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The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism
  • Volume 6: The Nineteenth Century, c.1830–1914
  • Edited by M. A. R. Habib, Rutgers University, New Jersey

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    The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism
    • Volume 6: The Nineteenth Century, c.1830–1914
    • Edited by M. A. R. Habib
    • Online ISBN: 9781139018456
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139018456
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Book description

In the nineteenth century, literary criticism first developed into an autonomous, professional discipline in the universities. This volume provides a comprehensive and authoritative study of the vast field of literary criticism between 1830 and 1914. In over thirty essays written from a broad range of perspectives, international scholars examine the growth of literary criticism as an institution, and the major critical developments in diverse national traditions and in different genres, as well as the major movements of Realism, Naturalism, Symbolism and Decadence. The History offers a detailed focus on some of the era's great critical figures, such as Sainte-Beuve, Hippolyte Taine and Matthew Arnold, and includes essays devoted to the connections of literary criticism with other disciplines in science, the arts and Biblical studies. The publication of this volume marks the completion of the monumental Cambridge History of Literary Criticism from antiquity to the present day.

Reviews

'… a model of how to present sharp, original thinking without scanting the responsibility to provide a usable map … This volume provides a series of helpful starting points for exploring the range of thinking about literature that [the] extraordinary growth in critical writing helped to stimulate.'

Stefan Collini Source: Modern Philology

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Page 1 of 2


  • 6 - France: the continuing debate over Classicism
    pp 139-153
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139018456.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    By the 1830s there was a significant number of quarterly reviews, together with monthly magazines and weekly papers that offered a range of criticism on literature. Female reviewers were in a minority in the world of the quarterlies and the monthly magazines from the 1830s through to the 1850s. The distinction between reviewer and critic was one that could only have been made in the second half of the century. The gradual abandonment of anonymity in favour of signed articles in the 1860s was linked to new attitudes to criticism and to the role of the critic. The conduct of a professional literary life, the process of establishing oneself as a reviewer and earning a living by it, evolved over the period. By the end of the nineteenth century, and even more certainly by 1914, the conditions and the contexts of literary criticism had been completely transformed.
  • 7 - England: Romantic legacies
    pp 154-171
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139018456.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    English literary critics had long models from classical and modern continental literatures, and in the nineteenth century Thomas Carlyle and Matthew Arnold were only the two most prominent of many contemporary examples. The emphasis for elementary educationalists in the early nineteenth century was necessarily different. The pressing need to educate a growing urban population tended to shift pedagogical emphasis away from disinterested notions of individual development to more pragmatic ones related to social organization and economic planning. The late acceptance of the literary study of English by the ancient universities was matched by their tentativeness in embracing the teaching of modern European literature. In the two decades between the establishing of the Oxford English School and the beginning of the First World War, scholarly criticism in English was in a healthy position in universities. Literary and textual scholarships had established themselves strongly and were plainly thriving in the academic environment.
  • 8 - England: literature and culture
    pp 172-187
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139018456.011
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The critical performances of Martineau, Jameson, Fuller and Eliot, like those of de Staël and Sand, were inevitably marked by gender consciousness, because of nineteenth-century preconceptions about women as writers and intellectuals. The mid-century literary critic had an understandably complex relationship with the category of lady writer, which carried with it the expectation of difference and the assumption of inferiority. Martineau's Autobiography and Biographical Sketches are notable for their often sharp and self-serving comments on fellow writers, snapshots in a daguerreotyped age. Shakespeare was the figure who attracted the most critical attention during the Victorian period. His plays were, like novels, read aloud in domestic circles. Fuller was at her best in her longer works, which accommodated her learned, personal and often digressive style. In Woman in the Nineteenth Century, Fuller saw gender differences as both fixed and fluid.
  • 10 - Russia: literature and society
    pp 205-228
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139018456.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Critical reflection on literature became a vital part of the public culture. This chapter addresses some of the ways in which literature became not only a vehicle for the expression and circulation of nationalist ideas but also a measure of the nation. It pursues three broad areas of inquiry: first, the continuities and distinctions between contemporary nationalism studies and articulations of nationality in the history of ideas in the West; second, the development of national literary history as a synecdoche for the nation's history; third, the ways in which the failure of national literature was tied to the incomplete development or decline of the nation. The study of nationalism has largely been shaped by political science, sociology and history, and has focused on the conditions under which nationalism emerges. National literature became not merely an expression of the nation's character but also evidence of the nation's merit and even legitimacy.
  • 11 - Literary autonomy: the growth of a modern concept
    pp 231-250
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139018456.015
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Modernity took many of the traits of Classicism. There were numerous attributes that suggested traditional Classicism: restraint, simplicity, gravity, order, unity, reason, clarity, harmony, polish and precision. Mid-century critics thought Romanticism was little more than egotistic sentimentalism, while Classicism was virtually synonymous with formalism and precision. Realism raised a new set of demands, insisting on objective description of reality and scientific truth. The Classicism of Brunetière late in the nineteenth century had to do with language more than with particular models. He sought the linguistic core, devoid of idiosyncratic dialects, idioms, foreign words, provincialisms and pedantic neologisms. Jean Moréas, an expatriate Greek, was deeply involved with the Symbolists and their self-proclaimed leader. Isolated efforts that imitated the great works of Antiquity or of seventeenth-century France had little real effect in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries until they were integrated into the predominant aesthetic movements of the period.
  • 12 - Hegel's aesthetics and their influence
    pp 251-273
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139018456.016
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The revolutionary philosophy of Kant and Hegel remained largely untranslated until mid-century, and much of the writings of the German Romantics, including Novalis, the Schlegels and Schleiermacher, remained so until the twentieth century. Perhaps the most unlikely German Romantic influence on critical thought in the English-speaking world was that of Johann Gottfried Herder. The most original piece of religio-poetic theory of the first half of the century, however, came from the best-selling poet of the century, John Keble. Poetry, for Keble, was the product of tension or repression, issuing in disguised or ironic utterance. Romantic historicization was never an absolute process, nor was it commonly a path to single grand-narrative interpretations. It might have delighted at least those Romantics addicted to the Middle Ages to think that it was more like a return to the polysemous narratives of that period.
  • 13 - Marx, Engels and early Marxist criticism
    pp 274-290
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139018456.017
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter describes the authors of England, who were all literary critics. Some of them include: Thomas Carlyle, John Ruskin, Walter Pater, William Morris and George Bernard Shaw. Carlyle started as a literary critic and translator, but became a social critic and historian. German literature was little read in England, with the one exception of Goethe's Werther. Ruskin was the most highly theoretical of Victorian critics, as shown in his masterwork, Modern Painters, which established a theory of Beauty. Its appeal and influence continued well into the twentieth century. In his social and cultural criticism Ruskin emphasized the social and personal costs of industrial production, on the labourer or artisan turned into a machine, and also on the middle-class consumer. The second group of nineteenth-century critics might be seen as a second generation: Pater, Morris and Shaw were all exposed to the earlier writers in their youths.
  • 14 - Realism, Naturalism and Symbolism in France
    pp 293-312
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139018456.019
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The practice of literary criticism came to Russia in the eighteenth century as a part of the Westernizing reforms of Emperor Peter the Great and, Empress Catherine the Great. In the 1830s and 1840s, as literary criticism became a profession, literary discussion directed at a newly emerging reading public crucially contributed to a debate about national identity, which became known as the debate between the Westernizers and the Slavophiles. Westernizers such as Ivan Turgenev, the critic Vissarion Belinsky and the reformist thinker Aleksandr Herzen wanted to follow the European trajectory laid out by Peter the Great towards a Europeanized, secular culture. The account of Russian literary criticism differs from Soviet-era accounts in its vocabulary and in its greater emphasis on cultural and intellectual networks of people and ideas. Belinsky's view of literature as the bearer of enlightened social consciousness intensified throughout the 1840s, after his break with conservative Hegelianism in 1841.
  • 16 - Nineteenth-century British critics of Realism
    pp 325-330
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139018456.021
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The evolution and ideology of aesthetic autonomy through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries can be associated with religious, social and philosophical developments. With varying interests and emphases, writers namely Friedrich Schiller, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Edgar Allan Poe, Matthew Arnold, Théophile Gautier, Charles Baudelaire, Stéphane Mallarmé, Charles Algernon Swinburne, Walter Pater and Oscar Wilde derive from Immanuel Kant's philosophy the concept of organic form, of aesthetic disinterestedness, of aesthetic education, of art as subversive of instrumental knowledge, as independent from conventions of taste and as resistant to institutional and political coercion. In France, Kant's, Schiller's, Friedrich Schelling's, the Schlegels' and von Humboldt's writings on the aesthetic had been popularized by Germaine de Staël's immensely successful De l'Allemagne. Kant's subjective universality of taste, Schiller's beautiful appearance, Baudelaire's intimate correspondences, Mallarmé's supreme language, Wilde's immoral art, all seem to testify that the idea of literary autonomy can be maintained only as a contradiction.
  • 17 - American literary Realism
    pp 331-339
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139018456.022
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Hegel's philosophy in general stands at the centre of modern Western thought. Hegel's system integrates major intellectual developments, such as the various streams of Enlightenment and Romanticism, into its own formidable synthesis. Hegel sees human history as a movement of consciousness towards self-conscious freedom and rationality. Hegel's lectures on aesthetics were delivered in Berlin in 1823, 1826 and 1828-9. According to Hegel, art fulfils an important function in giving sensuous form to a concrete spiritual content, but philosophy constitutes a higher mode of representing spirit. Hegel explains that these three general forms of art, symbolic, classical and Romantic, are realized in the specific arts of architecture, sculpture, painting, music and poetry. The collision of actions in modern tragedy does not rest on conflicts extrapolated or introjected from the ethical order but is accidental, though substantive moral ends may be engaged in a contingent manner.
  • 18 - Decadence andfin de siècle
    pp 340-356
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139018456.023
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In 1971, Fredric Jameson, possibly the most influential Marxist critic of the late twentieth century, recommended 'a relatively Hegelian kind of Marxism' to the literary critical world. It is arguable that, in the twelve years remaining to him, Frederick Engels did considerably more than popularize the pre-existing conceptual and textual legacy Marx had bequeathed. It is surprising, given the fact that Marx and Engels spent most of the later parts of their lives in London, that only William Morris, in this period and from this part of the world, made a noteworthy and lasting contribution to Marxist aesthetics. Morris's plentiful writings on art and its problematics within capitalism are one indication that Marxism, even in the aesthetic field, had started to spread far beyond German borders. By the end of the century the epicentre of all Marxist debate, including that around aesthetics, was moving decisively to Russia.

