political Economy of National Development. Ilfracombe: Stockwell.
Olson, D. M. (1993). “Political Parties and Party Systems in Regime Transformation: Inner Transition in the New Democracies of Central Europe.” American Review of Politics 14: 619–658.
Opoku, N. K. (2006). General Secretary of the National Reform Party; NGO Coordinator of the Civic Response. Author Interview. Accra, Ghana.
Oquaye, M. (1980). Politics in Ghana, 1972–1979. Christiansborg, Accra: Tornado Publications.
Oquaye, M. (2004). Politics in Ghana, 1982–1992: Rawlings, Revolution, and Populist Democracy. Osu, Accra, Ghana: Tornado Publications.
Oquaye, M. (2006). Founding member of NPP and Minister of Energy. Author Interview. Accra, Ghana.
Osho, P. (2005). PRPB Bureau Politique; Minister of State and Charged with National Defense. Author Interview. Cotonou, Benin.
Owusu, Mawell (1996). “Tradition and Transformation: Democracy and the Politics of Popular Power in GhanaThe Journal of Modern African Studies 34(2): 307–343.
Panebianco, A. (1988). Political Parties: Organization and Power. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Parti Démocratique Sénégalais. “Statuts & Reglements” from www.sopionline.com/.
Parti Socialiste. “Statuts & Reglements” from http://www.partisocialiste.sn/ps_structures/statregl.htm.
Pathe Gueye, S. (2005). Founding member of Parti de l'indépendance et du travail (PIT). Author Interview. Dakar.
Payne, M., D. Zovatto, and M. Mateo Diaz (2007). Democracies in Development: Politics and Reform in Latin America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Perez-Diaz, Victor (1993). The Return of Civil Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Pinkney, R. (1997). Democracy and Dictatorship in Ghana and Tanzania. New York: St. Martin's Press.
PNDC (1991). Government's Statement on the NCD Report on Evolvin a True Democracy. Accra May 1991. Document 13. Ghana's Transition to Constitutional Rule: Proceedings of a Seminar Organised by the Department of Political Science, University of Ghana, Legon, eds. K. A. Ninsin and F. K. Drah. Accra: Ghana Universities Press.
PNDC (1992). PNDCL 281: Political Parties Law 1992. Accra, Ghana.
Posner, D. N. (2004). “Measuring Ethnic Fractionalization in Africa.” American Journal of Political Science 48(4): 849–863.
Posner, D. N. (2004). “The Political Salience of Cultural Difference: Why Chewas and Tumbukas are Allies in Zambia and Adversaries in Malawi.” American Political Science Review 98(4): 529–545.
Posner, D. N. (2005). Institutions and Ethnic Politics in Africa. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Powell, Eleanor and Joshua Tucker (2013). Revisiting Electoral Volatility in Post-Communist Countries: New Data, New Results and New Approaches. British Journal of Political Science.
Pratt, K. (2006). CPP Secretary General and Communications Director. Founding Member of the Movement for Freedom and Justice, a democratization pressure group. Editor of the Weekly Insight. Author Interview. Accra, Ghana.
Prisma, November 1989, p. 38.
Przeworski, A. (1975). “Institutionalization of Voting Patterns, or is Mobilization Source of Decay.” American Political Science Review 69(1): 49–67.
Przeworski, A., M. Alvarez, J. A. Cheibub, and F. P. Limongi. (1996). “What Makes Democracies Endure?Journal of Democracy 7(1): 39–55.
Przeworski, A. and F. Limongi (1997). “Modernization – Theories and Facts.” World Politics 49(2): 155–183.
Queino, D. (2005). RB Village Representative. Author Interview. Parakou, Benin.
Rae, D. W. (1971). The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Rakner, L. and Lars Svåsand (2004). “From Dominant to Competitive Party System: The Zambian Experience, 1991–2001.” Party Politics 10(1): 49–68.
Rakner, L. (2003). Political and Economic Liberalisation in Zambia, 1991–2001. Uppsala, Sweden; Somerset, NJ: Nordic Africa Institute; Distributor in North America, Transaction Publishers.
Randall, V. and L. Svasand (2002). “Party Institutionalization in New Democracies.” Party Politics 8(1): 5–29.
Rawlings, J. J. (1983). A Revolutionary Journey: Selected Speeches of Flt. Lt. J.J. Rawlings, Chairman of the Provisional National Defence Council. Accra, Ghana: Information Services Dept.
Rawlings, J. J. (1996). Address by the Chairman of the PNDC, Flt. Lt. Jerry John Rawlings, at the Opening Session of the Seminar for Presiding Members and Assemblymen and Women, District Secretaries, CDRs, etc, Organized by the NCD at Sunyani on Thursday, 5 July 1990. In Ghana's political transition, 1990–1993: selected documents, ed. K. A. Ninsin. 177. Accra, Ghana: Freedom Publications.
