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Raising Children
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  • Cited by 6
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    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Johnston-Ataata, Kate Kokanović, Renata and Michaels, Paula A. 2018. Paths to Parenthood. p. 187.

    Lancy, David F. 2018. Anthropological Perspectives on Children as Helpers, Workers, Artisans, and Laborers. p. 59.

    Lancy, David F. 2018. Anthropological Perspectives on Children as Helpers, Workers, Artisans, and Laborers. p. 85.

    Lancy, David F. 2018. Anthropological Perspectives on Children as Helpers, Workers, Artisans, and Laborers. p. 213.

    Eisenberg, Michael and Jacobson-Weaver, Zack 2018. Digital Technologies: Sustainable Innovations for Improving Teaching and Learning. p. 83.

    Lancy, David F. 2018. Anthropological Perspectives on Children as Helpers, Workers, Artisans, and Laborers. p. 31.

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Book description

Why in some parts of the world do parents rarely play with their babies and never with toddlers? Why in some cultures are children not fully recognized as individuals until they are older? How are routine habits of etiquette and hygiene taught - or not - to children in other societies? Drawing on a lifetime's experience as an anthropologist, David F. Lancy takes us on a journey across the globe to show how children are raised differently in different cultures. Intriguing, and sometimes shocking, his discoveries demonstrate that our ideas about children are recent, untested, and often contrast starkly with those in other parts of the world. Lancy argues that we are, by historical standards, guilty of over-parenting, and of micro-managing our children's lives. Challenging many of our accepted truths, his book will encourage parents to think differently about children, and by doing so to feel more relaxed about their own parenting skills.

Reviews

‘If you've ever wondered why you are sitting on the toy-strewn floor, playing a third game of Candyland, so bored you are ready to hang yourself with a Slinky, Dr Lancy has the answer. It's the culture, not you.'

Lenore Skenazy - founder of the book, website, and movement, Free-Range Kids

‘David F. Lancy's fascinating and comprehensive work on the anthropology of childhood puts modern Western parenting into much needed historical and cultural context, calling into question all that we assume to be best practice or most ‘natural'. In an age of unprecedentedly high parental anxiety, Lancy's work offers compelling, welcome evidence that there truly are many ways to raise a thriving child.'

Christine Gross-Loh - author of Parenting Without Borders and co-author of The Path

‘Dr Lancy exhibits an all-too-rare talent in the academy: the ability to synthesize an impressive array of scientific data in an easy-to-read, even delightful, manner. What makes Raising Children: Surprising Insights from Other Cultures particularly rewarding is its broad scope, weaving stories from scores of cultures across time and space, coupled with its intriguing focus. Readers who explore the universe of child-rearing techniques will gain insights not only into the human animal, but their own children as well.'

Michael S. Sweeney - author of Brain: The Complete Mind

‘David F. Lancy has written a compelling compendium of cultural differences in child care philosophy and child rearing practices. He clearly demonstrates that the Western (middle class) views and practices, which are offered in textbooks as the normal and healthy way, are at best an outlier in the world wide spectrum. David F. Lancy says it is a book about parents, but it is also a book for parents, especially for Western middle class parents which would help them relax and rely more on their intuitions. It is moreover a must for health care professionals and educators who deal with multicultural realities. It can help to prevent damage based in lacking knowledge and awareness of the contextual nature of any developmental processes.'

Heidi Keller - author of Cultures of Infancy

'I'm giving this to all the first-time parents I know.'

Michael Erard - author of Babel No More

'Lancy’s research is so thorough and his writing infused with such gentle humour that even his admonishments and one-liners to parents are a pleasure.'

Shaoni Bhattacharya Source: New Scientist

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Chapter 1:
1.p. 1. Lukas, H. and Hakami, K., “No baby talk: Children in a truly egalitarian society,” Hunter-Gatherer Research (in press). Also Hakami, K. Anthropologist, University of Vienna, personal communication, 2015.
2.p. 2. Lancy, D. F., “‘Playing with knives:’ The socialization of self-initiated learners,” Child Development, 87, 2016.
3.p. 3. Erard, M., “The only baby book you’ll ever need,” New York Times, January 31, 2015.
4.p. 4. Turke, P. W., “Helpers at the nest: Childcare networks on Ifaluk.” In Betzig, L., Mulder, M. Borgerhoff, and Turke, P., eds., Human Reproductive Behavior (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988).
5.p. 4. Nieuwenhuys, O., “Growing up between places of work and non-places of childhood: The uneasy relationship.” In Olwig, K. F. and Gulløv, E., eds., Children’s Places: Cross-cultural Perspectives (London: Routledge, 2003).
6.p. 6. Lancy, D. F., The Anthropology of Childhood: Cherubs, Chattel, Changelings, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).
7.p. 6. Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., and Norenzayan, A., “The weirdest people in the world?Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 33, 2010.
8.p. 8. King argues that mommy blogs may provide a modern substitute for the village model of learning to be a mother. King, W. L., “Mormon mommy blogs: ‘There’s gotta be some women out there who feel the same way’.” Unpublished MS thesis. Utah State University, 2011.
9.p. 8. Regaignon, D. R., “Anxious uptakes: Nineteenth-century advice literature as a rhetorical genre,” College English, 78, 2015.
Chapter 2:
1.p. 9. Gallou, C., “Review of The Anthropology of Childhood,” Journal of Childhood in the Past, 9, 2016.
2.p. 9. Fisher, A., “Reproduction in Truk,” Ethnology, 2, 1963.
3.p. 10. Stasch, R., Society of Others: Kinship and Mourning in a West Papuan Place (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009).
4.p. 10. Shostak, M., Nisa: The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman (New York: Vintage Books, 1981).
5.p. 10. Draper, P. and Cashdan, E., “Technological change and child behavior among the !Kung,” Ethnology, 27, 1988.
6.p. 10. Hill, K. and Hurtado, A. M., Ache Life History: The Ecology and Demography of a Foraging People (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1996).
1.p. 12. Counts, D. A., “Infant care and feeding in Kaliai, West New Britain, Papua New Guinea.” In Marshall, L. B., ed., Infant Care and Feeding in the South Pacific (New York: Gordon and Beach, 1985).
2.p. 12. Ritchie, J. and Ritchie, J., Growing Up in Polynesia (Sydney: George Allen and Unwin, 1979).
3.p. 12. Tietjen, A. M., “Infant care and feeding practices and the beginnings of socialization among the Maisin of Papua New Guinea.” In Marshall, L. B., ed., Infant Care and Feeding in the South Pacific (New York: Gordon and Beach, 1985).
4.p. 12. Wiley, A. S., An Ecology of High-Altitude Infancy (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
5.pp. 12, 13. Kulick, D., Language Shift and Cultural Reproduction: Socialization, Self, and Syncretism in a Papua New Guinea Village (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).
6.p. 13. McGilvray, D. B., “Sexual power and fertility in Sri Lanka: Batticaloa Tamils and Moors.” In MacCormack, C. P., ed., Ethnography of Fertility and Birth (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1994).
7.p. 13. Gorer, G., Himalayan Village: An Account of the Lepchas of Sikkim (New York: Basic Books, 1967).
8.p. 13. Golden, M., Children and Childhood in Classical Athens (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990).
9.p. 13. Kleijueqgt, M., “Ancient Mediterranean world, childhood and adolescence.” In Shweder, R. A., Bidell, T. R., Dailey, A. C., Dixon, S. D., Miller, P. J., and Modell, J., eds., The Child: An Encyclopedic Companion (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2009).
10.p. 13. Little, C. A. J., “Becoming an Asabano: The socialization of Asabano children, Duranmin, West Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea.” Unpublished master’s thesis. Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, 2008.
11.p. 14. Wagley, C., Welcome of Tears: The Tapirapé Indians of Central Brazil (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977).
12.p. 14. Hrdy, S. B., Mother Nature: Maternal Instincts and How They Shape the Human Species (New York: Ballantine, 1999).
13.p. 14. Dettwyler, K. A., Dancing Skeletons: Life and Death in West Africa (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1972).
14.p. 14. Einarsdottir, J., Tired of Weeping: Mother Love, Child Death, and Poverty in Guinea-Bissau (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 2004).
15.p. 15. Regaignon, D. R., “Anxious uptakes: Nineteenth-century advice literature as a rhetorical genre,” College English, 78, 2015.
16.p. 15. Scheper-Hughes, N., “Cultures, scarcity, and maternal thinking: Mother love and child death in Northeast Brazil.” In Scheper-Hughes, N., ed., Child Survival: Anthropological Perspectives on the Treatment and Maltreatment of Children (Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1987).
1.p. 15. Mead, M., “The swaddling hypothesis: Its reception,” American Anthropologist, 56, 1954. In the same article, she discusses the role of swaddling in shaping “Russian character.”
2.p. 16. Franco, P., Seret, N., Van Hees, J. N., Scaillet, S., Groswasser, J., and Kahn, A., “Influence of swaddling on sleep and arousal characteristics of healthy infants,” Pediatrics, 115, 2005.
3.p. 16. Calvert, K., Children in the House: The Material Culture of Early Childhood, 1600–1900 (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1992).
4.p. 16. Casimir, M. J., Growing Up in a Pastoral Society: Socialization among Pashtu Nomads, Kölner Ethnologische Beiträge (Cologne: Druck and Bindung, 2010).
5.p. 16. Fonseca, I., Bury Me Standing: The Gypsies and Their Journey (New York: Vintage Books, 1995).
6.p. 17. Tronick, E. Z., Thomas, R. B., and Daltabuit, M., “The Quechua manta pouch: A caretaking practice for buffering the Peruvian infant against the multiple stressors of high altitude,” Child Development, 65, 1994.
7.p. 17. MacKenzie, M. A., Androgynous Objects: String Bags and Gender in Central New Guinea (Reading: Harwood, 1991).
8.p. 17. Chisholm, J. S., “Development and adaptation in infancy,” New Directions for Child Development, 8, 1980.
9.p. 17. Leighton, D. and Kluckhohn, C. C., Children of the People (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1948).
10.p. 18. Harkness, S. and Super, C., “Themes and variations: Parental ethnotheories in Western cultures.” In Rubin, K. H. and Chung, O. B., eds., Parenting Beliefs, Behaviors, and Parent–Child Relations: A Cross-cultural Perspective (New York: Psychology Press, 2006).
11.p. 18. Karp, H., The Happiest Baby on the Block, 2nd edition (New York: Bantam, 2015).
1.p. 18. Ritson, J., Gammer Gurton’s Garland (Whitefish, MT: Kessenger Reprint, 2009; first published 1794).
2.pp. 18, 19. Swift, J., A Modest Proposal: For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland, From Being a Burden on Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Publick (Project Gutenberg, 1729). Available at www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=1444499.
3.p. 19. Kirka, D., “Albanian mom seeks to help family, but ends up losing son,” Salt Lake Tribune, November 30, 2003.
4.p. 19. Scheper-Hughes, N., “Cultures, scarcity, and maternal thinking: Mother love and child death in Northeast Brazil.” In Scheper-Hughes, N., ed., Child Survival: Anthropological Perspectives on the Treatment and Maltreatment of Children (Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1987).
5.pp. 19, 20. Einarsdottir, J., Tired of Weeping: Mother Love, Child Death, and Poverty in Guinea-Bissau (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 2004).
6.p. 20. Hampshire, K., “The impact of male migration on fertility decisions and outcomes in northern Burkina Faso.” In Tremayne, S., ed., Managing Reproductive Life: Cross-cultural Themes in Sexuality and Fertility (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2001).
7.p. 20. Konner, M. and Worthman, C., “Nursing frequency, gonadal function and birth spacing among !Kung hunter-gatherers,” Science, 207, 1980.
8.p. 20. Gray, B. M., “Enga birth, maturation and survival: Physiological characteristics of the life cycle in the New Guinea Highlands.” In MacCormack, C. P., ed., Ethnography of Fertility and Birth (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1994).
9.p. 20. Belaunde, L. E., “Menstruation, birth observances and the couple’s love amongst the Airo-Pai of Amazonian Peru.” In Tremayne, S., ed., Managing Reproductive Life: Cross-cultural Themes in Sexuality and Fertility (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2001).
10.p. 20. Hewlett, B. S., “Demography and childcare in preindustrial societies,” Journal of Anthropological Research, 47, 1991.
11.p. 21. Alexandre-Bidon, D. and Lett, D., Children in the Middle Ages: Fifth–Fifteen Centuries (Notre Dame, IN: The University of Notre Dame Press, 1999).
12.p. 21. Sommerville, J. C., The Rise and Fall of Childhood (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1982).
13.p. 21. Gavitt, P., Charity and Children in Renaissance Florence: The Ospedale degli Innocenti, 1410–1536 (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1990).
14.p. 22. Colón, A. R. with Colón, P. A., A History of Children: A Socio-cultural Survey across Millennia (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001).
15.p. 22. Sommerville, , The Rise and Fall of Childhood.
16.p. 22. Johansson, S. R., “Neglect, abuse, and avoidable death: Parental investment and the mortality of infants and children in the European tradition.” In Gelles, R. J. and Lancaster, J. B., eds., Child Abuse and Neglect: Biosocial Dimensions (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1976).
17.p. 22. Sommerville, , The Rise and Fall of Childhood.
18.p. 22. Chaudhuri, N., “England.” In Hawes, J. M. and Hiner, N. R., eds., Children in Historical and Comparative Perspective (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1991).
19.p. 22. Sommerville, , The Rise and Fall of Childhood.
20.p. 22. Moynihan, B., The Faith: A History of Christianity (New York: Doubleday, 2002).
21.p. 22. Mintz, S., Huck’s Raft: A History of American Childhood (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2004).
22.p. 23. Caldwell, J. C., “The Great Transition”: Theory of Fertility Decline (New York: Academic Press, 1982).
23.p. 23. Lancy, D. F., The Anthropology of Childhood: Cherubs, Chattel, Changelings, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).
24.p. 23. Lawson, D. W. and Mace, R., “Optimizing modern family size,” Human Nature, 21, 2010.
25.p. 23. Zelizer, V. A., Pricing the Priceless Child: The Changing Social Value of Children (New York: Basic Books, 1985).
27.p. 23. Hern, W. M., “Family planning, Amazon style,” Natural History, 101(12), 1992.
28.p. 23. Terhune, K. W., “A review of the actual and expected consequences of family size,” Calspan Report, DP-5333-G-1 (Washington, DC: Center for Population Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1974).
29.p. 23. Blake, J., Family Size and Achievement (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989).
30.p. 24. Lawson, D. W. and Mace, R., “Trade-offs in modern parenting: A longitudinal study of sibling competition for parental care,” Human Behavior, 30(3), 2009.
31.p. 24. Zhu, B. P., “Effect of inter-pregnancy interval on birth outcomes: findings from three recent US studies,” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 89, 2005.
Chapter 3:
1.p. 25. Steiner, L. M., Mommy Wars: Stay-at-Home and Career Moms Face Off on Their Choices, Their Lives, Their Families (New York: Random House, 2007).
2.p. 25. Bowlby, J., Child Care and The Growth of Love (Hammondsworth: Penguin, 1961).
3.p. 25. Ainsworth, M. D. Salter, Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., and Wall, S. N., Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1978).
7.p. 26. Jenner, E., “The perils of attachment parenting,” Atlantic Magazine, August 2014.
8.p. 26. Otto, H. and Keller, H., eds., Different Faces of Attachment: Cultural Variations of a Universal Human Need (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014).
Quinn, N. and Mageo, J., eds., Attachment Reconsidered: Cultural Perspectives on a Western Theory (New York: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2013).
9.p. 26. Erchak, G. M., The Anthropology of Self and Behavior (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1992).
10.p. 27. Paradise, R., “Passivity or tacit collaboration: Mazahua interaction in cultural context,” Learning and Instruction, 6, 1996.
11.p. 27. LeVine, R. A., “Challenging expert knowledge: Findings from an African study of infant care and development.” In Gielen, U. P. and Roopnarine, J. L., eds., Childhood and Adolescence: Cross-cultural Perspectives and Application (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004).
12.p. 27. Sandlin, B., “Children and the Swedish welfare state: From different to familiar.” In Fass, P. S. and Michael, G., eds., Reinventing Childhood after World War II (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012).
13.p. 27. LeVine, R. and Norman, K., “The infant’s acquisition of culture: Early attachment reexamined in anthropological perspective.” In Moore, C. C. and Matthews, H. F., eds., The Psychology of Cultural Experience (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
1.p. 28. Lancy, D. F., “Babies aren’t persons.” In Keller, H. and Otto, H., eds., Different Faces of Attachment: Cultural Variations of a Universal Human Need (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014).
2.p. 28. Heywood, C., A History of Childhood: Children and Childhood in the West from Medieval to Modern Times (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2001).
3.p. 29. Ibid.
4.pp. 29, 30. Wiley, A. S., An Ecology of High-Altitude Infancy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
5.p. 30. Tomlinson, M., Murray, L., and Cooper, P., “Attachment theory, culture, and Africa: Past, present, and future.” In Erdmand, P. and Ng, K., eds., Attachment: Expanding the Cultural Connections (New York: Routledge, 2010).
6.p. 31. Einarsdottir, J., Tired of Weeping: Mother Love, Child Death, and Poverty in Guinea-Bissau (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 2004).
7.pp. 30, 31, 32. Lancy, , “Babies aren’t persons.”
8.p. 32. Ibid.
9.p. 32. Grubbs, J. E., “Infant exposure and infanticide.” In Grubbs, J. E., Parkin, T., and Bell, R., eds., The Oxford Handbook of Childhood and Education in the Classical World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).
10.p. 32. Zelizer, V. A., Pricing the Priceless Child: The Changing Social Value of Children (New York: Basic Books, 1985).
11.p. 33. Alexandre-Bidon, D. and Lett, D., Children in the Middle Ages: Fifth–Fifteen Centuries (Notre Dame, IN: The University of Notre Dame Press, 1999).
1.pp. 33–7. Lancy, D. F., “Babies aren’t persons.” In Keller, H. and Otto, H., eds., Different Faces of Attachment: Cultural Variations of a Universal Human Need (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014).
2.p. 34. Harkness, S., Super, C. M., and Keefer, C. H., “Learning to be an American parent: How cultural models gain directive force.” In D’Andrade, R. and Strauss, C., eds., Human Motives and Cultural Models (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).
3.p. 35. Whittemore, R. D., “Child caregiving and socialization to the Mandinka way: Toward an ethnography of childhood.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Los Angeles, 1989.
4.p. 35. Childs, G. M., Umbundu Kinship and Character: Being a Description of Social Structure and Individual Development of the Ovimbundu of Angola (London: Published for the International African Institute by the Oxford University Press, 1949).
5.p. 36. de Suremain, C.-É., “Au fil de la faja: Enrouler et dérouler la vie en Bolivie.” In Bonnet, D. and Pourchez, L., eds., Du soin au rite dans l’infance (Paris: IRD, 2007).
6.p. 37. Rawson, B., Children and Childhood in Roman Italy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).
7.p. 37. Lewis, M. E., The Bioarchaeology of Children: Perspectives from Biological and Forensic Anthropology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).
8.p. 38. Lancy, D. F., The Anthropology of Childhood: Cherubs, Chattel, Changelings, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).
9.p. 38. Cross, G., The Cute and the Cool: Wondrous Innocence and Modern American Children’s Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004).
1.p. 39. Dupuis, A., “Rites requis par la naissance, la croissance et la mort des jumeaux: Leur aménagement dans le monde modern. Le cas de Nzebi du Gabon.” In Bonnet, D. and Pourchez, L., eds., Du soin au rite dans l’infance (Paris: IRD, 2007).
2.p. 39. de Suremain, C.-É., “Au fil de la faja: Enrouler et dérouler la vie en Bolivie.” In Bonnet, D. and Pourchez, L., eds., Du soin au rite dans l’infance (Paris: IRD, 2007).
3.pp. 39, 40, 41, 42. Lancy, D. F., The Anthropology of Childhood: Cherubs, Chattel, Changelings, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).
4.p. 40. Scott, E., The Archaeology of Infancy and Infant Death (Oxford: Archaeopress, 1999).
5.p. 40. Viccars, John D., “Witchcraft in Bolobo, Belgian Congo,” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 19(3), 1949.
6.p. 41. Tjitayi, K. and Lewis, S., “Envisioning lives at Ernabella.” In Eickelkamp, U., ed., Growing Up in Central Australia: New Anthropological Studies of Aboriginal Childhood and Adolescence (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2011).
7.p. 41. Nath, Y. V. S., Bhils of Ratanmal: An Analysis of the Social Structure of a Western Indian Community, The M.S. University Sociological Monograph Series I (Baroda: Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, 1960).
8.p. 43. Cross, G., The Cute and the Cool: Wondrous Innocence and Modern American Children’s Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004).
2.pp. 43, 44. Hewlett, B. S., Intimate Fathers: The Nature and Context of Aka Pygmy Paternal–Infant Care (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1991).
3.p. 44. Lancy, D. F., The Anthropology of Childhood: Cherubs, Chattel, Changelings, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).
4.p. 44. Hua, C., A Society without Fathers or Husbands: The Na of China (Husvedt, Asti, translator) (Brooklyn, NY: Zone Books, 2001).
5.p. 44. Gegeo, D. W. and Watson-Gegeo, K. A., “Kwara’ae mothers and infants: Changing family practices.” In Marshall, L. B., ed., Infant Care and Feeding in the South Pacific: Health, Work, and Childrearing (New York: Gordon and Beach Science, 1985).
6.p. 44. Gray, B. M., “Enga birth, maturation and survival: Physiological characteristics of the life cycle in the New Guinea Highlands.” In MacCormack, C. P., ed., Ethnography of Fertility and Birth (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1994).
7.p. 44. Bock, J. and Johnson, S. E., “Male migration, remittances, and child outcome among the Okavango Delta peoples of Botswana.” In Tamis-LaMonda, C. S. and Cabrera, N., eds., Handbook of Father Involvement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2002).
8.p. 45. Sear, R. and Mace, R., “Who keeps children alive? A review of the effects of kin on child survival,” Evolution and Human Behavior, 29, 2008.
9.p. 46. Welles-Nyström, B., “Scenes from a marriage: Equality ideology in Swedish family policy, maternal ethnotheories, and practice.” In Harkness, S. and Super, C. M., eds., Parents’ Cultural Belief Systems: Their Origins, Expressions, and Consequences (New York: The Guilford Press, 1996).
10.p. 46. Jolivet, M., Japan: The Childless Society? The Crisis of Motherhood (London: Routledge, 1997).
11.p. 46. Miller, C. C., “Men do more at home, but not as much as they think,” New York Times, November 12, 2015.
12.p. 46. La Rossa, R., “Fatherhood and social change,” Family Relations, 37, 1988.
13.p. 47. Berrick, J. D., Faces of Poverty: Portraits of Women and Children on Welfare (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).
14.p. 47. Galindo, F. (“Feggo”), cartoon, New Yorker, September 19, 2005.
15.p. 47. Brase, G. L., “Cues of parental investment as a factor in attractiveness,” Evolution and Human Behavior, 27, 2006.
16.p. 47. Pleck, J., “American fathering in historical perspective.” In Kimmel, M. S., ed., Changing Men: New Directions in Research on Men and Masculinity (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1987).
Chapter 4:
1.p. 48. Schwartzman, H. B., Transformations: The Anthropology of Children’s Play (New York: Plenum, 1978).
2.p. 48. Roberts, J. M. and Sutton-Smith, B., “Child training and game involvement,” Ethnology, 2, 1962.
3.p. 48. Lancy, D. F., “Play in species adaptation.” In Siegel, B. J., ed., Annual Review of Anthropology, 9, 1980.
1.pp. 49, 50. Lancy, D. F., Playing on the Mother-Ground: Cultural Routines for Children’s Development (New York: Guilford, 1996).
2.p. 50. De Laguna, F., “Childhood among the Yakutat Tlingit.” In Spiro, M. E., ed., Context and Meaning in Cultural Anthropology (New York: Free Press, 1965).
3.p. 50. Fortes, M., “Social and psychological aspects of education in Taleland.” In Middleton, J., ed., From Child to Adult: Studies in the Anthropology of Education (Garden City, NY: The Natural History Press, 1938/1970).
4.p. 50. Spencer, B. and Gillen, F., The Arunta: A Study of a Stone Age People (London: Macmillan, 1927).
5.p. 51. McClaren, P., Cries from the Corridor (Toronto, ON: Methuen, 1980).
6.p. 51. Lancy, D. F. and Hayes, B. L., “Interactive fiction and the reluctant reader,” English Journal, 77(6), 1988.
7.p. 52. Barber, N., “Play and regulation in mammals,” Quarterly Review of Biology, 66, 1991.
8.p. 52. Sax, L., Boys Adrift: The Five Factors Driving the Growing Epidemic of Unmotivated Boys and Underachieving Young Men (New York: Basic, 2007).
9.p. 52. The American Academy of Pediatrics website provides documentation of the deleterious effects of excessive engagement with electronic media and provides strategies to reduce “screen time.” See http://search.aap.org/?source=aap.org&k=screen%20time&AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1.
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12.p. 53. In the first three months of 2016, fifty-seven children in the USA used a gun to harm or kill someone.
1.p. 53. Dawe, B., “Tiny arrowheads: Toys in the toolkit,” Plains Anthropology, 42, 1997.
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5.p. 54. Edel, M. M., The Chiga of Uganda, 2nd edition (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1957/1996).
6.pp. 54, 55. Lancy, D. F., “‘Playing with knives’: The socialization of self-initiated learners,” Child Development, 87, 2016.
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10.p. 58. Pine, K. J. and Nash, A., “Dear Santa: The effects of television advertising on young children,” International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26(6), 2002.
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1.p. 59. Piaget, J., The Moral Judgment of the Child (Gabain, Marjorie, translator) (New York: Free Press, 1932/1965).
2.p. 60. Lancy, D. F., The Anthropology of Childhood: Cherubs, Chattel, Changelings, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).
3.p. 60. Opie, I. and Opie, P., Children’s Games with Things (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997).
4.p. 60. Piaget, , The Moral Judgment of the Child.
5.p. 61. Ibid.
6.p. 61. Ibid.
7.p. 61. Schwartzman, H. B., Transformations: The Anthropology of Children’s Play (New York: Plenum, 1978).
8.p. 61. Gaskins, S., Haight, W., and Lancy, D. F., “The cultural construction of play.” In Göncü, A. and Gaskins, S., eds., Play and Development: Evolutionary, Sociocultural, and Functional Perspectives (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2007).
9.p. 62. Smith, B., “Of marbles and (little) men: Bad luck and masculine identification in Aymara boyhood,” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 20, 2010.
10.p. 62. Lancy, , The Anthropology of Childhood.
11.p. 62. Goodwin, M. H., The Hidden Life of Girls: Games of Stance, Status, and Exclusion (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006).
12.p. 62. Hogbin, H. I., “A New Guinea childhood: From weaning till the eighth year in Wogeo,” Oceania, 16, 1946.
13.p. 62. Burridge, K. O., “A Tangu game,” Man, 57, 1957.
14.pp. 62, 63. Draper, P., “Social and economic constraints on child life among the !Kung.” In Lee, R. B. and DeVore, I., eds., Kalahari Hunter-Gatherers: Studies of the !Kung San and Their Neighbors (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976).
15.p. 63. Boyette, A. H., “Children’s play and culture learning in an egalitarian forager society,” Child Development, 87, 2016.
16.p. 63. Opie, I. and Opie, P., Children’s Games in Street and Playground (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969).
17.p. 63. Byrne, R., The Thinking Ape (Oxford: Oxford University Press 1995).
18.p. 63. Lancy, D. F. and Grove, M. A., “Marbles and Machiavelli: The role of game play in children’s social development,” American Journal of Play, 3, 2011.
19.pp. 63, 64. Fine, G. A., With the Boys: Little League Baseball and Preadolescent Culture (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1987).
20.p. 65. Gaskins, , Haight, , and Lancy, , “The cultural construction of play.”
21.p. 65. Marano, H. E., A Nation of Wimps (New York: Broadway Books, 2008).
22.p. 65. Marcom, R. A., “Moving up the grades: Relationship between preschool model and later school success.” Early Childhood Research and Practice, 4(1), 2002.
23.p. 65. Hu, W., “Forget goofing around: Recess has a new boss,” New York Times, March 15, 2010. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/15/education/15recess.html.
24.p. 65. Skenazy, L., Free-Range Kids: Giving Our Children the Freedom We Had Without Going Nuts with Worry (Danvers, MA: Jossey–Bass, 2009).
25.p. 65. Horsham Primary School, “Marbles at Horsham Primary School,” Play and Folklore, 54, 2010.
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2.pp. 66, 67, 68. Sandsetter, E. B. H. and Sando, O. J., “‘We don’t allow children to climb trees’: How a focus on safety affects Norwegian children’s play in early-childhood education and care settings,” American Journal of Play, 8, 2016.
3.p. 68. Bristow, J., “The double bind of parenting culture: Helicopter parents and cotton wool kids.” In Lee, E., Bristow, J., Faircloth, C., and Macvarish, J., Parenting Culture Studies (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014).
4.p. 68. Qvortrup, J., “Varieties of childhood.” In Qvortrup, J., ed., Studies in Modern Childhood: Society, Agency, Culture (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2005).
5.p. 68. Seiter, E., “Children’s desires/mothers’ dilemmas: The social contexts of consumption.” In Jenkins, H., ed., The Children’s Culture Reader (New York: New York University Press, 1998).
6.p. 68. Clarke, A. J., “Coming of age in suburbia: Gifting the consumer child.” In Gutman, M. and de Coninck-Smith, N., eds., Designing Modern Childhoods: History, Space, and the Material Culture of Children (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2008).
7.p. 68. Smith, P. K., Children and Play (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010).
8.pp. 68, 69. Curry, A., “The unintended (and deadly) consequences of living in the industrialized world,” Smithsonian Magazine, April 2013.
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10.p. 69. Curry, , “The unintended (and deadly) consequences of living in the industrialized world.”
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12.p. 70. Beals, D. E., “Eating and reading: Links between family conversations with preschoolers and later language and literacy.” In Dickinson, D. K. and Tabors, P. O., eds., Beginning Literacy with Language (Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks, 2001).
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21.p. 72. Chanthavong, S., Chocolate and Slavery: Child Labor in Côte d’Ivoire, TED Case Studies # 664, 2002. Available at www1.american.edu/ted/chocolate-slave.htm.
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1.p. 76. Shennan, S. J. and Steele, J., “Cultural learning in hominids: A behavioral ecological approach.” In Box, H. O. and Gibson, K. R., eds., Mammalian Social Learning: Comparative and Ecological Perspectives (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
2.p. 77. Connolly, K. and Dalgleish, M., “The emergence of tool-using skill in infancy,” Developmental Psychology, 25, 1989. A parallel study, with similar results, involved monitoring the toddler’s gradual mastery of using a hammer to drive a peg into a board. Again, the appropriate motor movements emerge with increasing age and practice but absent any “instruction.”
3.pp. 78, 79, 80. Lancy, D. F., “‘Playing with knives:’ The socialization of self-initiated learners,” Child Development, 87, 2016.
4.p. 80. Gross–Loh, C., Parenting without Borders (New York: Avery, 2013).
5.p. 81. Klein, W. and Goodwin, M. H., “Chores.” In Ochs, E. and Kremer-Sadlik, T., eds., Fast-Forward Families: Home, Work, and Relationships (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013).
1.p. 81. Pugh, A. J., Longing and Belonging: Parents, Children, and Consumer Culture (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009).
2.pp. 81, 82. Dale, M., “Mom of boy who planned school shooting arrested,” Salt Lake Tribune, October 13, 2007.
3.p. 82. Montgomery, H., Modern Babylon: Prostituting Children in Thailand (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2001).
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8.pp. 82, 83. Stearns, P. N., “Defining happy childhoods: Assessing a recent change,” Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth, 3, 2010.
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1.p. 86. Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., and Norenzayan, A., “The weirdest people in the world?”, Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 33, 2010.
2.p. 86. Lancy, D. F., The Anthropology of Childhood: Cherubs, Chattel, Changelings, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).
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4.pp. 86, 87. Furedi, F., Therapy Culture: Cultivating Vulnerability in an Uncertain Age (London: Routledge, 2004).
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6.p. 88. Wiseman, R., Queen Bees and Wannabes: Helping Your Daughter Survive Cliques, Gossip, Boyfriends, and Other Realities of Adolescence (New York: Three Rivers Press, 2003).
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6.p. 111. Sjögren-De Beauchaine, A., The Bourgeoisie in the Dining Room: Meal Ritual and Cultural Process in Parisian Families of Today (Stockholm: Institutet for Folkslivsforskining, 1998).
7.p. 111. Martini, M., “‘What’s new?’ at the dinner table: Family dynamics during mealtimes in two cultural groups in Hawaii,” Early Development and Parenting, 5, 1996.
8.p. 111. Sterponi, L. and Santagata, R., “Mistakes in the classroom and at the dinner table: A comparison between socialization practices in Italy and the United States,” Crossroads of Language, Interaction and Culture, 3, 2000.
9.p. 111. Haight, W. L. and Miller, P. J., Pretending at Home: Early Development in a Sociocultural Context (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993).
10.p. 111. Martini, M., “Features of home environments associated with children’s school success,” Early Child Development and Care, 111, 1995.
11.p. 111. Lancy, D. F., “The conditions that support emergent literacy.” In Lancy, D. F., ed., Children’s Emergent Literacy: From Research to Practice (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1994).
12.p. 111. Beals, D. E., “Eating and reading: Links between family conversations with preschoolers and later language and literacy.” In Dickinson, D. K. and Tabors, P. O., eds., Beginning Literacy with Language (Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks, 2001).
13.p. 112. Lancy, , “The conditions that support emergent literacy.”
14.p. 112. Doctoroff, G. L., Greer, J. A., and Arnold, D. H., “The relationship between social behavior and emergent literacy among preschool boys and girls,” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27, 2006.
15.p. 113. Goody, E. N., “Dynamics of the emergence of sociocultural institutional practices.” In Olson, D. R. and Cole, M., eds., Technology, Literacy, and the Evolution of Society (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2006).
16.p. 113. Macedo, S. L., “Indigenous school policies and politics: The sociopolitical relationship of Wayãpi Amerindians to Brazilian and French Guyana schooling,” Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 40, 2009.
17.p. 113. Lancy, , “The conditions that support emergent literacy.”
18.p. 113. de Haan, M., “Inter-subjectivity in models of learning and teaching: Reflection from a study of teaching and learning in a Mexican Mazhua Community.” In Chaiklin, S., ed., The Theory and Practice of Cultural-Historical Psychology (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 2001).
19.p. 113. ACT: The Condition of College and Career Readiness—2014 (Iowa City: American College Testing Service, 2014), available at www.act.org/content/act/en/research/condition-of-college-and-career-readiness-report-2014.html?page=0&chapter=0.
p.113. Anonymous, To Read or Not to Read: A Question of National Consequence (Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts, November 2014), available at www.arts.gov/sites/default/files/ToRead.pdf.
20.p. 113. Anderson, R. C., Hiebert, E. H., Scott, J. A., and Wilkinson, I. A. G., Becoming a Nation of Readers: Report of the Commission on Reading (Washington, DC: National Academy of Education, 1985).
Chapter 7:
1.p. 115. Hogbin, H. I., A Guadalcanal Society: The Kaoka Speakers (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1969).
3.p. 116. Keller, H., Borke, J., Lamm, B., Lohaus, A., and Yovsi, R. Dz., “Developing patterns of parenting in two cultural communities,” International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35, 2010.
4.p. 117. Paugh, A. and Izquierdo, C., “Why is this a battle every night? Negotiating food and eating in American dinnertime interaction,” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 19, 2009.
5.p. 117. Delistraty, C. C., “The importance of eating together,” The Atlantic, July 18, 2014.
6.p. 118. Kremer-Sadlik, T. and Gutiérrez, K., “Homework and recreation.” In Ochs, E. and Kremer-Sadlik, T., eds., Fast-Forward Families: Home, Work, and Relationships (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013).
7.p. 119. Ochs, E. and Beck, M., “Dinner.” In Ochs, E., and Kremer-Sadlik, T., eds., Fast-Forward Families: Home, Work, and Relationships (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013).
8.p. 119. Delistraty, , “The importance of eating together.”
9.p. 119. Ochs, E., Taylor, C., Rudolph, D., and Smith, R., “Storytelling as a theory-building activity,” Discourse Processes, 15, 1992.
Martini, M., “Features of home environments associated with children’s school success,” Early Child Development and Care, 111, 1995.
Beals, D. E., “Eating and reading: Links between family conversations with preschoolers and later language and literacy.” In Dickinson, D. K. and Tabors, P. O., eds., Beginning Literacy with Language (Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks, 2001).
10.p. 120. Martini, M., “‘What’s new?’ at the dinner table: Family dynamics during mealtimes in two cultural groups in Hawaii,” Early Development and Parenting, 5, 1996.
11.p. 120. Schor, J., Born to Buy: The Commercialized Child and the New Consumer Culture (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005).
1.p. 121. Lancy, D. F., The Anthropology of Childhood: Cherubs, Chattel, Changelings, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).
2.p. 122. Bugos, P. E. Jr. and McCarthy, L. M., “Ayoreo infanticide: A case study.” In Hausfater, G. and Hrdy, S. B., eds., Infanticide: Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives (New York: Aldine, 1984).
3.p. 122. Takeuchi, K., “Food restriction and social identity of Aka forager adolescents in the Republic of Congo.” In Hewlett, B. L., ed., Adolescent Identity: Evolutionary, Cultural and Developmental Perspectives (New York: Routledge, 2013).
4.p. 122. Rawson, B., “Adult–child relationships in Roman society.” In Rawson, B., ed., Marriage, Divorce, and Children in Ancient Rome (Canberra: Clarendon Press, 1991).
5.p. 122. Gottleib, A., “Luring your child into this life: A Beng path for infant care.” In DeLoache, J. and Gottlieb, A., eds., A World of Babies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
6.p. 122. Sprott, J. W., Raising Young Children in an Alaskan Iñupiaq Village: The Family, Cultural, and Village Environment of Rearing (Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey, 2002).
7.p. 122. Zeitlin, M., “My child is my crown: Yoruba parental theories and practices in early childhood.” In Harkness, S. and Super, C. M., eds., Parents’ Cultural Belief Systems: Their Origins, Expressions, and Consequences (New York: Guilford Press, 1996).
8.p. 123. Stasch, R., Society of Others: Kinship and Mourning in a West Papuan Place (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009).
9.p. 123. Irons, W., “Why do the Yomut raise more sons than daughters?” In Cronk, L., Chagnon, N., and Irons, W., eds., Adaptation and Human Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective (New York: Aldine, 2000).
10.p. 124. Riesman, P., First Find Your Child a Good Mother (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1992).
11.p. 124. Batels, L., “Birth customs and birth songs of the Macha Galla,” Ethnology, 8, 1969.
12.p. 124. Anonymous, “Swedish parents keep two-year-old’s gender secret,” The Local: Sweden’s News in English, June 23, 2009, available at www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2010/jun/22/swedish-parents-baby-gender.
13.p. 124. Contrera, J., “Their Tube: When every moment of childhood can be recorded and shared, what happens to childhood?”, Washington Post: The Screen Age, Dec. 7, 2016, available at www.washingtonpost.com/sf/style/2016/12/07/when-every-moment-of-childhood-can-be-recorded-and-shared-what-happens-to-childhood.
14.pp. 124, 125. Gross-Loh, C., Parenting without Borders (New York: Avery, 2013).
15.p. 125. Heffernan, L., “Our push for ‘passion,’ and why it harms kids,” New York Times, April 8, 2015, available at parenting.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/04/08/our-push-for-passion-and-why-it-harms-kids/?emc=eta1&_r=0.
16.p. 125. Joyce, Y. A., “Are you raising nice kids? A Harvard psychologist gives 5 ways to raise them to be kind,” Washington Post, July 18, 2014.
17.p. 126. Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., and Norenzayan, A., “The weirdest people in the world?”, Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 33, 2010.
18.p. 127. Konnikova, M., “Why your name matters,” New Yorker, December 19, 2013, available at www.newyorker.com/tech/elements/why-your-name-matters.
1.pp. 127, 128. Klein, W., Graesch, A., and Izquierdo, C., “Children and chores: A mixed-methods study of children’s household work in Los Angeles families,” Anthropology of Work Review, 30, 2009.
2.p. 128. Ochs, E. and Izquierdo, C., “Responsibility in childhood: Three developmental trajectories,” Ethos, 37, 2009.
3.p. 128, 129, 130, 131. Lancy, D. F., The Anthropology of Childhood: Cherubs, Chattel, Changelings, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).
4.pp. 129, 130. Golovnev, I., Malenkaya Katerina (Tiny Katerina), documentary film (Ekaterinburg: Ethnographic Bureau Studio, 2004).
5.p. 131. Lancy, D. F., “The chore curriculum.” In Spittler, G. and Bourdillion, M., eds., African Children at Work: Working and Learning in Growing Up (Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2012).