Page 1 of 2


Select bibliography and further reading

Contexts and conditions of criticism 1830–1914

Primary sources

Allen, Grant, ‘The Decay of Criticism’, Fortnightly Review, 31 (1882), 339–51.
Bagehot, Walter, ‘The First Edinburgh Reviewers’ in Literary Studies, ed. R. H. Hutton, 2 vols., London: Longmans, Green, 1884, vol. i, pp. 1–40.
Lewes, G. H., ‘The Condition of Authors in England, Germany and France’, Fraser's Magazine, 35 (1847), 285–95.
Morley, John, ‘Memorials of a Man of Letters’, Fortnightly Review, 23 (1878), 596–610; rpt in Nineteenth-Century Essays, ed. Peter Stansky, University of Chicago Press, 1970, pp. 261–80.
Oakley, Frederick, ‘Periodical Literature’, Dublin Review, 34 (1853), 541–66.
Saintsbury, George, History of Nineteenth Century Literature, London: Macmillan, 1896.
Stephen, Leslie, ‘The First Edinburgh Reviewers’, Cornhill Magazine, 38 (1878); rpt in Hours in a Library, new edn, 3 vols., London: Smith, Elder, 1899, vol. iii, pp. 241–69.

Secondary sources

Brake, Laurel, Subjugated Knowledges, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1994.
Chielens, Edward (ed.), American Literary Magazines: The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, New York: Greenwood Press, 1986.
Demata, M. and Duncan Wu (eds.), British Romanticism and the Edinburgh Review, London: Palgrave, 2002.
Demoor, Marysa, Their Fair Share: Women, Power and Criticism in the Athenaeum, from Millicent Garrett Fawcett to Katherine Mansfield 1870–1920, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000.
Easley, Alexis, First Person Anonymous: Women Writers and Victorian Print Media, 1830–1870, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004.
Klancher, Jon, The Making of English Reading Audiences 1790–1832, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987.
Maurer, Oscar, ‘Anonymity vs Signature in Victorian Reviewing’, Texas Studies in English, 27 (1948), 1–28.
Parker, Mark, Literary Magazines and British Romanticism, Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Roper, Derek, Reviewing before the Edinburgh 1788–1802, Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1978.
Shattock, Joanne, ‘Spreading it Thinly: Some Victorian Reviewers at Work’, Victorian Periodicals Newsletter, 9 (1976), 84–7.
Shattock, JoannePolitics and Reviewers: The Edinburgh and the Quarterly in the Early Victorian Age, Leicester University Press, 1989.
Treglown, Jeremy and Bridget Bennett (eds.), Grub Street and the Ivory Tower, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.

Literary studies and the academy

Primary sources

Arnold, Matthew, ‘Schools in the Reign of Queen Victoria’ in The Last Word: The Complete Prose Works of Matthew Arnold, ed. R. H. Super, vol. xi, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1977.
Bradley, A. C., The Teaching of English Literature, Glasgow: James MacLehose & Sons, 1891.
Bremner, C. S., Education of Girls and Women in Great Britain, London: Swan Sonnenschein, 1897.
Chambers, R. W., The Teaching of English in the Universities of England, English Association Pamphlets, 53, [London]: English Association, 1922.
Collins, John Churton, The Study of English Literature: A Plea for Its Recognition and Organization at the Universities, London: Macmillan, 1891.
M’Cormick, William S., ‘English Literature and University Education’ in Three Lectures on English Literature, Paisley and London: Alexander Gardner, 1889.
Masson, David, British Novelists and their Styles: Being a Critical Sketch of the History of British Prose Fiction, Cambridge: Macmillan, 1859.
Morley, Henry, English Writers: An Attempt Towards a History of English Literature, 11 vols., London: Cassell, 1887.
Quiller-Couch, Arthur, On the Art of Writing, new edn, Cambridge University Press, 1923.
Raleigh, Walter, Style, London: Edward Arnold, 1897.
Raleigh, WalterThe Study of English Literature: Being the Inaugural Lecture Delivered at the University of Glasgow on Thursday, October 18th, 1900, Glasgow: James MacLehose & Sons, 1900.
Saintsbury, George, A Short History of English Literature, London: Macmillan, 1898.
Shaw, Thomas B., A History of English Literature, London: John Murray, 1864.

Secondary sources

Altick, Richard D., The English Common Reader: A Social History of the Mass Reading Public 1800–1900, University of Chicago Press, 1957.
Baldick, Chris, The Social Mission of English Criticism 1848–1932, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987.
Collini, Stefan, Public Moralists: Political Thought and Intellectual Life in Britain 1850–1930, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.
Doyle, Brian, English and Englishness, London and New York: Routledge, 2003.
Engel, A. J., From Clergyman to Don: The Rise of the Academic Professional in Nineteenth-Century Oxford, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983.
Golby, J. M. and A. W. Purdue, The Civilisation of the Crowd: Popular Culture in England 1750–1900, Stroud: Sutton, 1999.
Marriott, Stuart, Extramural Empires: Service and Self-Interest in English University Adult Education 1873–1983, University of Nottingham, 1984.
McMurtry, Jo, English Language, English Literature: The Creation of an Academic Discipline, London: Mansell, 1985.
Palmer, D. J., The Rise of English Studies: An Account of the Study of English Language and Literature from its Origins to the Making of the Oxford English School, London: University of Hull, 1965.
Potter, Stephen, The Muse in Chains: A Study in Education, London: Jonathan Cape, 1937.
Purvis, June, A History of Women's Education in England, Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1991.
Tillyard, E. M. W., The Muse Unchained: An Intimate Account of the Revolution in English Studies at Cambridge, London: Bowes & Bowes, 1958.

Women and literary criticism

Primary sources

Eliot, George, Adam Bede (1859); rpt Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1980.
Eliot, GeorgeThe George Eliot Letters, ed. Gordon Haight, 9 vols., New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1954–78.
Flaubert, Gustave and George Sand, Flaubert–Sand: The Correspondence, trans. Francis Steegmuller and Barbara Bray, New York: Knopf, 1993.
Fuller, Margaret, Papers on Literature and Art (1846); rpt New York: AMS Press, 1972.
Fuller, MargaretThe Letters of Margaret Fuller, ed. Robert Hudspeth, 6 vols., Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983–94.
Fuller, MargaretWoman in the Nineteenth Century (1845) in The Essential Margaret Fuller, ed. Jeffrey Steele, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1992, pp. 245–378.
Jameson, Anna, Winter Studies and Summer Rambles in Canada (1838), 2 vols., New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1839.
Jameson, AnnaLegends of the Madonna (1852), 4th edn, London: Longmans, Green, 1867.
Jameson, AnnaSacred and Legendary Art (1848), 2 vols; rpt New York: AMS Press, 1970.
Jameson, AnnaShakespeare's Heroines (1832), ed. and intro. Cheri Hoeckley, Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Editions, 2005.
Martineau, Harriet, Biographical Sketches, 1852–1868, 3rd edn, London: Macmillan, 1870.
Martineau, HarrietSociety in America (1837), 3 vols., rpt New York: AMS Press, 1966.
Martineau, HarrietAutobiography (1877), ed. Gaby Weiner, 2 vols., London: Virago Press, 1983.
Staël, Germaine de, Corinne, or Italy, intro. and trans. Avriel Goldberger, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1991.

Secondary sources

Adams, Kimberly VanEsveld, Our Lady of Victorian Feminism: The Madonna in the Work of Anna Jameson, Margaret Fuller, and George Eliot, Athens: Ohio University Press, 2001.
Ashton, Rosemary, George Eliot: A Life, New York: Penguin, 1996.
Auerbach, Nina, Woman and the Demon, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982.
Beer, Gillian, George Eliot, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.
Besser, Gretchen Rous, Germaine de Staël Revisited, New York: Twayne, 1994.
Chevigny, Bell Gale, The Woman and the Myth: Margaret Fuller's Life and Writings, rev. edn, Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1994.
David, Deirdre, Intellectual Women and Victorian Patriarchy: Harriet Martineau, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, and George Eliot, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1987.
Easley, Alexis, First-Person Anonymous: Women Writers and Victorian Print Media, 1830–70, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004.
Johnston, Judith, Anna Jameson: Victorian, Feminist, Woman of Letters, Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1997.
Lootens, Tricia, Lost Saints: Silence, Gender, and Victorian Literary Canonization, Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1996.
Moers, Ellen, Literary Women, New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Sanders, Valerie, Reason over Passion: Harriet Martineau and the Victorian Novel, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1986.
Thomson, Patricia, George Sand and the Victorians, New York: Columbia University Press, 1977.

Literature and nationalism

Primary sources

Channing, William Ellery, The Importance and Means of a National Literature, London: Edward Rainford, 1830.
Debreczeny, Paul and Jesse Zeldin (eds.), Literature and National Identity: Nineteenth-Century Russian Critical Essays, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1970.
Du Ponceau, Peter S., A Discourse on the Necessity and Means of Making Our National Literature Independent of that of Great Britain, Philadelphia: E. G. Dorsey, 1834.
Fox, William Johnson, Lectures Addressed Chiefly to the Working Classes, 4 vols., London: Charles Fox, 1846.
Hallam, Arthur Henry, ‘On Some of the Characteristics of Modern Poetry’ (1831) in The Broadview Anthology of Victorian Poetry and Poetic Theory, ed. Thomas J. Collins and Vivienne Rundle, Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2000, pp. 540–55.
Home, Henry (Lord Kames), Sketches of the History of Man (1774); rpt Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1968.
Mazzini, Giuseppe, ‘Europe: Its Condition and Prospects’, Westminster Review, 112 (1852), 236–50.
O’Brien, William, The Influence of the Irish Language on Irish National Literature and Character, Cork: Guy, 1892.
Renan, Ernest, Poetry of the Celtic Races and Other Studies, trans. William G. Hutchison (1896); rpt London: Kennikat Press, 1970.

Secondary sources

Anderson, Benedict, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, rev. edn, New York: Verso, 1991.
Chatterjee, Partha, Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World: A Derivative Discourse, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1986.
Gellner, Ernest, Nations and Nationalism, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983.
Lloyd, David, Nationalism and Minor Literature: James Clarence Mangan and the Emergence of Irish Cultural Nationalism, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
Resnick, David, ‘John Locke and Liberal Nationalism’, History of European Ideas, 15 (1992), 511–17.
Smith, Anthony D., ‘Neo-Classicist and Romantic Elements in the Emergence of Nationalist Conceptions’ in Nationalist Movements, ed. Anthony D. Smith, London: Macmillan, 1976, pp. 74–87.
Smith, Anthony DThe Nation in History: Historiographical Debates about Ethnicity and Nationalism, Hanover: University Press of New England, 2000.
Smith, Anthony D.Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History, Cambridge: Polity, 2001.
Trumpener, Katie, Bardic Nationalism: The Romantic Novel and the British Empire, Princeton University Press, 1997.

