Skip to main content
Risk and Resilience
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 103
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Collishaw, Stephan Gardner, Frances Lawrence Aber, J. and Cluver, Lucie 2016. Predictors of Mental Health Resilience in Children who Have Been Parentally Bereaved by AIDS in Urban South Africa. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 44, Issue. 4, p. 719.

    Joshi, Heather Nasim, Bilal and Goodman, Alissa 2016. Non-cognitive Skills and Factors in Educational Attainment.

    Masten, Ann S. and Cicchetti, Dante 2016. Developmental Psychopathology.


    Richardson, Jane C. and Chew-Graham, Carolyn A. 2016. Mental Health and Older People.

    Sensier, Marianne Bristow, Gillian and Healy, Adrian 2016. Measuring Regional Economic Resilience across Europe: Operationalizing a complex concept. Spatial Economic Analysis, Vol. 11, Issue. 2, p. 128.

    Ungar, Michael 2016. Varied Patterns of Family Resilience in Challenging Contexts. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, Vol. 42, Issue. 1, p. 19.

    Whittington, Anja Aspelmeier, Jeffery E. and Budbill, Nadine W. 2016. Promoting resiliency in adolescent girls through adventure programming. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, Vol. 16, Issue. 1, p. 2.

    Assari, Shervin Watkins, Daphne C. and Caldwell, Cleopatra H. 2015. Race Attribution Modifies the Association Between Daily Discrimination and Major Depressive Disorder Among Blacks: the Role of Gender and Ethnicity. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, Vol. 2, Issue. 2, p. 200.

    Biggart, Andy Järvinen, Tero and Parreira do Amaral, Marcelo 2015. Institutional Frameworks and Structural Factors Relating to Educational Access Across Europe. European Education, Vol. 47, Issue. 1, p. 26.

    Bourbeau, Philippe 2015. Resilience and International Politics: Premises, Debates, Agenda. International Studies Review, p. n/a.

    Goodall, Janet and Johnston-Wilder, Sue 2015. Overcoming Mathematical Helplessness and Developing Mathematical Resilience in Parents: An Illustrative Case Study. Creative Education, Vol. 06, Issue. 05, p. 526.

    Heiniger, Louise Price, Melanie A. Charles, Margaret and Butow, Phyllis N. 2015. Facilitators and Challenges in Psychosocial Adaptation to Being at Increased Familial Risk of Breast Cancer. Journal of Genetic Counseling, Vol. 24, Issue. 6, p. 890.

    Keipi, Teo Oksanen, Atte Hawdon, James Näsi, Matti and Räsänen, Pekka 2015. Harm-advocating online content and subjective well-being: a cross-national study of new risks faced by youth. Journal of Risk Research, p. 1.

    Mayer, Karl Ulrich 2015. An Observatory for Life Courses: Populations, Countries, Institutions, and History. Research in Human Development, Vol. 12, Issue. 3-4, p. 196.

    Peruzzi, Agnese 2015. From Childhood Deprivation to Adult Social Exclusion: Evidence from the 1970 British Cohort Study. Social Indicators Research, Vol. 120, Issue. 1, p. 117.

    Sabates, Ricardo and Dex, Shirley 2015. The Impact of Multiple Risk Factors on Young Children's Cognitive and Behavioural Development. Children & Society, Vol. 29, Issue. 2, p. 95.

    Ungar, Michael 2015. Practitioner Review: Diagnosing childhood resilience - a systemic approach to the diagnosis of adaptation in adverse social and physical ecologies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 56, Issue. 1, p. 4.

    Crivello, Gina and Boyden, Jo 2014. On Childhood and Risk: An Exploration of Children's Everyday Experiences in Rural Peru. Children & Society, Vol. 28, Issue. 5, p. 380.