Remmer, K. L. (1993). “The Political-Economy of Elections in Latin-America, 1980–1991.” American Political Science Review 87(2): 393–407.
Republique Du Benin, L. H. C. d. l. R. (1990). Charte des Partis Politiques.
Roberts, K. M. and E. Wibbels (1999). “Party Systems and Electoral Volatility in Latin America: A Test of Economic, Institutional, and Structural Explanations.” American Political Science Review 93(3): 575–590.
Roeder, P. G. (2001). “Ethnolinguistic Fractionalization (ELF) Indices, 1961 and 1985.” <http://weber.ucsd.edu/~proeder/elf.htm>.
Ross, M. L. (2001). “Does Oil Hinder Democracy?World Politics 53(3): 325–361.
Sakala, M. (July 2006). Director, Registrar of Societies. Author Interview. Lusaka, Zambia.
Salam, A. (2006). NDC Constituency Representative. Author Interview. Tamale, Ghana.
Salih, M. A. R. M. (2003). African Political Parties: Evolution, Institutionalism and Governance. London; Sterling, VA: Pluto Press.
Salih, M. and P. Nordlund (2007). Political Parties in Africa; Challenges for Sustained Multiparty Democracy. Sweden: International Institute of Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA).
Sartori, G. (1976). Parties and Party Systems: A Framework for Analysis. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Schelling, Thomas (1960). The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Schraeder, P. J. (1994). “Elites as Facilitators or Impediments to Political-Development – Some Lessons from the ‘Third Wave’ of Democratization in AfricaJournal of Developing Areas 29(1): 69–89.
Scott, I. (1980). Party and Administration under the One Party State. In Administration in Zambia, ed. W. Tordoff. 306Manchester; Madison, WI: Manchester University Press; University of Wisconsin Press.
Tidjani, Serpos (2006). PRD Party Spokesperson and MP. Author Interview. Cotonou, Benin.
Sichinga, B. (2006). UPND Member of Parliament from Isoka East (NE). Author Interview. Lusaka, Zambia.
Sidel, J. T. (1999). Capital, Coercion, and Crime: Bossism in the Philippines. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Sikk, A. (2008). Party Systems in the Baltic States: Reflections on Systemness and Cleavages. Presented at The Baltic States in the 21st Century – Democracy, Integration and Identities, University of Fribourg.
Simmance, A. J. F. Z. (1973). Urbanization in Zambia. An International Urbanization Survey Report to the Ford Foundation.
Simutanyi, N. R. (2006). Institute of Economic and Social Research, University of Zambia. Author Interview. Lusaka, Zambia.
Simutanyi, N. R. and N. Mate (2006). One Party Dominance and Democracy in Zambia. Maputo, Mozambique, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.
Simutanyi, N. R., Zambia Democratic Governance Project at the University of Zambia, (1997). The Tendency towards One-Party Dominance: Democratic Struggles and the Electoral Process in Zambia. Lusaka, Zambia: Institute of Economic and Social Research.
Slater, Dan (2010). Ordering Power: Contentious Politics and Authoritarian Leviathans in Southeast Asia. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Slater, Dan and Erica Simmons (2013). “Coping by Colluding: Political Uncertainty and Promiscuous Powersharing in Indonesia and BoliviaComparative Political Studies. 46 (11).
Slater, D. and J. Wong (2013). “The Strength to Concede: Ruling Parties and Democratization in Developmental AsiaPerspectives on Politics 11:3.
Snyder, J. L. (2000). From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict. New York: Norton.
Sogbedji, E. (2005). PSD Constituency Secretary. Author Interview. Djakotomey, Benin (Mono/Couffo Region).
Soglo, N. (2005). Former President of Benin and Mayor of Cotonou. Author Interview. Cotonou, Benin.
Soifer, Hillel (2012). “The Causal Logic of Critical Junctures.”Comparative Political Studies.
Souty TourePS (August 2005). Mayor of Tambacounda, Senegal. Author Interview. Dakar, Senegal.
SteffensenJ. and S. Trollegaard (2003). “Fiscal Decentralization and Sub-National Finance in Relation to Service Provision, Synthesis Report of six Sub-Saharan African Country Studies: Senegal.” DANIDA/ World Bank.
Stepan, Alfred (2001). Arguing Comparative Politics. Pp. 73–99. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stokes, Susan (2006). Do Informal Rules Make Democracy Work? Accounting for Accountability in Argentina. In Informal Institutions and Democracy: Lessons from Latin America. Gretchen Helmke and Steven Levitsky, eds. Pp. 125–141. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins Press.
Stokes, Susan (2007). “Political Clientelism.” In Carles Boix and Susan C. Stokes, eds., Oxford University Press Handbook of Comparative Politics, pp. 604–627.