Germany: from restoration to consolidation: Classical and Romantic legacies

Primary sources

Börne, Ludwig, Sämtliche Schriften, eds. Inge and Peter Rippmann, Düsseldorf: Melzer, 1964–8.
Gutzkow, Karl, Gutzkows Werke. Zehnter Teil: Aufsätze zur Literaturgeschichte, ed. Reinhold Gensel (1912); rpt Hildesheim and New York: G. Olms, 1974.
Gutzkow, KarlLiberale Energie: Eine Sammlung seiner kritischen Schriften, ed. Peter Demetz, Frankfurt, Berlin and Vienna: Ullstein, 1974.
Heine, Heinrich, Works, trans. Charles Godfrey Leland, London: Heinemann; New York: D. Appleton, 1892–1906.
Heine, HeinrichSämtliche Schriften, ed. Klaus Briegleb, 6 vols., Munich: Carl Hanser, 1968–75; rpt Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag, 1997.
Herwegh, Georg, Frühe Publizistik 1837–1841, ed. Bruno Kaiser, Glashütten im Taunus: Detlev Auvermann KG, 1971.
Menzel, Wolfgang, German Literature, trans. Thomas Gordon, 4 vols., Oxford: D. A. Talboys, 1840.
Wienbarg, Ludolf, Ästhetische Feldzüge, Hamburg: Hoffman & Campe, 1834.
Wienbarg, LudolfZur neusten Literatur, 2nd edn, Hamburg: Hoffmann & Campe, 1838.

Secondary sources

Berman, Russell A., Between Fontane and Tucholsky: Literary Criticism and the Public Sphere in Imperial Germany, New York, Bern and Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 1983.
Bucher, Max, Werner Hahl, Georg Jäger and Reinhold Wittmann (eds.), Realismus und Gründerzeit: Manifeste und Dokumente zur deutschen Literatur 1848–1880, Stuttgart: Metzler, 1976.
Eisele, Ulf, Realismus und Ideologie: Zur Kritik der literarischen Theorie nach 1848 am Beispiel des ‘Deutschen Museums’, Stuttgart: Metzler, 1976.
Hohendahl, Peter Uwe (ed.), Literaturkritik: Eine Textdokumentation zur Geschichte einer literarischen Gattung. Vol. iv: 1848–1870, Vaduz: Topos, 1984.
Hohendahl, Peter Uwe(ed.), Geschichte der deutschen Literaturkritik, Stuttgart: Metzler, 1985.
Höhn, Gerhard, Heine-Handbuch: Zeit – Person – Werk, Stuttgart and Weimar: Metzler, 2004.
Kuttenkeuler, Wolfgang, Heinrich Heine: Theorie und Kritik der Literatur, Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1972.
Steinecke, Hartmut, Literaturkritik des Jungen Deutschland: Entwicklungen – Tendenzen – Texte, Berlin: E. Schmidt, 1982.
Thormann, Michael, ‘Der programmatische Realismus der Grenzboten im Kontext von liberaler Politik, Philosophie und Geschichtsschreibung’, Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur, 18 (1993), 37–68.

France: the continuing debate over Classicism

Primary sources

Baudelaire, Charles, Œuvres complètes, ed. Claude Pichois, 2 vols., Paris: Gallimard, 1974–5.
Chateaubriand, François-René de, Mémoires d'outre-tombe, ed. Maurice Levaillant, 2 vols., Paris: Flammarion, 1949.
Hugo, Victor, Œuvres complètes: édition chronologique, vol. iii, ed. Jean Massin, 18 vols., Paris: Club Français du Livre, 1967.
Laharpe, Jean de, Lycée, ou cours de littérature ancienne et moderne, vol. i, Paris: Fermin Didot, 1821.
Restif de La Bretonne, Nicolas-Edme, Les gynographes ou idées de deux honnêtes femmes sur un projet de règlement proposé à toute l’Europe, pour mettre les femmes à leur place & opérer le bonheur des deux sexes: avec des notes historiques et justificatives, suivies des noms des femmes, 2 vols., The Hague: Gosse & Ruet, 1777.
Staël, Germaine de, De la littérature considérée dans ses rapports avec les institutions sociales (1800) in Œuvres complètes, 3 vols., vol. i, Paris: Firmin Didot frères, 1836.
Staël, Germaine deEssai sur les fictions’ (1795) in Œuvres complètes, 3 vols., vol. i, Paris: Firmin Didot frères, 1836.
Staël, Germaine deDe l’Allemagne, ed. Simone Balayel, Paris: Garnier-Flammarion, 1968.
Stendhal, De l'amour, ed. Henri Martineau, Paris: Garnier, 1959.
Stendhal, Racine et Shakespeare in Œuvres complètes, ed. Victor del Litto and Ernest Abravanel, 50 vols., vol. xxxvii, Geneva and Paris: Slatkine, 1986.

Secondary sources

Boulard, Gilles, ‘Ferdinand Brunetière et le Classicisme, ou la conjonction des nationalismes’, Revue d'histoire littéraire de la France, 100 (2000), 217–35.
Bray, René, Chronologie du Romantisme (1804–1830), Paris: Nizet, 1963.
Brunetière, Ferdinand, L’évolution des genres dans l'histoire de la littérature. Vol. i: L’évolution de la critique, Paris: Hachette, 1906.
Desmarais, Cyprien, Essai sur les classiques et les romantiques (1824); rpt Geneva: Slatkine, 1973.
Hamrick, L. Cassandra, ‘Artistic Production and the Art Critic in a Bourgeois Era: The Case of Théophile Gautier’, Il confronto letterario: quaderni del Dipartimento di Lingue et Letterature Straniere Moderne dell’Universita di Pavia, 17 (2000), 241–63.
Hamrick, L. CassandraBorel, Gautier et Baudelaire: de la “périphérie” du romantique au centre du “moderne”’ in Poésie et poétique en France, 1830–1890: hommage à Eileen Souffrin-Le Breton, ed. Peter J. Edwards, New York: Peter Lang, 2001, pp. 77–108.
Lanson, Gustave, Histoire de la littérature française, ed. Paul Tuffrau, Paris: Hachette, 1967.
Lanyi, Gabriel, ‘Debates on the Definition of Romanticism in Literary France (1820–30)’, Journal of the History of Ideas, 41 (1980), 141–50.
Pasco, Allan H., Sick Heroes: French Society and Literature in the Romantic Age, 1750–1850, University of Exeter Press, 1997.
Pocock, Gordon, Boileau and the Nature of Neo-Classicism, Cambridge University Press, 1980.

England: Romantic legacies

Primary sources

Carlyle, Thomas, Critical and Miscellaneous Essays, 7 vols., London: Chapman & Hall, 1879.
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, The Friend (1818), ed. Barbara E. Rooke, Bollingen Series LXXV, London and Princeton: Routledge/Princeton University Press, 1969.
Dallas, E. S., The Gay Science, 2 vols., London: Chapman & Hall, 1866.
De Quincey, Thomas, ‘Letters to a Young Man whose Education has been Neglected’ in Collected Writings of Thomas De Quincey. Vol. x: Literary Theory and Criticism, ed. David Masson, London and Edinburgh: A. & C. Black, 1896.
Keble, John, Occasional Papers and Reviews, Oxford University Press, 1877.
Keble, JohnKeble's Lectures on Poetry, trans. E. K. Francis, 2 vols., Oxford University Press, 1912.
MacDonald, George, England's Antiphon, London: Macmillan, 1878.
MacDonald, GeorgeA Dish of Orts, London: S. L. Marston, 1882; published in the USA as The Imagination and Other Essays, Boston: Lothrop, 1883.
Newman, J. H., Essays Critical and Historical, 2 vols., London: Longman, 1871.
Schlegel, Friedrich, Philosophical Fragments, trans. Peter Firchow, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991.

Secondary sources

Abrams, M. H., The Mirror and the Lamp, New York: Oxford University Press, 1953.
Ashton, Rosemary, G. H. Lewes: A Life, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.
Ashton, RosemaryThe German Idea: Four English Writers and the Reception of German Thought 1800–1860, London: Libris, 1994.
Bowie, Andrew, Aesthetics and Subjectivity, Manchester University Press, 1990.
Bowie, AndrewFrom Romanticism to Critical Theory, London: Routledge, 1997.
Hilton, Tim, John Ruskin: The Early Years; The Later Years, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000.
Isbell, John Claiborne, The Birth of European Romanticism: Truth and Propaganda in Staël's ‘De l’Allemagne’ 1810–1813, Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Perkins, David, Is Literary History Possible?, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.
Prickett, Stephen, Coleridge and Wordsworth: The Poetry of Growth, Cambridge University Press, 1970.
Prickett, Stephen, Words and the Word: Language, Poetics and Biblical Interpretation, Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Wellek, René, ‘Carlyle and the Philosophy of History’ in Confrontations: Studies in the Intellectual Relations between Germany, England, and the United States during the Nineteenth Century, Princeton University Press, 1965.

England: literature and culture

Primary sources

Carlyle, Thomas, Collected Works, 30 vols., London: Chapman & Hall, 1869.
Pater, Walter, Appreciations, with an Essay on Style, London: Macmillan, 1889.
Pater, WalterThe Renaissance: Studies in Art and Poetry: The 1893 Text, ed. Donald L. Hill, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1980.
Ruskin, John, The Works of John Ruskin, ed. E. T. Cook and Alexander Wedderburn, 39 vols., London: George Allen, 1903–12.
Shaw, George Bernard, Major Critical Essays, London: Constable, 1932.
Shaw, George BernardThe Complete Plays with Prefaces, 6 vols., New York: Dodd, Mead, 1963.

Secondary sources

Austin, Linda M., The Practical Ruskin: Economics and Audience in the Late Work, Baltimore, MD, and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.
Buckler, William E., Walter Pater: The Critic as Artist of Ideas, New York and London: New York University Press, 1987.
Daley, Kenneth, The Rescue of Romanticism: Walter Pater and John Ruskin, Athens: Ohio University Press, 2001.
Erikson, Lee, The Economy of Literary Form: English Literature and the Industrialization of Publishing 1800–1850, Baltimore, MD, and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.
Iser, Wolfgang, Walter Pater: The Aesthetic Moment, trans. David Henry Wilson, Cambridge University Press, 1987.
Loesberg, Jonathan, Aestheticism and Deconstruction: Pater, Derrida and De Man, Princeton University Press, 1991.
McKelvy, William R., The English Cult of Literature, Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2006.
Riede, David G., Oracles and Hierophants: Constructions of Romantic Authority, Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 1991.
Roe, Frederick William, Thomas Carlyle as a Critic of Literature, New York: Columbia University Press, 1910.
St. Clair, William, The Reading Nation in the Romantic Period, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Shuter, William, Re-Reading Walter Pater, Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Vanden Bossche, Chris, Carlyle and the Search for Authority, Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1991.

Literary nationalism and US Romantic aesthetics

Primary sources

Barlow, Joel, The Connecticut Wits, ed. Vernon Louis Parrington, New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1926.
Bradford, William, Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620–1647, ed. Samuel Eliot Morrison, New York: Modern Library, 1967.
Dickens, Charles, American Notes for General Circulation, New York: Penguin, 2000.
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, Journal and Miscellaneous Notebooks, eds. Alfred R. Fergusonet al., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1960–82.
Jacobs, Harriet, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, ed. Valerie A. Smith, New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Poe, Edgar Allan, The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe, ed. James A. Harrison, 16 vols., New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1902.
Sewall, Samuel, The American Puritans: Their Prose and Poetry, ed. Perry Miller, New York: Columbia University Press, 1982.
Trollope, Frances, Domestic Manners of the Americans, New York: Knopf, 1949.