    Himelfarb, Igor Lac, Andrew and Baharav, Hadar 2014. Examining school-related delinquencies, extracurricular activities, and grades in adolescents. Educational Studies, Vol. 40, Issue. 1, p. 81.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Risk and Resilience
    • Online ISBN: 9780511490132
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

What factors enable individuals to overcome adverse childhoods and move on to rewarding lives in adulthood? Drawing on data collected from two of Britain's richest research resources for the study of human development, the 1958 National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Cohort Study, this 2006 book investigates the phenomenon of 'resilience' - the ability to adjust positively to adverse conditions. Comparing the experiences of over 30,000 individuals born twelve years apart, Schoon examines the transition from childhood into adulthood and the assumption of work and family related roles among individuals born in 1958 and 1970 respectively. The study focuses on academic attainment among high and low risk individuals, but also considers behavioural adjustment, health and psychological well-being, as well as the stability of adjustment patterns in times of social change. This is a major work of reference and synthesis, that makes an important contribution to the study of lifelong development.


'Much previous work on resilience has been American: it was therefore with great interest that I read this important book based on work done in Britain. It is large scale and its conclusions are authoritative and robust … I think that it is required reading for all psychologists working with children.'

Source: The Psychologist

'This is a scholarly and thoughtful book … There is a particularly thorough discussion of the definitions of the concepts of risk and resilience and a highly readable review of the theoretical perspectives, … Indeed, the first two chapters are so well done they should constitute essential reading for all behavioural scientists, mental health practitioners and those involved in forming health and education policy. … The final two chapters on conclusions, outlook and implications for interventions and social policy are as thoughtful and clear as the introduction, with a particularly helpful analysis focusing on the importance of available social and educational resources as well as delineating risks. … This is an excellent academic text that should be essential reference reading for mental health professionals. For researchers in the field of risk and resilience I would deem it fundamental. Psychiatrists-in-training should have access also as they would learn a great deal about the value of longitudinal, non-experimental studies'

Source: British Journal of Psychiatry

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

B. P. Ackerman , E. D. Brown and C. E. Izard (2004). ‘The relations between persistent poverty and contextual risk and children's behavior in elementary school’, Developmental Psychology, 40: 367–77.

B. P. Ackerman , K. Schoff , K. Levinson , E. Youngstrom and C. E. Izard (1999). ‘The relations between cluster indexes of risk and promotion and the problem behaviors of 6 and 7-year-old children from economically disadvantaged families’, Developmental Psychology, 35: 1355–66.

K. L. Alexander , D. R. Entwisle and M. S. Thompson (1987). ‘School performance, status relations, and the structure of sentiment – bringing the teacher back in’, American Sociological Review, 52: 665–82.

J. J. Arnett (2000). ‘Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties’, American Psychologist, 55: 469–80.

P. B. Baltes (1987). ‘Theoretical propositions of life-span developmental-psychology on the dynamics between growth and decline’, Developmental Psychology, 23: 611–26.

P. Bebbington (1996). ‘The origins of sex differences in depressive disorder: Bridging the gap’, International Review of Psychiatry, 8: 295–332.

J. Belsky (1980). ‘Child maltreatment: An ecological integration’, American Psychologist, 35: 320–35.

P. M. Bentler (1990). ‘Comparative fit indexes in structural models’, Psychological Bulletin, 107(2): 238–46.

D. G. Blanchflower and A. J. Oswald (2004). ‘Well-being over time in Britain and the USA’, Journal of Public Economics, 88: 1359–86.

K. E. Bolger , C. J. Patterson , W. W. Thompson and J. B. Kupersmidt (1995). ‘Psychosocial adjustment among children experiencing persistent and intermittent family economic hardship’, Child Development, 66: 1107–29.

H. Bozdogan (1987). ‘Model selection and Akaike information criterion (AIC) – the general-theory and its analytical extensions’, Psychometrika 52(3): 345–70.

U. Bronfenbrenner (1977). ‘Toward an experimental ecology of human development’, American Psychologist, 32: 513–31.

U. Bronfenbrenner and S. J. Ceci (1994). ‘Nature-nurture reconceptualized in developmental perspective – a bioecological model’, Psychological Review, 101: 568–86.

M. R. Burchinal , A. Follmer and D. M. Bryant (1996). ‘The relations of maternal social support and family structure with maternal responsiveness and child outcomes among African-American families’, Developmental Psychology, 32: 1073–83.

J. Bynner (1998). ‘Education and family components of identity in the transition from school to work’, International Journal of Behavioral Development, 22: 29–53.

J. Bynner (2001). ‘Childhood risk and protective factors in social exclusion’, Children and Society, 15: 285–301.

J. Bynner , H. Goldstein and E. D. Alberman (1998). ‘Neville Butler and the British birth cohort studies’, Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 12: 1–14.

R. B. Cairns , B. D. Cairns and H. J. Neckerman (1989). ‘Early school dropout – configurations and determinants’, Child Development, 60: 1437–52.

S. B. Campbell , E. W. Pierce , G. Moore , S. Marakovitz and K. Newby (1996). ‘Boys' externalizing problems at elementary school age: Pathways from early behavior problems, maternal control, and family stress’, Development and Psychopathology, 8: 701–19.

N. Cantor , J. K. Norem , P. M. Niedenthal , C. A. Langston and A. M. Brower (1987). ‘Life tasks, self-concept ideals, and cognitive strategies in a life transition’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53: 1178–91.

E. A. Carlson , L. A. Sroufe , W. A. Collins , S. Jimerson , N. Weinfield , K. Hennighausen , B. Egeland , D. M. Hyson , F. Anderson and S. E. Meyer (1999). ‘Early environmental support and elementary school adjustment as predictors of school adjustment in middle adolescence’, Journal of Adolescent Research, 14: 72–94.

A. Caspi , J. McClay , T. E. Moffitt , J. Mill , J. Martin , I. W. Craig , A. Taylor and R. Poulton (2002). ‘Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children’, Science, 297: 851–4.

D. Cicchetti (1993). ‘Developmental psychopathology – reactions, reflections, projections’, Developmental Review, 13: 471–502.

D. Cicchetti (1984). ‘The emergence of developmental psychopathology’, Child Development, 55: 1–7.

D. Cicchetti and J. L. Aber (1998). ‘Contextualism and developmental psychopathology’, Development and Psychopathology, 10: 137–41.

D. Cicchetti and N. Garmezy (1993). ‘Prospects and promises in the study of resilience’, Development and Psychopathology, 5: 497–502.

D. Cicchetti and F. A. Rogosch (1996). ‘Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology’, Development and Psychopathology, 8: 597–600.

D. Cicchetti , F. A. Rogosch , M. Lynch and K. D. Holt (1993). ‘Resilience in maltreated children – processes leading to adaptive outcome’, Development and Psychopathology, 5: 629–47.

D. Cicchetti and D. Tucker (1994). ‘Development and self-regulatory structures of the mind’, Development and Psychopathology, 6: 533–49.

J. Cohen (1992). ‘A power primer’, Psychological Bulletin, 112(1): 155–9.

J. D. Coie , N. F. Watt , S. G. West , J. D. Hawkins , J. R. Asarnow , H. J. Markman , S. L. Ramey , M. B. Shure and B. Long (1993). ‘The science of prevention – a conceptual framework and some directions for a national research-program’, American Psychologist, 48: 1013–22.

R. K. Silbereisen (2005). ‘Social change and human development: Experiences from German unification’, International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29: 2–13.

R. K. Silbereisen and A. V. Eye (eds.) (1999). Growing up in times of social change. New York: Walter de Gruyter.

G. D. Smith , C. Hart , D. Blane , C. Gillis & V. Hawthorne (1997a). ‘Lifetime socioeconomic position and mortality: Prospective observational study’, British Medical Journal, 314: 547–52.

L. A. Sroufe (1979). ‘The coherence of individual development: Early care, attachment, and subsequent developmental issues’, American Psychologist, 34: 834–41.

L. A. Sroufe , B. Egeland and T. Kreutzer (1990). ‘The fate of early experience following developmental change – longitudinal approaches to individual adaptation in childhood’, Child Development, 61: 1363–73.

L. A. Sroufe and M. Rutter (1984). ‘The domain of developmental psychopathology’, Child Development, 55: 17–29.

J. H. Steiger (1990). ‘Structural model evaluation and modification – an interval estimation approach’, Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25(2): 173–80.

L. Steinberg , J. D. Elmen and N. S. Mounts (1989). ‘Authoritative parenting, psychosocial maturity, and academic success among adolescents’, Child Development, 60: 1424–36.

M. Stouthamer-Loeber , R. Loeber , D. P. Farrington , Q. W. Zhang , W. Kammen and E. Maguin (1993). ‘The double edge of protective and risk-factors for delinquency – interrelations and developmental patterns’, Development and Psychopathology, 5: 683–701.

A. D. Trice and L. Knapp (1992). ‘Relationship of children's career aspirations to parents' occupations’, Journal of Genetic Psychology, 153(3): 355–7.

M. Ungar (2004b). ‘A constructionist discourse on resilience. Multiple contexts, multiple realities among at-risk children and youth’, Youth & Society, 35: 341–65.

H. Mheen , K. Stronks , J. vandenBos and J. P. Mackenbach (1997). ‘The contribution of childhood environment to the explanation of socio-economic inequalities in health in adult life: A retrospective study’, Social Science and Medicine, 44: 13–24.

P. West (1991). ‘Rethinking the health selection explanation for health inequalities’, Social Science and Medicine, 32: 373–84.

White, M. and Smith, D. J. (1994). ‘The causes of persistently high unemployment’, in A. C. Petersen and J. T. Mortimer (eds.), Youth unemployment and society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press pp. 95–144.

R. G. Wilkinson (1996). Unhealthy societies: The afflictions of inequality. London: Routledge.

W. J. Wilson (1991). ‘Studying inner-city social dislocations: The challenge of public agenda research’, American Sociological Review, 56: 1–14.

D. Wolke , B. Sohne , B. Ohrt and K. Riegel (1995). ‘Follow-up of preterm children – important to document dropouts’, Lancet, 345447.

G. Zellman & J. Waterman (1998). ‘Understanding the impact of parent–school involvement on children's educational outcomes’, Journal of Education Research, 91: 370–80.

M. Zoccolillo (1993). ‘Gender and the development of conduct disorder’, Development and Psychopathology, 5: 65–78.

T. E. Moffitt , A. Caspi , M. L. Rutter and P. A. Silva (2001). Sex differences in antisocial behaviour: Conduct disorder, delinquency. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mortimer, J. T. and Larson, R. (2002). ‘Macrostructural trends and the reshaping of adolescence’, in J. T. Mortimer and R. Larson (eds.), The changing adolescent experience: Societal trends and the transition to adulthood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press pp. 1–19.

J. T. Mortimer and M. J. Shanahan (2003). Handbook on the life course. New York: Plenum.

M. Murphy (1993). ‘The contraceptive pill and women's employment as factors in fertility change in Britain 1963–1980: A challenge to the conventional view’, Population Statistics, 47: 221–43.

C. A. Nelson (1999). ‘Neural plasticity and human development’, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8: 42–5.

J. E. Nurmi (1993). ‘Adolescent development in an age-graded context – the role of personal beliefs, goals, and strategies in the tackling of developmental tasks and standards’, International Journal of Behavioral Development, 16: 169–89.

J. U. Ogbu (1981). ‘Origins of human competence – a cultural-ecological perspective’, Child Development, 52: 413–29.

A. F. Osborn (1990). ‘Resilient children: A longitudinal study of high achieving socially disadvantaged children’, Early Child Development and Care, 62: 23–47.

J. E. Parsons , C. M. Kaczala and J. L. Meece (1982). ‘Socialization of achievement attitudes and beliefs – classroom influences’, Child Development, 53: 322–39.

