Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: December 2010

12 - A stepwise approach to pain management

from Section 1 - Pain Definitions
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Essence of Analgesia and Analgesics
  • Online ISBN: 9780511841378
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *


1. World Health Organization. Cancer Pain Relief. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1986.
2. World Health Organization. Cancer Pain Relief, 2nd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1996.
3. FoleyKM. 2006. Appraising the WHO Analgesic Ladder on Its 20th Anniversary. www.whocancerpain.
4. AdamsNJ, PlaneMB, FlemingMF, MundtMP, SaundersLA, StauffacherEA. Opioids and the treatment of chronic pain in a primary care sample. J Pain Symptom Manage 2001;22:791–796.
5. PortenoyRK. Opioid therapy for chronic nonmalignant pain: a review of the critical issues. J Pain Symptom Manage 1996;11:203–217.
6. NicholsonB. Responsible prescribing of opioids for the management of chronic pain. Drugs 2003;63:17–32.
7. BruntonS. Approach to assessment and diagnosis of chronic pain. J Fam Pract 2004;53:S3–10.
8. EisenbergE, et al. J Clin Oncol 1994;12:2756–2765.
9. JustinsD, SeimaszkoO. Rational use of neural blockade for the management of chronic pain. Pain 2002- An updated Review, Refresher Course Syllabus. Seattle: IASP Press, 2002.
10. JA Turner, JD Loeser, KG Bell. Spinal cord stimulation for chronic low back pain: a systematic literature synthesis. Neurosurgery 1995;37:1088–1095.
11. WongGY, SchroederDR, CarnsPE, et al. Effect of neurolytic celiac plexus block on pain relief, quality of life, and survival in pancreatic cancer. JAMA 2004;291:1092–1099.
12. HartrickC, Van-HoveI, StegmannJ, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of tapentadol immediate release and oxycodone immediate release in patients awaiting primary joint replacement. Clin Ther 2009;31:260–271.
13. MercadanteS. The use of anti-inflammatory drugs in cancer pain. Cancer Treat Rev 2001;27:51–61.
14. FarrarJT, ClearyJ, RauckR, BuschM, NordbrockE. Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate: randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial for treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90:611–616.
15. HockingG, CousinsMJ. Ketamine in chronic pain management: an evidence-based review. Anesth Analg 2003;97:1730–1739.