Secondary sources

Cavell, Stanley, Emerson's Transcendental Etudes, ed. David Hodge, Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003.
Hutchison, William R., The Transcendentalist Ministers: Church Reform in the New England Renaissance, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1959.
Matthiessen, F. O., American Renaissance: Art and Expression in the Age of Emerson and Whitman, New York: Oxford University Press, 1941.
Menand, Louis, The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America, New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2001.
Miller, Perry, The Raven and the Whale: The War of Words and Wits in the Era of Poe and Melville, New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1956.
Miller, Perry(ed.), The Transcendentalists: An Anthology, new edn, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971.
Rose, Anne C., Transcendentalism as a Social Movement, 1830–1850, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1981.
Van Leer, David, Emerson's Epistemology: The Argument of the Essays, Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Vendler, Helen, Part of Nature, Part of Us: Modern American Poets, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980.

Russia: literature and society

Primary sources in English

Grigoriev, A. A., My Literary and Moral Wanderings, trans. R. Matlaw, New York: Dutton, 1962.
Gumilev, Nikolai, On Russian Poetry, ed. and trans. D. Lapeza, Ann Arbor: Ardis, 1977.
Ivanov, Vyacheslav, Selected Essays, ed. M. Wachtel, trans. R. Bird, Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2001.
Mandelstam, Osip, The Complete Critical Prose and Letters, ed. J. G. Harris, trans. J. G. Harris and C. Link, Ann Arbor: Ardis, 1979.
Matlaw, R. E. (ed.), Belinsky, Chernyshevsky, and Dobrolyubov: Selected Criticism, New York: E. P. Dutton, 1962.
Proffer, C. R. (ed.), Modern Russian Poets on Poetry, Ann Arbor: Ardis, 1976.
Rosenthal, B. G. and M. Bohachevsky-Chomiak, A Revolution of the Spirit: Crisis of Value in Russia, 1890–1924, trans. M. Schwartz, Newtonville, MA: Oriental Research Partners, 1982.

Secondary sources

Berlin, Isaiah, Russian Thinkers, London: Hogarth Press, 1978.
Clowes, Edith W., The Revolution of Moral Consciousness: Nietzsche in Russian Literature, 1892–1914, DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1988.
Clowes, Edith WFiction's Overcoat: Russian Literary Culture and the Question of Philosophy, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004.
Dowler, Wayne, Dostoevsky, Grigor'ev, and Native Soil Conservatism, University of Toronto Press, 1982.
Kuleshov, V. I., Istoriia russkoi kritiki: 18.-19. vv, 2nd edn, Moscow: Prosveshchenie, 1978.
Moser, Charles, Esthetics as Nightmare: Russian Literary Theory, 1855–1870, Princeton University Press, 1989.
Pachmuss, Temira, Zinaida Hippius: An Intellectual Profile, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1971.
Randall, Francis B., Vissarion Belinskii, Newtonville: Oriental Research Partners, 1987.
Rosenthal, Bernice Glatzer, Dmitri Sergeevich Merezhkovsky: The Development of the Revolutionary Mentality, The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1975.
Scanlan, James P., Dostoevsky the Thinker, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002.
Schapiro, Leonard, Turgenev: His Life and Times, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978.
Terras, Victor, Belinskij and Russian Literary Criticism: The Heritage of Organic Aesthetics, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1974.
Terras, Victor(ed.), Handbook of Russian Literature, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1986.
Tikhonova, E. Iu. V. G., Belinskii v spore so slavianofilami, Moscow: URSS, 1999.

Literary autonomy: the growth of a modern concept

Primary sources

Buckler, William E. (ed.), Walter Pater: Three Major Texts, New York University Press, 1986.
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, The Collected Works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, ed. Kathleen Coburn, 16 vols., London and Princeton: Routledge & Kegan Paul/Princeton University Press, 1969–2001.
Gautier, Théophile, The Works of Théophile Gautier, trans. and ed. F. C. de Sumichrast, 24 vols., New York: George D. Sproul, 1900.
Heine, Heinrich, Heinrich Heine: Schriften zur Literatur, ed. Karl Kraus, Stuttgart: P. Reclam, 1986.
Kant, Immanuel, Critique of Judgment, trans. Werner S. Pluhar, Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.
Mallarmé, Stéphane, Selected Prose, Poems, Essays, and Letters, trans. Bradford Cook, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1956.
Schiller, Friedrich, On the Aesthetic Education of Man, trans. Elizabeth M. Wilkinson and L. A. Willoughby, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967.
Weintraub, Stanley (ed.), Literary Criticism of Oscar Wilde, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1968.

Secondary sources

Adorno, Theodor, Ästhetische Theorie, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1973.
Bowie, Andrew, Aesthetics and Subjectivity: From Kant to Nietzsche, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990.
Eagleton, Terry, The Ideology of the Aesthetic, Oxford: Blackwell, 1990.
Gadamer, Hans Georg, Wahrheit und Methode: Grundzüge einer philosophischen Hermeneutik, Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1986.
Habib, M. A. R., A History of Literary Criticism: From Plato to the Present, Malden: Blackwell, 2005.
Hammermeister, Kai, The German Aesthetic Tradition, Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Isbell, John Claiborne, The Birth of European Romanticism: Truth and Propaganda in Staël's ‘De l’Allemagne’, Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Loesberg, Jonathan, A Return to Aesthetics: Autonomy, Indifference, and Postmodernism, Stanford University Press, 2005.
Seel, Martin, Aesthetics of Appearing, trans. John Farrell, Stanford University Press, 2005.
Wimsatt, William K. and Cleanth Brooks, Literary Criticism: A Short History, 2 vols., University of Chicago Press, 1983.

Hegel's aesthetics and their influence

Primary sources

Hegel, G.W. F., Hegel's Lectures on the History of Philosophy, vol. iii, trans. E. S. Haldane and Frances H. Simson, London and New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul/Humanities Press, 1963.
Hegel, G. W. F.Aesthetics: Lectures on Fine Art, vol. i, trans. T. M. Knox, Oxford University Press, 1975.
HegelG.W.F.Aesthetics: Lectures on Fine Art, vol. ii, trans. T. M. Knox, Oxford University Press, 1975.
HegelG.W.F.Hegel's Science of Logic, trans. A. V. Miller, London and New York: George Allen & Unwin/Humanities Press, 1976.
HegelG.W.F.Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit, trans. A. V. Miller, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979.
HegelG.W.F.Hegel's Logic: Being Part One of the Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences (1830), trans. William Wallace, Oxford University Press, 1982.
HegelG.W.F.Hegel: On the Arts, trans. Henry Paolucci, Smyrna, DE: Griffon House, 2001.
HegelG.W.F.Hegel on Tragedy, ed. and intro. Anne and Henry Paolucci, 1982; rpt Smyrna, DE: Griffon House, 2001.

Secondary sources

Bosanquet, Bernard, A History of Aesthetic (1892); rpt London and New York: George Allen & Unwin/Humanities Press, 1966.
Bradley, A. C., ‘Hegel's Theory of Tragedy’ in Oxford Lectures on Poetry (1909); rpt New York and London: St. Martin's Press/Macmillan, 1965.
Bungay, Stephen, Beauty and Truth: A Study of Hegel's Aesthetic, Oxford University Press, 1984.
Etter, Brian K., Between Transcendence and Historicism: The Ethical Nature of the Arts in Hegelian Aesthetics, SUNY Press, 2006.
Jameson, Fredric, ‘Towards Dialectical Criticism’ in Marxism and Form: Twentieth-Century Dialectical Theories of Literature, Princeton University Press, 1971.
Maker, William (ed.), Hegel and Aesthetics, SUNY Press, 2000.
Moss, Leonard, ‘The Unrecognized Influence of Hegel's Theory of Tragedy’, Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 28 (1969), 91–7.
Pillow, Kirk, Sublime Understanding: Aesthetic Reflection in Kant and Hegel, London and Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000.
Pinkard, Terry, Hegel: A Biography, Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Roche, Mark William, Tragedy and Comedy: A Systematic Study and a Critique of Hegel, SUNY Press, 1998.
Taylor, Charles, Hegel, Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Marx, Engels and early Marxist criticism

Primary sources

Ball, A. H. R. (ed.), Selections from the Prose Works of William Morris, Cambridge University Press, 1931.
Baxandall, Lee and Stefan Morawski (eds.), Karl Marx and Frederick Engels on Literature and Art, New York: International General, 1973.
Labriola, Antonio, Essays in the Materialistic Conception of History, trans. Charles H. Kerr, Chicago: Charles H. Kerr, 1908.
Lamire, Eugene D. (ed.), The Unpublished Lectures of William Morris, Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1969.
Marx, Karl and Frederick Engels, On Literature and Art, Moscow: Progress, 1976.
Mehring, Franz, The Lessing Legend, trans. A. S. Grogan, New York: Critics Group Press, 1938.
Morton, A. L. (ed.), Political Writings of William Morris, London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1979.
Plekhanov, Georgi, Art and Social Life, ed. Andrew Rothstein, London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1953.
Plekhanov, GeorgiArt and Society and Other Papers in Historical Materialism, New York: Oriole Editions, 1974.
Raddatz, Fritz J. (ed.), Marxismus und Literatur: eine Dokumentation in drei Bänden, 3 vols., Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1969.
Solomon, Maynard (ed.), Marxism and Art: Essays Classic and Contemporary, Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1979.

Realism, Naturalism and Symbolism in France

Primary sources

Balzac, Honoré de, Ecrits sur le roman, Paris: Librairie générale française, 2000.
Baudelaire, Charles, Œuvres complètes, ed. Claude Pichois, 2 vols., Paris: Gallimard, Bibliothèque de la Pléaide, 1976.
Becque, Henry, Œuvres complètes, vol. vii, Paris: G. Crès, 1926.
Brunetière, Ferdinand, Questions de critique, Paris: Calmann Lévy, 1890.
Brunetière, FerdinandNouvelles questions de critique, Paris: Calmann Lévy, 1890.
Champfleury (Jules-François-Félix Husson), Le Réalisme, Paris: Michel Lévy, 1857.
Courbet, Gustave, Letters of Gustave Courbet, ed. and trans. Petra ten-Doesschate Chu, University of Chicago Press, 1992.
Duranty, Edmond, La Nouvelle peinture, Paris: Dentu, 1876.
Flaubert, Gustave, Correspondance, vol. i, ed. Jean Bruneau, Paris: Gallimard, Bibliothèque de la Pléiade, 1973.
France, Anatole, La Vie littéraire, Paris: Calmann Lévy, 1926.
Gourmont, Remy de, Decadence and Other Essays on the Culture of Ideas, trans. William Bradley, 1922; rpt London: George Allen & Unwin, 1930.
Hennequin, Emile, Quelques écrivains français, Paris: Perrin, 1890.
Huysmans, Joris-Karl, L’Art moderne/Certains, Paris: Editions 10/18, 1975.
Lemaître, Jules, Les Contemporains: études et portraits littéraires, Paris: H. Lecène & H. Oudin, 1886.
Maupassant, Guy de, Pierre et Jean, Paris: Albin Michel, 1984.
Renan, Ernest, L’Avenir de la science, Paris: Calmann Lévy, 1890.
Sarcey, Francisque, Quarante ans de théâtre, Paris: Bibliothèque des annales politiques et littéraires, 1900.
Scherer, Edmond, Etudes sur la littérature contemporaine, vol. ii, Paris: Calmann Lévy, 1891.
Zola, Emile, Le Roman expérimental, Paris: Garnier-Flammarion, 1971.

Secondary sources

Antoniu, Annette, Anatole France, critique littéraire, Paris: Boivin, 1929.
Bonnet, Gilles, Champfleury, écrivain chercheur, Paris: Champion, 2006.
Chauvin, Charles, Renan: 1823–1892, Paris: Desclée de Brouwer, 2000.
Compagnon, Antoine, Connaissez-vous Brunetière? Enquête sur un antidreyfusard et ses amis, Paris: Seuil, 1997.
Crouzet, Marcel, Un méconnu du réalisme: Duranty (1833–1880). L’homme, le critique, le romancier, Paris: Librairie Nizet, 1964.
LeGouis, Catherine, Positivism and Imagination: Scientism and its Limits in Emile Hennequin, Wilhelm Scherer, and Dmitrii Pisarev, Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 1997.
Lloyd, Rosemary, Baudelaire's Literary Criticism, Cambridge University Press, 1981.
Nordmann, Jean-Thomas, Taine et la critique scientifique, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1992.
Pichois, Claude, Philarète Chasles et la vie littéraire au temps du romantisme, 2 vols., Paris: J. Corti, 1965.
Seys, Pascale, Hippolyte Taine et l'avènement du naturalisme: un intellectuel sous le Second Empire, Paris: L’Harmattan, 1999.
Vircondelet, Alain, Joris-Karl Huysmans, Paris: Plon, 1990.
Ziegler, Robert, The Mirror of Divinity: The World and Creation in J.-K. Huysmans, Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2004.

Symbolism and Realism in Germany

Primary sources

Hegel, G. W. F., Vorlesungen über die Äesthetik [Lectures on Aesthetics], Berlin: Aufbau, 1955.
Keller, Gottfried, Der grüne Heinrich [Green Henry], Munich: Winkler, 1978.
Lukács, Georg, Die Theorie des Romans [The Theory of the Novel], Darmstadt and Neuwied: Luchterhand, 1971.
Vischer, F. T., Aesthetik oder Wissenschaft des Schönen [Aesthetics or the Science of the Beautiful], Stuttgart: Macken, 1857.

Secondary sources

Albrecht Bernd, Clifford, Poetic Realism in Scandinavia and Central Europe 1820–1895, Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1995.
Kohl, Stefan, Realismus: Theorie und Geschichte [Realism: Theory and History], Munich: Fink, 1977.
Plumpe, Gerhard (ed.), Theorie des bürgerlichen Realismus: eine Textsammlung [The Theory of Bourgeois Realism: A Collection of Texts], Stuttgart: Reclam, 1985.
Steinecke, Hartmut (ed.), Romanpoetik in Deutschland: von Hegel bis Fontane [The Poetics of the Novel in Germany], Tübingen: Narr, 1984.
Steinecke, HartmutRomanpoetik von Goethe bis Thomas Mann: Entwicklungen und Probleme der ‘demokratischen Kunstform’ in Deutschland [The Poetics of the Novel from Goethe to Thomas Mann: Developments and Problems of the ‘Democratic Art Form’ in Germany], Munich: Fink, 1987.
Swales, Martin, Epochenbuch Realismus: Romane und Erzählungen [Epoch Book on Realism: Novels and Novellas], Berlin: Schmidt, 1997.

Nineteenth-century British critics of Realism

Primary sources

Eigner, Edwin M. and George J. Worth (eds.), Victorian Criticism of the Novel, Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Kaminsky, Alice (ed.), Literary Criticism of George Henry Lewes, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1964.
Lee, Vernon, Art and Life, New York: Routledge, 1896.
Olmsted, John Charles, A Victorian Art of Fiction: Essays on the Novel in British Periodicals, 3 vols., New York: Garland, 1979.
Pinney, Thomas (ed.), Essays of George Eliot, New York: Columbia University Press, 1963.

Secondary sources

Arata, Stephen, ‘Realism’ in Cambridge Companion to the Fin de Siècle, ed. Gail Marshall, Cambridge University Press, 2007, pp. 169–88.
Armstrong, Nancy, Fiction in the Age of Photography: The Legacy of British Realism, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.
Becker, George J. (ed.), Documents of Modern Literary Realism, Princeton University Press, 1963.
Levine, Caroline, The Serious Pleasures of Suspense: Victorian Realism and Narrative Doubt, Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2003.
Levine, George, The Realistic Imagination: English Fiction from Frankenstein to Lady Chatterley, University of Chicago Press, 1981.
Menke, Richard, Telegraphic Realism: Victorian Fiction and Other Information Systems, Stanford University Press, 2008.
Novak, Daniel A., Realism, Photography and Nineteenth-Century Fiction, Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Ortiz-Robles, Mario, The Novel as Event, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2010.
Stang, Richard, The Theory of the Novel in England, 1850–1870, New York: Columbia University Press, 1959.

American literary Realism

Primary sources

Chesnutt, Charles W., Stories, Novels and Essays, New York: Library of America, 2002.
Chopin, Kate, Complete Novels and Stories: At Fault, Bayou Folk, A Night in Acadie, The Awakening, Uncollected Stories, New York: Library of America, 2002.
Crane, Stephen, Prose and Poetry: Maggie, a Girl of the Streets; The Red Badge of Courage; Stories, Sketches, Journalism; The Black Riders; War is Kind, New York: Library of America, 1984.
Dreiser, Theodore, Sister Carrie, Jennie Gerhardt, Twelve Men, New York: Library of America, 1987.
Howells, William Dean, Novels, 1875–1886: A Foregone Conclusion, A Modern Instance, Indian Summer, The Rise of Silas Lapham, New York: Library of America, 1982.
James, Henry, Novels 1881–1886: Washington Square, The Portrait of a Lady, The Bostonians, New York: Library of America, 1985.
Twain, Mark, Mississippi Writings: Tom Sawyer, Life on The Mississippi, Huckleberry Finn, Pudd'nhead Wilson, New York: Library of America, 1982.
Wharton, Edith, Novels: The House of Mirth, The Reef, The Custom of the Country, The Age of Innocence, New York: Library of America, 1986.

Secondary sources

Bell, Michael Davitt, The Problem of American Realism: Studies in the Cultural History of a Literary Idea, University of Chicago Press, 1993.
Kaplan, Amy, The Social Construction of American Realism, University of Chicago Press, 1988.
Pizer, Donald, Realism and Naturalism in Nineteenth-Century American Literature, rev. edn, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984.
Pizer, Donald(ed.), Documents of American Realism and Naturalism, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1998.
Shi, David, Facing Facts: Realism in American Thought and Culture, 1850–1920, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Sundquist, Eric J., ‘Realism and Regionalism’ in Columbia Literary History of the United States, ed. Emory Elliott, New York: Columbia University Press, 1988, pp. 501–24.

Decadence and fin de siècle

Primary sources

Baudelaire, Charles, Œuvres complètes, ed. Yves-Gérard Le Dantec, Paris: Gallimard, 1951.
D’Annunzio, Gabriele, Prose di romanzi, ed. Ezio Raimondi, 2 vols., Milan: Arnoldo Mondadori, 1988.
Gautier, Théophile, Mademoiselle de Maupin, ed. Eugène Fasquelle, Paris: Bibliothèque- Charpentier, 1922.
Huysmans, Joris-Karl, Œuvres complètes, 18 vols. (1928–34); rpt Geneva: Slatkine, 1972.
Mann, Thomas, Gesammelte Werke, 13 vols., Frankfurt: Fischer, 1990.
Nietzsche, Friedrich, Werke, ed. Karl Schlechta, 3 vols., Munich: Hanser, 1954–66.
Nordau, Max, Entartung, 2 vols., Berlin: Carl Duncker, 1892.
Pater, Walter, The Library Edition of the Works of Walter Pater, 10 vols., London: Macmillan, 1910.
Verlaine, Paul, Œuvres complètes, Paris: Albert Messein, 1927.
Wagner, Richard, Gesammelte Schriften, ed. Julius Kapp, 14 vols., Leipzig: Hesse & Becker, 1914.
Wilde, Oscar, The First Collected Edition of the Works of Oscar Wilde, 1908–1922, ed. Robert Ross, 15 vols., London: Dawsons of Pall Mall, 1969.

Secondary sources

Bahr, Hermann, Studien zur Kritik der Moderne, Frankfurt: Rütten & Loening, 1894.
Baldick, Robert, The Life of J-K Huysmans, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1955.
Buckley, Jerome Hamilton, The Triumph of Time: A Study of the Victorian Concepts of Time, History, Progress and Decadence, Cambridge, MA, and Oxford: Harvard University Press/Oxford University Press, 1966.
Ellmann, Richard, Oscar Wilde, London: Hamish Hamilton, 1987.
Furness, Raymond (ed.), The Dedalus Book of German Decadence: Voices of the Abyss, Sawtry and New York: Dedalus/Hippocrene, 1994.
Ledger, Sally and Roger Luckhurst (eds.), The Fin de Siècle: A Reader in Cultural History, Oxford University Press, 2000.
Norton, Robert E., Secret Germany: Stefan George and his Circle, Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 2002.
Praz, Mario, The Romantic Agony, trans. Angus Davidson, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, 1951.
Sutton, Emma, Aubrey Beardsley and British Wagnerism in the 1890s, Oxford University Press, 2002.
Thornton, R. K. (ed.), Poetry of the Nineties, London: Penguin, 1970.
Weintraub, Stanley, Beardsley, London: Penguin, 1972.
Woodhouse, John, Gabriele D’Annunzio: Defiant Archangel, Oxford University Press, 1998.

The avant-garde in early twentieth-century Europe

Primary sources

Ades, Dawn (ed.), The Dada Reader: A Critical Anthology, London: Tate, 2006.
Apollonio, Umbro (ed.), Futurist Manifestos, London: Thames & Hudson, 1973.
Benson, Timothy O. and Éva Forgács (eds.), Between Worlds: A Sourcebook of Central European Avant-Gardes, 1910–1930, Cambridge, MA, and London: MIT Press, 2002.
Caws, Mary Ann (ed.), Manifesto: A Century of Isms, Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2001.
Caws, Mary Ann(ed.), Surrealism, London: Phaidon, 2004.
Lankheit, Klaus (ed.), Der Blaue Reiter: Dokumentarische Neuausgabe, Munich and Zurich: Piper, 1984.
Lewis, Percy Wyndham (ed.), Blast: Review of the Great English Vortex, Santa Barbara: Black Sparrow Press, 1982.
Motherwell, Robert (ed.), The Dada Painters and Poets: An Anthology (1951); rpt Boston: G. K. Hall, 1981.
Proffer, Ellendea and Carl R. Proffer (eds.), The Ardis Anthology of Russian Futurism, Ann Arbor: Ardis, 1980.