Sud Quotidien. Election Results. Dakar Senegal.
Taagepera, R. and Shugart, M. S. (1989). Seats and Votes: The Effects and Determinants of Electoral Systems. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Tavits, M. (2005). “The Development of Stable Party Support: Electoral Dynamics in Post-Communist Europe.” American Journal of Political Science 49(2): 283–298.
Tetteh, F. (2000). Political Party Organization in Ghana. Accra, Ghana: E. C. Research aNd Methodology Department.
Thiam, L. (2005). PDS Responsable du parti. Author Interview. Dakar, Senegal.
Tudor, M. (2013). The Promise of Power: The Origins of Democracy in India and Autocracy in Pakistan. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Umar, A. (2006). NDC Constituency Representative. Author Interview. Tamale, Ghana.
UNDP (2005). Projet de Renforcement des Capacites Institutionelles des Partis Politiques. December 7, 2005. Cotonou, Benin.
United Nations Development Programme (Zambia) (1997). Zambia Human Development Report. Lusaka, Zambia, United Nations Development Programme.
Van de Walle, N. (2001). African Economies and the Politics of Permanent Crisis, 1979–1999. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
van de Walle, N. (2003). “Presidentialism and Clientelism in Africa's Emerging Party Systems.” Journal of Modern African Studies 41, 2: 297–321.
Vengroff, R. and L. Creevey (1997). Senegal: The Evolution of a Quasi-Democracy. In Political Reform in Francophone Africa, eds. J. F. Clark and D. E. Gardinier, 204–222. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Vengroff, R. and M. Magala (2001). “Democratic Reform, Transition and Consolidation: Evidence from Senegal's 2000 Presidential Election.” Journal of Modern African Studies 39(1): 129–162.
Villalón, Leonardo (1995). Islamic Society and State Power in Senegal. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Villalón, Leonardo A. and Ousmane Kane (1998). “Senegal: The Crisis of Democracy and the Emergence of an Islamic Opposition.” In The African State at a Critical Juncture: Between Disintegration and Reconfiguration, ed. Leonardo A. Villalón and Phillip A. Huxtable. Pp. 143–166. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Vilon-Guezo, R. (2005). Former President of the Assemblee Nationale Revolutionaire; Vice President de la Grande Chancellerie. (PRPB Bureau Politique). Author Interview. Cotonou, Benin.
Weber, M. (1968). Economy and Society; An Outline of Interpretive Sociology. New York: Bedminster Press.
Weiner, M. (1989). The Indian Paradox: essays in Indian politics. Sage Publications.
White, Gordon (1994). “Civil Society, Democratization, and Development.” Democratization Vol. 1, No. 3: 375–390.
Widner, J. (1994). Political Reform in Anglophone and Francophone African Countries. In Economic Change and Political Liberalization in Sub-Saharan Africa, ed. Jennifer Widner49–79. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Wilkinson, S. (2006). Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots in India. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Wilkinson, S. (2008). How Colonial Legacies of Party Competition Affect Post-Independence Levels of Democracy. American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Boston, MA.
World Bank International Economics Dept. Development Data Group. (1989). World Development Report 1989. New York: O. U. Press.
World Bank International Economics Dept. Development Data Group. (1991). World Development Report 1991: The Challenge of Development. New York: O. U. Press.
World Bank and World Bank International Economics Dept. Development Data Group. (2007). World Development Indicators. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Wunsch, James and Dele Olowu (1990). The Failure of the Centralized State. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Yashar, D. J. (1997). Demanding Democracy: Reform and Reaction in Costa Rica and Guatemala, 1870s–1950s. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Youm, P. (1991). The Economy since Independence. In The Political Economy of Senegal under Structural Adjustment. SAIS studies on Africa, eds. C. L. Delgado and S. C. Jammeh, 219. New York: Praeger.
Young, C. (1976). The Politics of Cultural Pluralism. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Young, C. (1994). The African Colonial State in Comparative Perspective. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Young, C. (2012). The Postcolonial State in Africa: Fifty Years of Independence, 1960–2010. University of Wisconsin Press.
Young, C. and B. Kante (1992). Governance, Democracy and the 1988 Senegalese Elections. In Governance and Politics in Africa, eds G. Hydén and M. Bratton, 329. Boulder, CO: L. Rienner Publishers.
Zolberg, A. R. (1966). Creating Political Order; The Party-States of West Africa. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
Zuccarelli, F. (1970). Un Parti Politique Africain: l’Union Progressiste Sénégalaise. Paris: Librairie Générale de Droit et de Jurisprudence.
Zulu, G. (2006). Former Secretary General of UNIP (Vice President of Zambia). Author Interview. Lusaka, Zambia.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed