Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 1984
  • Online publication date: March 2008

13 - The Diaspora

from THE PERSIAN PERIOD
Summary
The Persian period in Babylonia's history is exceptional for its wealth of written source material, mainly thousands of domestic, administrative and private legal documents. The official language of the Persian civil service in Babylonia ever since Cyrus II was Aramaic. Under Darius I it was used for communication between government departments throughout the Persian state. During the Achemenid period regular trading relations were established between Babylonia and its neighbouring countries. In point of fact, the question of Jewish self-government in Persian Babylonia is difficult. The new attitude of the Babylonian Diaspora became paradigmatic. From everywhere, the Diaspora turned to Zion and to Zion alone. Towards the end of the reign of Darius I there seems to have been a slackening of Persian control over the Egyptian colony, probably because of the Persian engagement with the Greeks, who had successfully resisted the great king at Marathon.
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Cambridge History of Judaism
  • Online ISBN: 9781139055116
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521218801
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
Aimé-Giron, N.Textes araméens d'Egypte. Cairo, 1931.
Albright, W. F.Archaeology and the Religion of Israel. 4th edn. Baltimore, 1956.
Allrik, H. L. , ‘The Lists of Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 7 and Ezra 2) and the Hebrew Numeral-Notation’, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 136 (1954)
Anneler, H.Zur Geschichte der Juden von Elephantine. Bern, 1912.
Augapfel, J.Babylonische Rechtsurkunden. Denkschriften der Wiener Akademie, 59, 3 (1917).
Avigad, N.Seals of the Exiles’, Israel Exploration Journal, 15 (1965).
Bauer, P. C., Rostovtzeff, M. I. and Bellinger, A. R. , The Excavations at Dura-Europas (New Haven, 1933).
Berger, A.Ricerche giuridiche sui papiri aramaici di Elefantina. Rome, 1965.
Bernand, A. and Masson,, O. , ‘Les inscriptions grecques d'Abou-Simbel’, Revue des etudes grecques, 70 (1957).
Bickerman, E. J.Chronology of the Ancient World. London–Ithaca, 1968; 2nd edn. 1979.
Bogaert, R. , Les Origines antiques de la banque de dépôt (Leiden, 1966).
Böhl, F. M. T. , Assyrische en Nieuw-Baby Ionische oorkonden (Amsterdam, 1936), no. 878.
Böhl, F. M. Th. de Liagre. ‘Die babylonischen Prätendenten zur Zeit Xerxes’, Bibliotheca orientalis, vol. 19 (1962).
Borger, R.Anath-Bethel’, Vetus Testamentum, 7 (1957).
Borger, R. , Handbuch der Keilschrift-literatur (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1967).
Botti, G. and Romanelli, P. , Le sculture del Museo Gregoriano greco-egizio (Vatican City, 1951), pl. 28.
Breasted, J. H. , Ancient Records of Egypt. Historical Documents from the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest (Chicago, 1906), vol. 4
Bresciani, E.La morte di Cambise ovvero del’empietà purita: a proposito della “Cronaca demotica”’ verso, Col. C. 7–8, in EVO, 4 (1981).
Bresciani, E.La satrapia d'Egitto’, Studi classici e orientali, 7 (1958).
Bresciani, E.Papiri aramaici egiziani di epoca persiana presso il Museo Civico di Padova’, Rivista degli studi orientali, 35 (1960).
Bresciani, E. and Kamil, M.Le lettere aramaiche di Hermopoli’, Atti Accademia Nazionale Lincei (1966), Memorie, ser. 8, vol. 12, fasc. 5. Rome, 1966.
Bresciani, E. and Kamil, M.Le lettere aramaiche di Hermopoli,’ Atti della Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Classe di Scienze Morale, Memorie, ser. VIII, 12/5 (1966), plus 10 plates.
Bresciani, E. and Kamil, M.Le lettere aramaiche de Hermopoli. Rome, 1966. Most recent bibliography in Porten, B. and Greenfield, J. C. , ‘Hermopolis Letter 6’, Israel Oriental Studies, 4 (1974).