Secondary sources

Berghaus, Günter (ed.), International Futurism in Arts and Literature, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2000.
Black, Jonathan, Christopher Adams, Michael J. K. Walsh and Jonathan Wood, Blasting the Future! Vorticism in Britain 1910–1920, London: Philip Wilson, 2004.
Breton, André, Conversations: The Autobiography of Surrealism, New York: Paragon House, 1993.
Bury, Stephen (ed.), Breaking the Rules: The Printed Face of the European Avant Garde 1900–1937, London: British Library, 2007.
Cardinal, Roger, Expressionism, London: Granada, 1984.
Cox, Neil, Cubism, London: Phaidon Press, 2000.
Dachy, Marc, Dada: The Revolt of Art, London: Thames & Hudson, 2006.
Durozoi, Gérard, History of the Surrealist Movement, London: University of Chicago Press, 2002.
Kuenzli, Rudolf, Dada, London: Phaidon Press, 2006.
Markov, Vladimir, Russian Futurism: A History, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1968.
Nadeau, Maurice, History of Surrealism, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1965.
Perloff, Marjorie, The Futurist Moment: Avant-Garde, Avant-Guerre, and the Language of Rupture, Chicago and London: Chicago University Press, 1986.
Poggioli, Renato, The Theory of the Avant-Garde, Cambridge, MA, and London: Belknap Press, 1968.
Richter, Hans, Dada: Art and Anti-Art, London: Thames & Hudson, 1965.
Russell, Charles, Poets, Prophets and Revolutionaries: The Literary Avant-Garde from Rimbaud through Postmodernism, Oxford University Press, 1985.
Švestka, Vlček, Czech Cubism 1909–1925, Prague: Modernista, 2007.
Wees, William C., Vorticism and the English Avant-Garde, University of Toronto Press, 1972.

Charles-Augustin Sainte-Beuve

Primary sources

Sainte-Beuve, Charles-Augustin, Causeries du lundi, 16 vols., Paris: Garnier, 1850–60.
Sainte-Beuve, Charles AugustinNouveaux lundis, 13 vols., Paris: Calmann Lévy, 1862–64.
Sainte-Beuve, Charles AugustinPortraits littéraires, rev. edn, 3 vols., Paris: Garnier, 1868–84.
Sainte-Beuve, Charles AugustinLes cahiers de Sainte-Beuve, suivis de quelques pages de littérature antique, ed. Jules Troubat, Paris: Alphonse Lemerre, 1876.
Sainte-Beuve, Charles AugustinChateaubriand et son groupe littéraire sous l'empire: Cours professé à Liège en 1848–1849, rev. edn, vol. i, Paris: Calmann Lévy, 1878.
Sainte-Beuve, Charles AugustinPortraits contemporains (1845), rev. edn, 5 vols., Paris: Calmann Lévy, 1881–2.
Sainte-Beuve, Charles AugustinPort-Royal, 7th/8th edn, 7 vols., Paris: Hachette, 1908–10.

Secondary sources

Bellessort, André, Sainte-Beuve et le xixe siècle, Paris: Perrin, 1927.
Bénichou, Paul, L’Ecole du désenchantement: Sainte-Beuve, Nodier, Musset, Nerval, Gautier, Paris: Gallimard, 1992.
Casanova, Nicole, Sainte-Beuve, Paris: Mercure de France, 1995.
Fumaroli, Marc, Littérature et conversation: la querelle Sainte-Beuve–Proust, Cassal Lecture, University of London, 1991.
Leroy, Maxime, La Politique de Sainte-Beuve, Paris: Gallimard, 1941.
Leroy, MaximeVie de Sainte-Beuve, Paris: J. B. Janin, 1947.
Michaut, Gustave, Sainte-Beuve, Paris: Librairie Hachette, 1921.
Molho, Raphaël, L’Ordre et les ténèbres ou la naissance d'un mythe du xviie siècle chez Sainte-Beuve, Paris: Librairie Armand Collin, 1972.
Troubat, Jules, Souvenirs du dernier secrétaire de Sainte-Beuve, Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1890.

Hippolyte Taine

Primary sources

Taine, Hippolyte, Essai sur les fables de La Fontaine, Paris: Joubert, 1853.
Taine, Hippolyte, Histoire de la littérature anglaise, 2nd edn, 5 vols., Paris: Hachette, 1866.
Taine, Hippolyte, Les Philosophes classiques du xixe siècle en France (originally published as Les Philosophes français du xixe siècle, 1857); rpt Paris: Hachette, 1876.
Taine, Hippolyte, Philosophie de l'art, 7th edn, 2 vols., Paris: Hachette, 1895.
Taine, Hippolyte, Essai sur Tite-Live (1856); rpt Paris: Hachette, 1896.
Taine, Hippolyte, Nouveaux essais de critique et d'histoire (1865); rpt Paris: Hachette, 1896.
Taine, Hippolyte, De l'intelligence, 2 vols. (1870); rpt Paris: Hachette, 1903.
Taine, Hippolyte, H. Taine: sa vie et sa correspondance, 4 vols., Paris: Hachette, 1905–8.
Taine, Hippolyte, Essais de critique et d'histoire, 14th edn, Paris: Hachette, 1923.
Taine, Hippolyte, Les Origines de la France contemporaine, 5 vols. (1875–93); rpt Paris: Robert Lafont, 1986.

Secondary sources

Bergson, Henri, Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1927.
Khan, Shalom, Science and Aesthetic Judgement, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1953.
Nias, Hilary, The Artificial Self: The Psychology of Hippolyte Taine, Oxford: Legenda, 1999.
Nias, HilaryHippolyte Taine’ in Key Writers on Art: From Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century, ed. Chris Murray, London: Routledge, 2003, pp. 212–18.
Nordmann, Jean-Thomas, Taine et la critique scientifique, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1992.
Zola, Emile, Mes haines, Paris: Faure, 1866.

Francesco De Sanctis

Primary sources

De Sanctis, Francesco, Opere di Francesco De Sanctis, ed. Carlo Muscetta, Turin: Einaudi, 1958. This twenty-three-volume edition of De Sanctis's work remains the most complete compilation and is organized as follows:
De Sanctis, Francesco, Vol. i: La giovinezza. Memorie postume seguite da testimonianze biographiche di amici e discepoli, ed. Gennaro Savarese, 1972.
De Sanctis, Francesco, Vols. ii and iii: Purismo illuminismo storicismo, ed. Attilio Marinari, 1975.
De Sanctis, Francesco, Vol. iv: La crisi del Romanticismo, 1973.
De Sanctis, Francesco, Vol. v: Lezioni e saggi su Dante, ed. Sergio Romagnoli, 1967.
De Sanctis, Francesco, Vol. vi: Saggio critico sul Petrarca, ed. Nicollo Gallo, 1983.
De Sanctis, Francesco, Vol. vii: Verso il realismo. Prolusioni e lezioni zurighesi sulla poesia cavalleresca, frammenti di estetica, saggi di metodo critico, ed. Nino Borsellino, 1965.
De Sanctis, Francesco, Vol. viii: Storia della letteratura italiana, ed. Nicollò Gallo, 1971.
De Sanctis, Francesco, Vol. ix: Storia della letteratura italiana, ed. Nicollò Gallo, 1971.
De Sanctis, Francesco, Vol. x: Scelta di scritti critici, ed. Gianfranco Contini, 1949.
De Sanctis, Francesco, Vol. xi: Manzoni e la Scuola Cattolico-Liberale e il Romanticismo a Napoli, eds. Carlo Muscetta, Giorgio Candeloro and Dario Puccini, 1983.
De Sanctis, Francesco, Vol. xii: Mazzini e la scuola democratica, eds. Carlo Muscetta and Giorgio Candeloro, 1961.
De Sanctis, Francesco, Vol. xiv: L’arte, la scienza e la vita, ed. Maria Teresa Lanza, 1972.
De Sanctis, Francesco, Vol. xv: Il Mezzogiorno e lo stato unitario, ed. Franco Ferri, 1972.
De Sanctis, Francesco, Vol. xvi: I partiti e l'educazione della nuova Italia, ed. Nino Cortese, 1970.
De Sanctis, Francesco, Vol. xvii: Un viaggio elettorale, ed. Nino Cortese, 1968.
De Sanctis, Francesco, Vols. xviiixxiiiEpistolario, eds. Muzio Mazzocchi Alemanni, Giovanni Ferretti et al., 1956.

Secondary sources

Apweiler, Arnold, Begründer der italienischen Komparatistik: Francesco De Sanctis und Arturo Graf, Aachen: Shaker, 1997.
Barbuto, Gennaro Maria, Ambivalenze del moderno: De Sanctis e le tradizioni politiche italiane, Naples: Liguori, 2000.
Beales, Derek and Eugenio F. Biagini, Il Risorgimento e l'unificazione dell’Italia, Bologna: Il Mulino, 2002.
Bruno, Francesco, De Sanctis e il realismo, Naples: Edizioni scientifiche italiane, 2000.
Caratozzolo, Vittorio, Francesco De Sanctis: parastoria della letteratura italiana. La fantasaggistica e l'impero del verosimile, Naples: Guida, 2006.
Davis, John A., Italy in the Nineteenth Century 1796–1900, Oxford University Press, 2000.
Holub, Renate, Antonio Gramsci: Beyond Marxism and Postmodernism, London: Routledge, 1992.
Piccone, Paul, Italian Marxism, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

Matthew Arnold

Primary sources

MatthewArnold, The Complete Prose Works of Matthew Arnold, ed. R. H. Super, 11 vols., Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1960–77.
MatthewArnoldThe Poems of Matthew Arnold, ed. Kenneth Allott, 2nd edn, rev. Marian Allott, London: Longman, 1979.
MatthewArnoldThe Letters of Matthew Arnold, ed. Cecil Y. Lang, 6 vols., Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1996–2001.
Arnold, Thomas, Introductory Lectures on Modern History, Oxford University Press, 1842.

Secondary sources

Anderson, Warren D., Matthew Arnold and the Classical Tradition, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1965.
apRoberts, Ruth, Arnold and God, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.
Collini, Stefan, Arnold, Oxford University Press, 1988.
DeLaura, David J., Hebrew and Hellene in Victorian England: Newman, Arnold, and Pater, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1969.
Honan, Park, Matthew Arnold: A Life, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983.
Livingston, James C., Matthew Arnold and Christianity: His Religious Prose Writings, Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1986.
Machann, Clinton, The Essential Matthew Arnold: An Annotated Bibliography of Major Modern Studies, New York: G. K. Hall, 1993.
Machann, ClintonMatthew Arnold: A Literary Life, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998.
Mazzeno, Laurence W., Matthew Arnold: The Critical Legacy, Rochester, NY: Camden House, 1999.
Murray, Nicholas, A Life of Matthew Arnold, London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1996.
Pratt, Linda Ray, Matthew Arnold Revisited, New York: Twayne, 2000.
Schneider, Mary W., Poetry in the Age of Democracy: The Literary Criticism of Matthew Arnold, Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1989.
Sterner, Douglas W., Priests of Culture: A Study of Matthew Arnold and Henry James, New York: Peter Lang, 1999.
Stone, Donald, Communications with the Future: Matthew Arnold in Dialogue, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997.
Trilling, Lionel, Matthew Arnold, rev. edn, New York: Columbia University Press, 1958.