6.p. 131. MacElroy, M. H., Work and Play in Colonial Days (New York: Macmillan, 1917).
7.p. 132. Zelizer, V. A., Pricing the Priceless Child: The Changing Social Value of Children (New York: Basic Books, 1985).
8.p. 132. Kusserow, A. S., American Individualisms: Child Rearing and Social Class in Three Neighborhoods (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004).
9.p. 133. Rheingold, H., “Little children’s participation in the work of adults, a nascent prosocial behavior,” Child Development, 53, 1982. In this same report, the author also noted, “In informal questioning before the study began, the parents uniformly reported at least one task in which the children participated at home. Rather than expressing satisfaction in the children’s efforts, many parents reported that to avoid what they viewed as interference they tried to accomplish the chores while the children were taking their naps” (p. 122).
10.p. 133. Warneken, F. and Tomasello, M., “Altruistic helping in human infants and young chimpanzees,” Science, 311(5765), 2006. F. Warneken and M. Tomasello, “The roots of human altruism,” British Journal of Psychology, 100, 2009.
11.p. 133. El-Rahi, T., “Childhood chores are a predictor of success: The sooner the kids start, the better,” Intellectual Takeout, January 22, 2016, available at www.intellectualtakeout.org/blog/childhood-chores-are-predictor-success.
12.p. 133. Stuart, A., “Age appropriate chores for children: Chore ideas and allowances,” WebMD, 2013, at www.webmd.com/parenting/features/chores-for-children.
1.p. 134. http://www.paramount.com/movies/failure-launch. Of course, not all the twenty-somethings living at home have abandoned their launch like Tripp. A significant number are living at home to save money, and thereby lighten their debt as they prepare to launch.
2.p. 135. Grove, M. A. and Lancy, D. F., “Cultural views of life phases.” In Wright, J. D., ed., International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edition (Oxford: Elsevier, 2015).
3.p. 135. Rogoff, B., “Learning by observing and pitching in to family and community endeavors: An orientation,” Human Development, 57, 2014.
4.p. 135. White, R. W., “Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence,” Psychological Review, 66, 1959.
5.p. 135. de Waal, F., The Ape and the Sushi Master (New York: Basic Books, 2001).
6.pp. 135, 136. Rheingold, H., “Little children’s participation in the work of adults, a nascent prosocial behavior,” Child Development, 53, 1982.
7.p. 136. Alcalá, L., Rogoff, B., Mejía-Arauz, R., Coppens, A. D., and Dexter, A. L., “Children’s initiative in contributions to family work in indigenous-heritage and cosmopolitan communities in Mexico,” Human Development, 57, 2014.
8.pp. 136, 137. Kusserow, A. S., American Individualisms: Child Rearing and Social Class in Three Neighborhoods (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004).
9.p. 137. Sinha, C., “Situated selves: Learning to be a learner.” In Bliss, J., Sãljõ, R., and Light, P., eds., Learning Sites: Social and Technological Resources for Learning (Oxford: Pergamon, 1999).
10.pp. 137, 138. Lancy, D. F. and Grove, M. A., “‘Getting noticed’: Middle childhood in cross-cultural perspective,” Human Nature, 22, 2011.
11.p. 139. Willerslev, R., Soul Hunters: Hunting, Animism, and Personhood among the Siberian Yukaghirs (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007).
12.p. 139. Mitterauer, M. and Sieder, R., The European Family: Patriarchy to Partnership from the Middle Ages to the Present (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1997).
13.p. 140. Leavitt, S. C., “The bikhet mystique: Masculine identity and patterns of rebellion among Bumbita adolescent males.” In Herdt, G. H. and Leavitt, S., eds., Adolescence in Pacific Island Societies (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1998).
14.p. 141. Ascher, A., “Failure to launch syndrome,” Huffington Post, May 2, 2015.
Schiffrin, H., Liss, M., and Miles-McLean, H., “Helping or hovering? The effects of helicopter parenting on college students’ well-being,” Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23, 2014.
15.pp. 141, 142. Sax, L., Boys Adrift: The Five Factors Driving the Growing Epidemic of Unmotivated Boys and Underachieving Young Men (New York: Basic, 2007).
Chapter 8:
1.p. 158. Sandlin, B., “Children and the Swedish Welfare State: From different to familiar.” In Fass, P. S. and Michael, G., eds., Reinventing Childhood after World War II (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012).
2.p. 159. Yousafzai, M. and Lamb, C., I Am Malala: The Girl Who Stood Up for Education and Was Shot by the Taliban (Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co., 2013).
3.p. 159. LeVine, R. A., LeVine, S., Schnell-Anzola, B., Rowe, M. L., and Dexter, E., Literacy and Mothering: How Women’s Schooling Changes the Lives of the World’s Children (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).
4.p. 161. Flinn, M. V. and England, B. G., “Childhood stress and family environment,” Current Anthropology, 36, 1995.
5.p. 161. Walker, T., “The joyful, illiterate kindergartners of Finland,” The Atlantic, October 1, 2015, available at www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2015/10/the-joyful-illiterate-kindergartners-of-finland/408325.
6.p. 161. Goldhill, O., “Psychologists recommend children be bored in the summer,” Quartz: The Art of Parenting, June 16, 2016, available at qz.com/704723/to-be-more-self-reliant-children-need-boring-summers.
7.p. 162. Duckworth, A., Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance (New York: Scribner, 2016).
8.p. 162. Rathi, A. and Anderson, J., “The science of getting your kids to eat more vegetables,” Quartz: The Art of Parenting, June 25, 2016, available at http://qz.com/701128/the-science-behind-getting-your-kids-to-eat-everything.
9.p. 163. Teague, M., “Incidents of toddlers shooting others or themselves increasing, data shows,” The Guardian, May 2, 2016, available at www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/may/02/toddler-shooting-gun-control-children?CMP=share_btn_fb.
Chapter 9:
1.p. 164. Lancy, D. F., “Accounting for variability in mother–child play,” American Anthropologist, 109(2), 2007.
2.p. 164. Shea, C., “Leave the kids alone,” Boston Globe, July 15, 2007, available at www.boston.com/news/globe/ideas/articles/2007/07/15/leave_those_kids_alone.
4.p. 166. Lancy, D. F., The Anthropology of Childhood: Cherubs, Chattel, Changelings, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).
6.p. 168. Lancy, D. F., Playing on the Mother-Ground: Cultural Routines for Children’s Development (New York: Guilford, 1996).

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