M. N. Peck (1994). ‘The importance of childhood socioeconomic group for adult health’, Social Science and Medicine, 39: 553–62.

K. Pittman , M. Diversi and T. Ferber (2002). ‘Social policy supports for adolescence in the twenty-first century: Framing questions’, Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12: 149–58.

R. Plomin and D. Daniels (1987). ‘Why are children in the same family so different from one another?’, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10: 1–16.

C. Power (1991). ‘Social and economic background and class inequalities in health among young-adults’, Social Science & Medicine, 32: 411–17.

C. Power , S. Matthews and O. Manor (1998). ‘Inequalities in self-rated health: Explanations from different stages of life’, Lancet, 351: 1009–14.

K. Prandy (1990). ‘The revised Cambridge scale of occupations’, Sociology, 24: 629–55.

L. Pulkkinen (1996). ‘Female and male personality styles: A typological and developmental analysis’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70: 1288–306.

Pulkkinen, L. and Caspi, A. (2002). ‘Personality and paths to successful development: An overview’, in L. Pulkkinen and A. Caspi (eds.), Paths to successful development. Personality in the life course. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press pp. 1–18.

L. Pulkkinen , H. Nygren and K. Kokko (2002). ‘Successful development: Childhood antecedents of adaptive psychosocial functioning in adulthood’, Journal of Adult Development, 9: 251–65.

E. P. Pungello , J. B. Kupersmidt , M. R. Burchinal and C. J. Patterson (1996). ‘Environmental risk factors and children's achievement from middle childhood to early adolescence’, Developmental Psychology, 32: 755–67.

A. J. Reynolds and H. J. Walberg (1991). ‘A structural model of science achievement’, Journal of Educational Psychology, 83: 97–107.

R. C. Rist (2000). ‘Student social class and teacher expectations: The self- fulfilling prophecy in ghetto education’, Harvard Educational Review, 70: 257–65.

K. P. G. Roberts (1992). ‘The stratification of youth training’, British Journal of Education and Work, 5: 65–83.

B. Rodgers , A. Pickles , C. Power , S. Collishaw and B. Maughan (1999). ‘Validity of the Malaise Inventory in general population samples’, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 34: 333–41.

J. Rolf , A. Masten , D. Cicchetti , K. H. Nuechterlin and S. Weintraub (eds.) (1990). Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

M. Rutter (1981). ‘Stress, coping and development – some issues and some questions’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 22: 323–56.

M. Rutter (1985). ‘Resilience in the face of adversity – protective factors and resistance to psychiatric-disorder’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 147: 598–611.

M. Rutter (1987). ‘Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms’, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57: 316–31.

M. Rutter (1989). ‘Pathways from childhood to adult life’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 30: 23–51.

M. Rutter (1996). ‘Transitions and turning points in developmental psychopathology: As applied to the age span between childhood and mid-adulthood’, International Journal of Behavioral Development, 19: 603–26.

M. Rutter (1998). ‘Developmental catch-up, and deficit, following adoption after severe global early privation’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 39: 465–76.

M. Rutter (1999). ‘Resilience concepts and findings: Implications for family therapy’, Journal of Family Therapy, 21: 119–44.

M. Rutter (2000). ‘Psychosocial influences: Critiques, findings, and research needs’, Development and Psychopathology, 12: 375–405.

M. Rutter , A. Cox , C. Tulping , M. Berger and W. Yule (1975a). ‘Attainment and adjustment in two geographical areas. I: The prevalence of psychiatric disorder’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 126: 493–509.

M. Rutter , B. Yule , J. Morton and C. Bagley (1975b). ‘Children of West Indian immigrants. III: Home circumstances and family patterns’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 16: 105–23.

M. Rutter , B. Yule , D. Quinton , O. Rowlands and W. Yule (1975c). ‘Attainment and adjustment in two geographical areas. III: Some factors accounding for area differences’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 126: 520–33.

A. Sacker , I. Schoon et al. (2002). ‘Social inequality in educational achievement and psychosocial adjustment throughout childhood: magnitude and mechanisms’, Social Science and Medicine 55: 863–80.

A. Sacker and R. D. Wiggins (2002). ‘Age-period-cohort effects on inequalities in psychological distress 1981–2000’, Psychological Medicine, 32: 977–90.

A. J. Sameroff , R. Seifer , A. Baldwin and C. Baldwin (1993). ‘Stability of intelligence from preschool to adolescence – the influence of social and family risk-factors’, Child Development, 64: 80–97.

R. J. Sampson and J. H. Laub (1994). ‘Urban poverty and the family context of delinquency – a new look at structure and process in a classic study’, Child Development, 65: 523–40.

S. Scarr (1992). ‘Developmental theories for the 1990s – development and individual-differences’, Child Development, 63: 1–19.

R. Schachar , M. Rutter and A. Smith (1981). ‘The characteristics of situationally and pervasively hyperactive-children – implications for syndrome definition’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 22: 375–92.

K. W. Schaie (1965). ‘A general model for the study of developmental problems’, Psychological Bulletin, 64: 92–107.

I. Schoon , J. Bynner , H. Joshi , S. Parsons , R. D. Wiggins and A. Sacker (2002). ‘The influence of context, timing, and duration of risk experiences for the passage from childhood to mid-adulthood’, Child Development, 73: 1486–504.

I. Schoon , A. McCulloch , H. Joshi , R. D. Wiggins and J. Bynner (2001). ‘Transitions from school to work in a changing social context’, Young, 9: 4–22.

I. Schoon and S. Parsons (2002a). ‘Teenage aspirations for future careers and occupational outcomes’, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60: 262–88.

I. Schoon and S. Parsons (2002b). ‘Competence in the face of adversity: The influence of early family environment and long-term consequences’, Children and Society, 16: 260–72.

I. Schoon , S. Parsons and A. Sacker (2004). ‘Socioeconomic adversity, educational resilience, and subsequent levels of adult adaptation’, Journal of Adolescent Research, 19: 383–404.

I. Schoon , A. Sacker and M. Bartley (2003). ‘Socio-economic adversity and psychosocial adjustment: A developmental-contextual perspective’, Social Science and Medicine, 57: 1001–15.

J. E. Schulenberg , F. W. Vondracek and A. C. Crouter (1984). ‘The influence of the family on vocational development’, Journal of Marriage and the Family, 46: 129–43.

L. H. Scott (1981). ‘Measuring intelligence with the Goodenough-Harris drawing test’, Psychological Bulletin, 89: 483–505.

K. Seccombe (2002). “Beating the odds” versus “changing the odds”: Poverty, resilience, and family policy', Journal of Marriage and the Family, 64: 384–94.

R. Seifer , A. J. Sameroff , C. P. Baldwin and A. Baldwin (1992). ‘Child and family factors that ameliorate risk between four years and 13 years of age’, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31: 893–903.

M. J. Shanahan (2000). ‘Pathways to adulthood in changing societies: Variability and mechanisms in life course perspective’, Annual Review of Sociology, 26: 667–92.

M. J. Shanahan , J. T. Mortimer and H. Krüger (2002). ‘Adolescence and adult work in the twenty-first century’, Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12: 99–120.

J. A. Graber and J. Brooks-Gunn (1996). ‘Transitions and turning points: Navigating the passage from childhood through adolescence’, Developmental Psychology, 32: 768–76.

J. R. Graham and K. Barter (1999). ‘Collaboration: A social work practice model’, Families in Society, 80: 6–13.

M. T. Greenberg , L. J. Lengua , J. D. Coie and E. E. Pinderhughes (1999). ‘Predicting developmental outcomes at school entry using a multiple-risk model: Four American communities’, Developmental Psychology, 35: 403–17.

C. Hammen (1992). ‘Cognitive, life stress, and interpersonal approaches to a developmental psychopathology model of depression’, Development and Psychopathology, 4: 189–206.

W. R. Heinz (2002). ‘Transition discontinuities and the biographical shaping of early work careers’, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60: 220–40.

B. Heyns (1974). ‘Social selection and stratification within school’, American Journal of Sociology, 79: 1434–51.

J. L. Holland , G. D. Gottfredson et al. (1990). ‘Validity of vocational aspirations and interest inventories – extended, replicated, and reinterpreted’, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 37(3): 337–42.

F. D. Horowitz (2000). ‘Child development and the pits: Simple questions, complex answers, and developmental theory’, Child Development, 71: 1–10.

A. C. Huston , V. C. McLoyd and C. G. Coll (1994). ‘Children and poverty – issues in contemporary research’, Child Development, 65: 275–82.

N. Jausovec & K. Jausovec (2000). ‘Correlations between erp parameters and intelligence: A reconsideration’, Biological Psychology, 55: 137–54.

R. Jenkins , G. Lewis , P. Bebbington , T. Brugha , M. Farrell , B. Gill and H. Meltzer (1997). ‘The national psychiatric morbidity surveys of Great Britain – initial findings from the household survey’, Psychological Medicine, 27: 775–89.

H. Joshi (2002). ‘Production, reproduction and education: women, children and work in contemporary BritainPopulation and Development Review, 28: 445–74.

H. Joshi E. Cooksey R. D. Wiggins , A. McCulloch , G. Verropoulou and L. Clarke (1999). ‘Diverse family living situations and child development: a multilevel analysis comparing longitudinal evidence from Britain and the United States’ International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family, 13: 292–314.

S. C. Kobasa , S. R. Maddi and S. Kahn (1982). ‘Hardiness and health; A prospective study’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42: 168–77.

N. Krieger , D. R. Williams and N. E. Moss (1997). ‘Measuring social class in US public health research: Concepts, methodologies, and guidelines’, Annual Review of Public Health, 18: 341–78.

V. E. Lee and R. G. Croninger (1994). ‘The relative importance of home and school in the development of literacy skills for middle-grade students’, American Journal of Education, 102: 286–329.

R. M. Lerner (1984). On the nature of human plasticity. New York: Cambridge University Press.

R. M. Lerner (1991). ‘Changing organism-context relations as the basic process of development: A developmental contextual perspective’, Developmental Psychology, 27: 27–32.

R. M. Lerner (1996). ‘Relative plasticity, integration, temporality, and diversity in human development: A developmental contextual perspective about theory, process, and method’, Developmental Psychology, 32: 781–6.

B. R. Little (1983). ‘Personal projects – a rationale and method for investigation’, Environment and Behavior, 15: 273–309.

O. Lundberg (1991). ‘Causal explanations for class-inequality in health – an empirical-analysis’, Social Science and Medicine, 32: 385–93.

A. Lurie and K. Monahan (2001). ‘Prevention principles for practitioners: A solution or an illusion?’, Social Work in Health Care, 33: 69–86.

S. S. Luthar (1991). ‘Vulnerability and resilience – a study of high-risk adolescents’, Child Development, 62: 600–16.

S. S. Luthar (1993). ‘Methodological and conceptual issues in research on childhood resilience’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 34: 441–53.

S. S. Luthar (1995). ‘Social competence in the school setting – prospective cross-domain associations among inner-city teens’, Child Development, 66: 416–29.

S. S. Luthar (ed.) (2003). Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

S. S. Luthar and D. Cicchetti (2000). ‘The construct of resilience: Implications for interventions and social policies’, Development and Psychopathology, 12: 857–85.

S. S. Luthar , D. Cicchetti and B. Becker (2000). ‘The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work’, Child Development, 71: 543–62.

Magnusson, D. (1995). ‘Individual development: A holistic integrated model’, in P. Moen , G. H. Elder and K. Lüscher (eds.), Linking lives and contexts: Perspectives on the ecology of human development. Washington: APA Books pp. 19–60.