Henry James

Primary sources

James, Henry, Notes on Novelists, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1914.
James, Henry, The American Essays, ed. Leon Edel, New York: Vintage, 1956.
James, Henry, Autobiography, ed. F. W. Dupee, New York: Criterion, 1956.
James, Henry, The Painter's Eye, ed. John L. Sweeney, London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1956.
James, Henry, The Scenic Art, ed. Allan Wade, New York: Hill and Wang, 1957.
James, Henry, Notebooks, eds. F. O. Matthiessen and Kenneth Murdock, New York: Oxford University Press, 1961.
James, Henry, French Poets and Novelists (1878); rpt New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1964.
James, Henry, Partial Portraits (1888); rpt Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1970.
James, Henry, Letters, ed. Leon Edel, 4 vols., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974–84.
James, Henry, Literary Criticism, ed. Leon Edel and Mark Wilson, 2 vols., New York: Library of America, 1984.

Secondary sources

Daugherty, Sarah B.The Literary Criticism of Henry James, Athens: Ohio University Press, 1981.
Edel, Leon, Henry James: The Master, 1901–1916, Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1972.
Freedman, Jonathan, Professions of Taste: Henry James, British Aestheticism, and Commodity Culture, Stanford University Press, 1990.
Gard, Roger (ed.), Henry James: The Critical Heritage, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1968.
Jones, Vivien, James the Critic, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1985.
Kaplan, Fred, Henry James: The Imagination of Genius, New York: Morrow, 1992.
Lodge, David, Author, Author, New York: Viking, 2004.
Lubbock, Percy, The Craft of Fiction (1921); rpt New York: Viking, 1957.
Pearson, John H., The Prefaces of Henry James: Framing the Modern Reader, University Park: Pennsylvania University Press, 1997.
Rawlings, Peter (ed.), Critical Essays on Henry James, Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1993.
Roberts, Morris, Henry James's Criticism, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1929.
Tanner, Tony, Henry James and the Art of Nonfiction, Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1995.
Veeder, William and Susan M. Griffiths (eds.), The Art of Criticism: Henry James on the Theory and Practice of Fiction, University of Chicago Press, 1986.

Georg Brandes

Primary sources

In Danish

Brandes, Georg, Dualismen i vor nyeste philosophie, Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1866.
Brandes, GeorgÆsthetiske studier, Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1868.
Brandes, GeorgDen franske æstetik i vore dage, Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1870.
Brandes, GeorgKritiker og portraiter, Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1870.
Brandes, GeorgForklaring og forsvar: en antikritik, Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1872.
Brandes, GeorgHovedstrømninger i det nittende arhundredes litteratur, vols. i–vi, Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1872–90.

In English translation

Brandes, Georg, Lord Beaconsfield: A Study, New York: Harper, 1878.
Brandes, GeorgWilliam Shakespeare, New York: Macmillan, 1898.
Brandes, GeorgHellas: Travels in Greece, New York: Macmillan, 1899.
Brandes, GeorgMain Currents in Nineteenth Century Literature, vols. i–vi, New York: Macmillan, 1901–5.
Brandes, GeorgReminiscences of My Childhood and Youth, New York: Duffield, 1906.
Brandes, GeorgFriedrich Nietzsche, New York: Macmillan, 1909.
Brandes, GeorgFerdinand Lassalle, New York: Macmillan, 1911.
Brandes, GeorgWolfgang Goethe, New York: N. L. Brown, 1924.
Brandes, GeorgVoltaire, New York: A. & C. Boni, 1930.
Brandes, GeorgMichelangelo: His Life, His Times, His Era, New York: Ungar, 1963.

Secondary sources

Asmundsson, Doris R., Georg Brandes: Aristocratic Radical, New YorkUniversity Press, 1981.
Bay, Carl Erik, Kulturradikale kapitler fra Georg Brandes til Otto Gelsted, Copenhagen: C.A. Reitzel, 2003.
Bourguignon, Annie, Konrad Harrer and Jørgen Stender Clausen (eds.), Grands courants d’échanges intellectuels: Georg Brandes et la France, l’Allemagne, l’Angleterre, Bern: Peter Lang, 2009.
Harsløf, Olaf (ed.), Georg Brandes og Europa, Copenhagen: Det kongelige Bibliotek/Museum Tusculanums Forlag, 2004.
Hertel, Hans (ed.), Det stadig moderne gennembrud: Georg Brandes og hans tid set fra det 21. århundrede, Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 2004.
Hertel, Hans and Sven Møller Kristensen (eds.), The Activist Critic: A Symposium on the Political Ideas, Literary Methods and International Reception of Georg Brandes, Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1980.
Houe, Poul, ‘Georg Brandes’ begreb om det 18. århundrede’ in Opplysning i Norden, ed. Heiko Uecker, Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 1998, pp. 265–72.
Nolin, Bertil, Georg Brandes, Boston: Twayne, 1976.
Rømhild, Lars Peter, Georg Brandes og Goethe, Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanums Forlag, 1996.
Sæther, Astrid, Jørgen Dines Johansen and Atle Kittang (eds.), Ibsen og Brandes: Studier i et forhold, Oslo: Gyldendal, 2006.

Theories of genre

Primary sources

Bagehot, Walter, Literary Studies, Essays and Belles-Lettres, vol. ii, New York: E. P. Dutton, 1864.
Brunetière, Ferdinand, Etudes critiques sur l'histoire de la littérature française, vol. vi, Paris: Librairie Hachette, 1925.
Croce, Benedetto, Brevario di estetica, trans. Patrick Romanell, Indianapolis: Hackett, 1965.
Croce, BenedettoPoetry and Literature: An Introduction to its Criticism and History [La Poesia], trans. Giovanni Gullace, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1981.
Croce, BenedettoThe Aesthetic as the Science of Expression and of the Linguistic in General [part of the Estetica], trans. Colin Lyas, Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Dallas, E. S., Poetics, London: Smith, Elder, 1852.
Dallas, E. S.The Gay Science, 2 vols., London: Chapman & Hall, 1866.
Dilthey, Wilhelm, Selected Works. Vol. v: Poetry and Experience, ed. Rudolf A. Makkreel and Frithjof Rodi, Princeton University Press, 1985.
Gasset, Ortega y, Meditations on Quixote, trans. Evelyn Rugg and Diego Marín, New York: Norton, 1961.
Gervinus, Georg Gottfried, Geschichte der Deutschen Dichtung, vol. v, Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1853.
Hebbel, Friedrich, ‘My Word Concerning the Drama’ in Three Plays by Hebbel, trans. Marion W. Sonnenfeld, Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 1971.
Hunt, Leigh, Imagination and Fancy, New York: George P. Putnam, 1851.
Mill, John Stuart, Essays on Poetry, ed. F. Parvin Sharpless, Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1976.
Very, Jones, Essays and Poems, ed. R. W. Emerson, Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1839.
Vischer, Friedrich Theodor, Aesthetik oder Wissenschaft des Schönen. Vol. v: Die Dichtkunst, Stuttgart: Karl Mäckten, 1857.

Secondary sources

Fishelov, David, Metaphors of Genre, University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1993.
Fowler, Alastair, Kinds of Literature: An Introduction to the Theory of Genres and Modes, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982.
Guillén, Claudio, Literature as System: Essays Toward the Theory of Literary History, Princeton University Press, 1971.
Rajan, Tilottama, ‘Theories of Genre’ in The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism. Vol. V: Romanticism, ed. Marshall Brown, Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp. 226–49.

Theories of the novel

Primary sources

Bain, Alexander, The Emotions and the Will, 2nd edn, London: Longmans, Green, 1865.
Brunetière, Ferdinand, L’Evolution des genres dans l'histoire de la littérature: leçons professées à l’Ecole normale supérieure, Paris: Hachette, 1898.
Flaubert, Gustave, The Letters of Gustave Flaubert, 1830–1857, trans. Francis Steegmuller, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980.
Flaubert, GustaveThe Letters of Gustave Flaubert, 1857–1880, trans. Francis Steegmuller, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982.
Hennequin, Emile, La Critique scientifique, Paris: Perrin, 1888.
Masson, David, British Novelists and Their Styles: Being a Critical Sketch of the History of British Prose Fiction, Cambridge and London: Macmillan, 1859.
Spielhagen, Friedrich, Beiträge zur Theorie und Technik des Romans, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1967.
Zola, Emile, The Experimental Novel and Other Essays, trans. Belle Sherman, New York: Cassell, 1893.

Secondary sources

Cohen, Margaret, The Sentimental Education of the Novel, Princeton University Press, 1999.
Graham, Kenneth, English Criticism of the Novel, 1865–1900, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963.
Hale, Dorothy, Social Formalism: The Novel in Theory from Henry James to the Present, Stanford University Press, 1998.
McKeon, Michael (ed.), Theory of the Novel: A Historical Approach, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.
Olmsted, John Charles, A Victorian Art of Fiction: Essays on the Novel in British Periodicals, 3 vols., New York: Garland, 1979.
Stang, Richard, The Theory of the Novel in England, 1850–1870, New York: Columbia University Press, 1959.
Wellek, René, A History of Modern Criticism: 1750–1950, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1965.

Theories of poetry

Primary sources

Buchanan, Robert, The Fleshly School of Poetry, London: Strahan, 1872.
Cousin, Victor, Lectures on the True, the Beautiful, and the Good, trans. O. W. Wight, New York: D. Appleton, 1854.
Lanier, Sidney, The Science of English Verse, New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1880.
Mill, John Stuart, Collected Works of John Stuart Mill. Vol. i: Autobiography and Literary Essays, eds. John M. Robson and Jack Stillinger, University of Toronto Press, 1981.
Patmore, Coventry, Essay on English Metrical Law, ed. Mary Augustine Roth, Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1961.
Poe, Edgar Allan, ‘The Rationale of Verse’ in Complete Tales and Poems of Edgar Allan Poe, New York: Random House, 1975, pp. 908–42.
Saintsbury, George, A History of English Prosody from the Twelfth Century to the Present Day, 3 vols., London: Macmillan, 1923.
Swinburne, Algernon Charles, William Blake: A Critical Essay, New York: Benjamin Blom, 1868.
Twain, Mark, ‘The Walt Whitman Controversy’, Virginia Quarterly Review, 83 (2007), 128–38.