Bright, J.A History of Israel. 2nd edn. Philadelphia/London, 1972.
Butler, H. C. , Syria: Geography and Itinerary (Leiden, 1930), I.
Cardascia, G. , Les Archives des Murašû (Paris, 1951).
Cardascia, G.Le fief dans la Babylonie Achéménide’, Recueils de la Société Jean Bodin, vol. 1: Les Liens de Vassalité. Brussels, 1958.
Cassuto, U.The Gods of the Jews of Elephantine’, Biblical and Oriental Studies, 2, (Jerusalem, 1975).
Clay, A. T.The University of Pennsylvania, The Museum, Publication of the Babylonian Section 2,1 (Philadelphia, 1912).
Coogan, M. D.West-Semitic Personal Names in the Murašu documents. Missoula, 1974.
Cooney, J. D. , ‘The Portrait of an Egyptian Collaborator’, Bulletin of The Brooklyn Museum, 15 (1953).
Cowley, A. E.Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century B.C.Oxford, 1923, and in Starkey, J. L. and Lankester Harding, G. , Beth-PeJet II. London, 1932.
Cowley, A. E.Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century B.C.Oxford, 1923.
Daiches, S.The Jews in Babylonia in the Time of Ezra and Nehemiah according to Babylonian Inscriptions, Jews’ College Publications, no. 2. London, 1910.
Dandamayev, M. A.Connections between Elam and Babylonia in the Achaemenid Period’, in The Memorial Volume of the Vth International Congress of Iranian Art and Archaeology, vol. 1. Tehran, 1972.
Dandamayev, M. A.Politische und wirtschaftliche Geschichte’, Historia, Einzelschriften, Part 18: Beiträge zur Achämenidengeschichte. Wiesbaden, 1972.
Dandamayev, M.Egyptian Settlers in Babylonia’, in Drevnii Egipet in drevniaia Afrika. Volume in honour of Struve, V. V. , 15–27 (in Russian). Moscow, 1967.
Diakonov, I. M. , ‘Estates of Persian Grandees’, Vestnik Drevnei Istorii, no. 4, (1959)
Driver, G. R.Aramaic Documents of the Fifth Century B.C.Oxford, 1954; abr. and rev. 1957.
Dubberstein, W. H.Comparative Prices in Later Babylonia’, American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literature, 56 (1939).
Dupont-Sommer, A.L'ostracon araméen du Sabbat’, Semitica, 2 (1949).
Dupont-Sommer, A.La stèle trilingue récemment découverte au Lêtôon de Xanthos: le texte araméen’, Comptes rendus de l’Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres (1974).
Dupont-Sommer, A.Un ostracon aram´een inéedit’, in Hebrew and Semitic Studies Presented to Godfrey Rolles Driver, ed. Thomas, D. W. and McHardy, W. D. . Oxford, 1963.
Duval, R. , ‘Histoire politique, religieuse et littéraire d'Edesse jusqu'à la premiére croisade’, Journal Asiatique, 8th Series, 18 (1891)
Ebeling, E.Aus dem Leben der jüdischen Exulanten in Babylonien. Babylonische Quellen’, Wissenschaftliche Beilage zum Jahresbericht des Humboldt-Gjmnasiums. Berlin, 1914.
Ebeling, E. , ‘Aus dem Leben der juedischen Exulanten in Babylonien’, 39 Bericht des Humboldt-Gymnasium zu Berlin Ostern 1914.
Ehrlich, E. L. , ‘Der Aufenthalt des Königs Manasse in Babylon’, Theologische Zeitschrift, 21 (1965).
Eilers, W.Iranische Beamtennamen in der Keilschriflichen überlieferung in Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, 25. Leipzig, 1940.
Eilers, W.Iranische Beamtennamen in der keilschriftlichen überlieferung. Part 1. Leipzig, 1940.
Elgood, P. G.Later Dynasties of Egypt. Oxford, 1951.
Erichsen, W. , ‘Erwägung eines Zuges nach Nubien unter Amasis in einem demotischen Text’, Klio, 34 (1941).
Finkelstein, J. J. , ‘On Some Recent Studies in Cuneiform Laws’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 90 (1970).
Gadd, C. J. , ‘The Harran Inscriptions’, Anatolian Studies, 8 (1958).
Glanville, S. R. K. , The Instructions of Onchsheshonqy (London, 1955).
Goedicke, H. and Albright, W. F. , ‘The End of “So, King of Egypt”’, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 171 (1963).
Gordon, C. H. , ‘The Origin of the Jews in Elephantine’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 14 (1955).
Grdseloff, B. , Les débuts du culte de Rechef en Egypte (Cairo, 1942).
Greenfield, J. C.A New Corpus of Aramaic Texts of the Achaemenid Period from Egypt’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 96 (1976).
Grelot, P.Documents araméens d'Egypte. Paris, 1972.
Griffith, F. LI. , Catalogue of the Demotic Papyri in the John Rylands Library, III (1909).
Gry, L.Israelites en Assyrie, Juifs en Babylonie’, Le Muséon, 35 (1922); 36 (1923).
Hallo, W. W. , ‘Gutium’, Reallexikon der Assyriologie und vorderasiatischen Archäologie, 3 (1971).
Hilprecht, H. V. and Clay, A. T.The Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania, 9 (Philadelphia, 1898) and 10 (Philadelphia, 1904)
Honroth, W., Rubersohn, O. and Zucker, F. , ‘Bericht uber die Ausgrabungen auf Elephantine in den Jahren 1906–1908’, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie, 46 (1909-10).
Hoonacker, A. . Une communautéjudéo-araméenne à Éléphantine, en Égypte, aux vie et ve siècles av. J.-C, The Schweich Lectures, 1914. London, 1915.
Johns, C. H. W. , Assyrian Doomsday Book (Leipzig, 1901).
Johnson, J. H. , ‘The demotic Chronicle as an historical Source’, Enchoria, 4 (1974).
K. S., Freedy and Redford, D. B. , ‘The Dates in Ezekiel’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 90 (1970).
Kienitz, F. K.Diepolitische Geschichte Ägyptens vom 7 bis zum 4 Jahrhundert vor der Zeitwende. Berlin, 1953.
Klamroth, E. , ‘Die juedischen Exulanten in Babylonien’, Beihefte zur Zeitschriftfuer die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, no. 10 (1912).
Kohler, J. and Ungnad, A.Hundert ausgewaehlte Urkunden aus der Spaetezeit des babylonischen Schrifttums. Leipzig, 1911.
Korngrun, P. , Jewish Military Colonies in Ancient Times (Tel Aviv, 1948; in Hebrew).
Kraeling, E. G.The Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri: New Documents of the Fifth Century B.C. from the Jewish Colony at Elephantine. New Haven, 1953.
Kraeling, E. G.The Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri. New Haven, 1953.
Kraeling, E.The Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri. New Documents of the Fifth Century B.C. from the Jewish Colony at Elephantine. New Haven, 1953.
Landsberger, B. , ‘Brief des Bischofs von Esagila an Koenig Esarhaddon’, Mededeelingen of the Netherlands Academy, N.R. 28, no. 6 (1955).
Lee Oppenheim, A. , ‘A New Cambyses Incident’, in A Survey of Persian Art, vol. 15 (1974).
Lieberman, S. , Hellenism in Jewish Palestine (New York, 1950).
Maclaurin, E. C. B. , ‘Date of the Foundation of the Jewish Colony at Elephantine’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 27 (1968).
Malinine, M. , ‘Un jugement rendu à Thébes sous la XXVe dynastie’, Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche, 6 (1951), n. 1.
Mark, V. , ‘Die Stellung der Frau in Babylonien’, Beiträge zur Assyrologie 4, (1902), II.
Marshak, J. , Die Restoration der Juden nach dem Babyloniscben Exit (dissertation, Bern 1908)
Mendelsohn, I. , Slavery in the Ancient Near East (New York 1949).
Meyer, E.Der Papyrusfund von Elephantine. Leipzig, 1912.
Meyer, Ed.Der Papyrusfund von Elephantine. 2nd edn. Leipzig, 1912.