Secondary sources

Armstrong, Isobel, Victorian Poetry: Poetry, Poetics and Politics, New York: Routledge, 1993.
Ashton, Jennifer, From Modernism to Postmodernism: American Poetry and Theory in the Twentieth Century, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Ferguson, Frances, Solitude and the Sublime: Romanticism and the Aesthetics of Individuation, New York: Routledge, 1992.
Grossman, Allen, The Long Schoolroom: Essays in the Bitter Logic of the Poetic Principle, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.
Hammermeister, Kai, The German Aesthetic Tradition, Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Hönnighausen, Lothar, The Symbolist Tradition in English Literature: A Study of Pre-Raphaelitism and Fin de Siècle, trans. Gisela Hönnighausen, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Kivy, Peter, Philosophies of Arts: An Essay in Differences, Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Knapp, Steven, Literary Interest: The Limits of Anti-Formalism, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993.
Lentricchia, Frank, ‘Four Types of Nineteenth-Century Poetic’, Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 26 (1968), 351–66.
Loesberg, Jonathan, Aestheticism and Deconstruction: Pater, Derrida, and de Man, Princeton University Press, 1991.
Porter, Laurence M., The Crisis of French Symbolism, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990.

Theories of drama

Primary sources

Archer, William, Play-Making: A Manual of Craftsmanship, Boston: Small, Maynard, 1912.
Brunetière, Ferdinand, The Law of the Drama, trans. Philip M. Hayden, New York: Columbia University, 1914.
Clark, Barret H., European Theories of the Drama, New York and London: Appleton, 1925.
Freytag, Gustav, Die Technik des Dramas, Leipzig: S. Hirzel, 1876.
Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels, Über Kunst und Literatur, Berlin: Henschel, 1950.
Schumacher, Claude (ed.), Naturalism and Symbolism in European Theatre: 1850–1918, Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Shaw, George Bernard, The Drama Observed, ed. Bernard F. Dukore, 4 vols., University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1993.
Sidnell, Michael J. (ed.), Sources of Dramatic Theory. vol ii: Voltaire to Hugo, Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Symons, Arthur, Plays, Acting and Music: A Book of Theory, London: Duckworth, 1903.
Wagner, Richard, Opera and Drama, trans. William Ashton Ellis (1893); rpt Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.

Secondary sources

Bentley, Eric, The Theory of the Modern Stage, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976.
Hamilton, Clayton, The Theory of the Theatre, New York: H. Holt, 1910.
Matthews, Brander, A Study of the Drama, Boston: Longmans, Green, 1910.
Meisel, Martin, Shaw and the Nineteenth-Century Theater, Princeton University Press, 1963.
Rowell, George (ed.), The Victorian Theatre: A Survey, London: Oxford University Press, 1956.
Rydel, Christine A. (ed.), Russian Literature in the Age of Pushkin and Gogol: Poetry and Drama, Detroit: Gale, 1999.

Literary criticism and models of science

Primary sources

Brunetière, Ferdinand, ‘La doctrine évolutive et l'histoire de la littérature’ in Etudes critiques sur l'histoire de la littérature française, Paris: Hachette, 1905.
Ellis, Havelock, The New Spirit, London: Bell, 1890.
Ellis, HavelockThe Colour-Sense in Literature’, Contemporary Review, 69 (1896), 714–29.
Ellis, HavelockViews and Reviews, London: Harmsworth, 1932.
Gummere, Francis B., The Beginnings of Poetry (1901); rpt Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1970.
Hennequin, Emile, La Critique scientifique, 2nd edn, Paris: Librairie académique Didier, 1890.
Lanson, Gustave, ‘L’esprit scientifique et la méthode de l'histoire littéraire’ in Méthodes de l'histoire littéraire, Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1925, pp. 21–37.
Lanson, GustaveL’histoire littéraire et la sociologie’ (1904) in Essais de méthode, de critique et d'histoire littéraire, Paris: Hachette, 1965, pp. 61–80.
Lewes, G. H., Principles of Success in Literature, Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1891.
Mackenzie, A. S., The Evolution of Literature, New York: Crowell, 1911.
Manly, John Matthews, ‘Literary Forms and the New Theory of the Origin of Species’, Modern Philology, 4 (1907), 577–95.
Moulton, Richard G., Shakespeare as a Dramatic Critic: A Popular Illustration of the Principles of Scientific Criticism, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1885.
Nordau, Max, Degeneration, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993.
Robertson, John MacKinnon, ‘Theory and Practice of Criticism’ in New Essays towards a Critical Method, London: Fisher Unwin, 1897, pp. 1–53.
Scherer, Wilhelm, Vorträge und Aufsätze zur Geschichte des geistigen Lebens in Deutschland und Oesterreich, Berlin: Weidmann, 1874.
Scherer, WilhelmGeschichte der deutschen Sprache, 2nd edn, Berlin: Weidmann, 1878.
Schmidt, Erich, Charakteristiken, Berlin: Weidmann, 1886.
Symonds, John Addington, Essays, Speculative and Suggestive, 2 vols., London: Chapman & Hall, 1890.

Secondary sources

Babbitt, Irving, The Masters of Modern French Criticism, London: Constable, 1913.
Caramaschi, Enzo, Critiques scientistes et critiques impressionistes: Taine, Brunetière, Gourmont, Pisa: Goliardica, 1963.
Dekkers, Odin, J. M. Robertson: Rationalist and Literary Critic, Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998.
Hocking, Elton, Ferdinand Brunetière: The Evolution of a Critic, Madison: University of Wisconsin Studies in Language and Literature, 1936.
Kindt, Tom and Hans-Harald Müller, ‘Dilthey gegen Scherer: Geistesgeschichte contra Positivismus. Zur Revision eines wissenschaftshistorischen Stereotyps’, Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte, 74 (2000), 685–709.
Kolk, Rainer, ‘Wahrheit – Methode – Charakter: Zur wissenschaftlichen Ethik der Germanistik im 19. Jahrhundert’, Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur, 14 (1998), 50–73.
LeGouis, Catherine, Positivism and Imagination: Scientism and its Limits in Emile Hennequin, Wilhelm Scherer, and Dmitrii Piasrev, Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 1997.
Salm, Peter, Three Modes of Criticism: The Literary Theories of Scherer, Walzel, and Staiger, Cleveland, OH: Case Western Reserve University Press, 1968.
Weimar, Klaus, Geschichte der deutschen Literaturwissenschaft, Paderborn: Fink, 2003.
Wellek, René, Concepts of Criticism, Newhaven, CT: Yale University Press, 1963.

Literature and the arts

Primary sources

Delacroix, Eugène, Journal 1822–1863, ed. Régis Labourdette, Paris: Plon, 1996.
Delacroix, EugèneJournal, ed. Michèle Hannoosh, 2 vols., Paris: José Corti, 2009.
Laforgue, Jules, Œuvres complètes, ed. Michèle Hannoosh, 3 vols., Lausanne: L’Age d’Homme, 1986–2000.
Ruskin, John, The Complete Works of John Ruskin, eds. E. T. Cook and Alexander Wedderburn, 39 vols., London: George Allen, 1903–12.
Ruskin, JohnThe Art Criticism of John Ruskin, ed. Robert L. Herbert (1964); rpt New York: Da Capo Press, 1987.
Wagner, Richard, Prose Works of Richard Wagner, trans. William Ashton Ellis, 8 vols., London: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1892–9.
Whistler, James McNeill, The Gentle Art of Making Enemies, 2nd edn, London: Heinemann, 1892.
Zola, Emile, Salons, ed. F. W. J. Hemmings and R. J. Niess, Geneva: Droz, 1959.

Secondary sources

Berg, William J., The Visual Novel: Emile Zola and the Art of His Time, University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992.
Collier, Peter and Robert Lethbridge (eds.), Artistic Relations: Literature and the Visual Arts in Nineteenth-Century France, New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press, 1992.
Flint, Kate, The Victorians and the Visual Imagination, Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Florence, Penny, Mallarmé, Manet and Redon: Visual and Aural Signs and the Generation of Meaning, Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Grey, Thomas S., Wagner's Musical Prose: Texts and Contexts, Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Kern, Stephen, The Culture of Time and Space 1880–1918, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983.
Meisel, Martin, Realizations: Narrative, Pictorial, and Theatrical Arts in Nineteenth-Century England, Princeton University Press, 1983.
Wettlaufer, Alexandra K., In the Mind's Eye: The Visual Impulse in Diderot, Baudelaire and Ruskin, Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2003.
Wright, Beth S., The Cambridge Companion to Delacroix, New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Biblical scholarship and literary criticism

Primary sources

Arnold, Matthew, St. Paul and Protestantism, London: Smith, Elder, 1870.
Arnold, MatthewLiterature and Dogma: An Essay towards a Better Apprehension of the Bible, London: Smith, Elder, 1873.
Arnold, MatthewGod and the Bible, London: Smith, Elder, 1887.
Butler, Samuel, The Notebooks of Samuel Butler. Vol. I (1874–1883), ed. Hans-Peter Breuer (1967); rpt New York: Doubleday, 1984.
Carlyle, Thomas, Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History, London: John Wiley, 1840.
Herder, Johann Gottfried, The Spirit of Hebrew Poetry (1783), trans. J. Marsh, 2 vols., Burlington, VT: Edward Smith, 1833.
Locke, John, A Paraphrase and Notes on the Epistles of St. Paul to the Galatians, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Romans, Ephesians (1707), ed. Arthur W. Wainwright, 2 vols., Oxford University Press, 1987.
Newman, John Henry (Cardinal), An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent (1870), Notre Dame and London: University of Notre Dame Press, 1979.
Ruskin, John, Praeterita, 2 vols., New York: John Wiley, 1886–7.
Schleiermacher, Friedrich, ‘Introduction to General Hermeneutics’ in The Hermeneutics Reader, ed. Kurt Mueller-Vollmer, New York: Continuum, 2006.

Secondary sources

Boyle, Nicholas, Sacred and Secular Scriptures: A Catholic Approach to Literature, University of Notre Dame Press, 2005.
DeLaura, David J., Hebrew and Hellene in Victorian England: Newman, Arnold, and Pater, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1969.
Frei, Hans, The Eclipse of Biblical Narrative: A Study in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Hermeneutics, New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press, 1974.
Jeffrey, David Lyle, People of the Book: Christian Identity and Literary Culture, Grand Rapids, MI, and Cambridge: Eerdmans, 1996.
Knoepflmacher, U. C., Religious Humanism and the Victorian Novel: George Eliot, Walter Pater, and Samuel Butler, Princeton University Press, 1965.
Krueger, Christine L., The Reader's Repentance: Women Preachers, Women Writers, and Nineteenth-Century Social Discourse, University of Chicago Press, 1992.
Landow, George, Aesthetic and Critical Theories of John Ruskin, Princeton University Press, 1971.
McKelvy, William R., ‘Primitive Ballads, Modern Criticism, Ancient Skepticism: Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome’, Victorian Literature and Culture, 28 (2000), 287–309.
Prickett, Stephen, Words and the Word: Language, Poetics and Biblical Interpretation, Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Prickett, Stephen,(ed.), Reading the Text: Biblical Criticism and Literary Theory, Oxford: Blackwell, 1991.
Wheeler, Michael, Ruskin's God, Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Zemka, Sue, Victorian Testaments: The Bible, Christology, and Literary Authority in Early-Nineteenth-Century British Culture, Stanford University Press, 1997.