Michel, H. , The Economics of Ancient Greece (2nd edn.; New York, 1957)
Milgrom, J. , ‘The Date of Jeremiah Chapter 2’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 14 (1955).
Montgomery, J. A. , A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Kings, ICC (New York, 1951).
Muffs, Y. , Studies in the Aramaic Legal Papyri from Elephantine (Leiden, 1968)
Muffs, Y.Studies in the Aramaic Legal Papyri from Elephantine. Leiden, 1969.
Muffs, Y.Studies in the Aramaic Legal Papyri from Elephantine. New York, 1969.
Muffs, Y.Studies in the Aramaic Legal Papyri from Elephantine. Studia et Documenta ad Iura orientis antiqui pertinentia, viii. Leiden, 1969.
Nau, F. , ‘Juifs et Samaritains à Éléphantine’, Journal Asiatique, 10th series, 18 (1911)
Naveh, J.The Development of the Aramaic Script. Proceedings of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, v/i. Jerusalem, 1970.
Neugebauer, O. , The Exact Sciences in Antiquity (Providence, 1967), chs. 2 and 5.
Olmstead, A. T.History of the Persian Empire. Chicago, 1948.
Oppenheim, A. L. , ‘Essay on Overland Trade in the First Millenium B.C.’, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 21 (1969).
Oppenheim, A. L. , ‘Siege Documents from Nippur’, Iraq, 17 (1955)
Paul, S. , ‘Sargon's Administrative Diction’, Journal of Biblical Literature, 88 (1969).
Peters, N. , Die jüdische Gemeinde von Elephantine-Syene und ihr Tempel (Freiburg i.B., 1912)
Petschow, H.Neubabylonisches Pfandrecht’, Ahhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, Philol.-hist. Klasse, vol. 48, part 1, 1956.
Porten, B.Aramaiç Papyri and Parchments: A New Look’, Biblical Archaeologist, 42 (1979).
Porten, B.Structure and Chiasm in Aramaic Contracts and letters’, in Welch, J. W. , ed., Chiasm in Antiquity. Hildesheim, 1981.
Porten, B.Archives from Elephantine: The Life of an Ancient Jewish Military Colony. Berkeley, 1968.
Porten, B.Archives from Elephantine. Berkeley–Los Angeles, 1968.
Porten, B. and Greenfield, J. C.Jews of Elephantine, Aramaeans of Syene: 50 Aramaic Texts from Egypt. Jerusalem, 1974.
Porten, B. in collaboration with Greenfield, J. C.Jews of Elephantine and Arameans of Syene (Fifth Century B. C.E.): Fifty Aramaic Texts with Hebrew and English Translations. Jerusalem, 1974.
Posener, G.La premïère domination perse en Egypte. Cairo, 1936.
Prentice, W. K. , Syria: Greek and Latin Inscriptions, Northern Syria (Leiden, 1907).
Rabinowitz, I.Aramaic Inscriptions of the Fifth Century B.C.E. from a North-Arab Shrine in Egypt’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 15 (1956).
Redford, Freedy and, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 90 (1970)
Reich, N. , ‘The codification of the Egyptian Laws by Darius and the origin of the “Demotic Chronicle”’, in Mitzraim, I (1933)
Rosenthal, F. (ed.). An Aramaic Handbook I.i. Porta Linguarum Orientalium, N.S. 10. Wiesbaden, 1967.
Sachau, Ed.Aramäischen Papyrus und Ostraka aus einer jüdischen Militär-Kolonie zu Elephantine. 2 vols, texts and plates. Leipzig, 1911.
Saggs, H. W. F. , The Greatness that was Babylon (New York and Toronto, 1968).
San Nicolò, M.Beiträge zu einer Prosopographie neubabylonischer Beamten der Zivil- und Tempelverwaltung’, Sitzungsberichte der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philos.-hist. Abt., 1941.
San Nicolò, M. , ‘Beiträge zu einer Prosopographie neubabylonischer Beamten der Zivil- und Tempelverwaltung’, Sitzungsberichte der Bayeriscben Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philos. hist. Abteilung (1941).
San Nicolò, M. , ‘Der neubabylonische Lehrvertrag in rechtsvergleichender Betrachtung’, Sitzungsberichte der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philos. hist. Klasse (1950), part 3.
Sarkisyan, G. Ch. , ‘The Self-governing City of Seleucid Babylonia’, Vestnik Drevnei Istorii, 1 (1952)
Sauneron, S. and Yoyotte, J. , ‘La campagne nubienne de Psammetique II et sa signification historique’, Bulletin de P institut français d'archéologie orientale, 50 (1952)
Sayce, A. H. and Cowley, A. E.Aramaic Papyri discovered at Assuan, with appendices by Spiegelberg, W. and Ricci, Seymour . London, 1906.
Seidl, E. , Aegyptische Rechtsgeschichte der Saiten und Perserzeit (Glückstadt, N.Y., 1956).
Sidersky, D. , ‘L'onomastique hébraique des tablettes de Nippur’, Revue des études juives, 87 (1929).
Slouschz, N. , Thesaurus of Phoenician Inscriptions (Tel Aviv, 1942), nos. 53-4 (Hebrew).
Smith, Morton , Palestinian Parties and Politics that Shaped the Old Testament (Columbia University Press, 1971).
Smith, S.Isaiah Chapters XL-LV. Literary Criticism and History. London, 1944.
Spiegelberg, W. , Die demotischen Papyri Loeb (Munich, 1931).
Stolper, M. W. , Management and Politics in Later Achaemenid Babylonia. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1974.
Strassmaier, J. N. , Inschriften von Cambyses, König von Babylon (Leipzig, 1890), no. 85.
Unger, E.Babylon. Die heilige Stadt nach der Beschreibung der Babylonier. Berlin, 1970.
Ungnad, A.Aramäische Papyrus aus Elephantine. Leipzig, 1911.
van Gelderen, C. , ‘Samaritaner und Juden in Elephantine-Syene’, Orientalische Literaturzeitung, 15 (1912)
Verger, A.Kicerche giuridiche sui papiri aramaici di Elefantina. Università di Roma, Centro di Studi Semitici, 16. Rome, 1965.
Vincent, A.La Religion des judéo-arameens d’ Eléphantine. Paris, 1937.
Volterra, E. , ‘yhwdy and rmy nei papiri aramaici del V secolo provenienti dall' Egitto’, Rendiconti Accademia Nazionale de Eincei, Classe di Scienze morali, Ser. 8, 18 (1963).
Volterra, E. , ‘Intorno a Pap. Ent. 23’, Journal of Juristic Papjrology, 15 (1965).
W., Röllig , ‘Griechen’, Reallexikon der Assyriologie und vorderasiatischen Archäologie, vol. 3, part 9 (1971).
Wagenaar, C. G.Dejoodsche Kolonie van Jeb-Syene in de5de Eeuw voor Christus. Gröningen, 1928.
Wallis, G. , Die soziale Situation derfuden in Babylonien zur Achaemenidenzeit (Dissertation, Free University, Berlin, 1963)
Weinfeld, M. , The Book of Deuteronomy and the Deuteronomic School (Oxford University Press, 1972).
Weisberg, D. B.Guild Structure and Political Allegiance in Early Achaemenid Mesopotamia. New Haven–London, 1967.
Welles, C. B. , Fink, R. O. and Gilliam, J. F. , The Excavations at Dura Europas; Final Report V, Part 1; The Parchment and Papyri (New Haven, 1959).
Wiseman, D. J.Some Egyptians in Babylonia’, Iraq, 28 (1966).
Wright, G. E.Shechem, The Biography of a Biblical City. New York–Toronto, 1965.
Yaron, R.Introduction to the Law of the Aramaic Papyri. Oxford, 1961.
Zadok, R. , Nippur in the Achaemenid Period. Geographical and Ethnical Aspects (The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1974).
Zadok, R. , The Jews in Babylonia in the Chaldean and Achaemenian Periods in the Light of the Babylonian Sources (Tel Aviv, 1976).
Zucker, H. , Studient zur juedischen Selbstverwaltung im Altertum (Berlin, 1936).