S. Massey , A. Cameron , S. Ouellette and M. Fine (1998). ‘Qualitative approaches to the study of thriving: What can be learned?’, Journal of Social Issues, 54: 337–55.

A. S. Masten (2001). ‘Ordinary magic – resilience processes in development’, American Psychologist, 56: 227–38.

A. S. Masten , K. M. Best and N. Garmezy (1990b). ‘Resilience and development: Contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity’, Development and Psychopathology, 2: 425–44.

A. S. Masten and J. D. Coatsworth (1998). ‘The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments – lessons from research on successful children’, American Psychologist, 53: 205–20.

A. S. Masten , N. Garmezy , A. Tellegen , D. S. Pellegrini , K. Larkin and A. Larsen (1988). ‘Competence and stress in school-children – the moderating effects of individual and family qualities’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 29: 745–64.

A. S. Masten , J. J. Hubbard , S. D. Gest , A. Tellegen , N. Garmezy and M. Ramirez (1999). ‘Competence in the context of adversity: Pathways to resilience and maladaptation from childhood to late adolescence’, Development and Psychopathology, 11: 143–69.

A. McCulloch , R. D. Wiggins , H. E. Joshi and D. Sachdev (2000). ‘Internalising and externalising children's behaviour problems in Britain and the US: Relationships to family resources’, Children and Society, 14: 368–83.

R. McGee , S. Williams and P. A. Silva (1986). ‘An evaluation of the Malaise Inventory’, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 30: 147–52.

J. McLeod and M. J. Shanahan (1993). ‘Poverty, parenting and children's mental health, American Sociological Review, 58: 351–66.

V. C. McLoyd (1990). ‘The impact of economic hardship on black families and children – psychological distress, parenting, and socioemotional development’, Child Development, 61: 311–46.

V. C. McLoyd (1998). ‘Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development’, American Psychologist, 53: 185–204.

J. C. McMillen (1999). ‘Better for it: How people benefit from adversity’, Social Work, 44: 455–68.

H. Meltzer , R. Gatward , R. Goodman and F. Ford (2000). Mental health of children and adolescents in Great Britain. London: The Stationery Office.

S. Menard (2002). Longitudinal research. London: Sage.

J. Modell , G. Furstenberg and T. Hershberg (1976). ‘Social change and transitions to adulthood in historical perspective’, Journal of Family History, 1: 7–32.

T. E. Moffitt and A. Caspi (2001). ‘Childhood predictors differentiate life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways, among males and females’, Development and Psychopathology, 13: 355–75.

Colby, A. (1998). ‘Crafting life course studies’, in J. Z. Giele and G. H. Elder (eds.), Methods of life course research: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. London: Sage pp. viii–xiii.

J. Coleman (2000b). ‘Young people in Britain at the beginning of a new century’, Children & Society, 14: 230–42.

J. S. Coleman (1988). ‘Social capital in the creation of human-capital’, American Journal of Sociology, 94: S95–S120.

C. G. Coll , G. Lamberty , R. Jenkins , H. P. McAdoo , K. Crnic , B. H. Wasik and H. V. Garcia (1996). ‘An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children’, Child Development, 67: 1891–914.

R. D. Conger , K. J. Conger , G. H. Elder , F. O. Lorenz , R. L. Simons and L. B. Whitbeck (1992). ‘A family process model of economic hardship and adjustment of early adolescent boys’, Child Development, 63: 526–41.

R. D. Conger , K. J. Conger , G. H. Elder , F. O. Lorenz , R. L. Simons and L. B. Whitbeck (1993). ‘Family economic-stress and adjustment of early adolescent girls’, Developmental Psychology, 29: 206–19.

M. Conrad and C. Hammen (1993). ‘Protective resilience factors in high and low risk children: A comparison of children of unipolar, bipolar, medically ill and normal mothers’, Development and Psychopathology, 5: 593–607.

H. Cooper (1979). ‘Pygmalion grows up: A model for teacher expectations, communication and performance influence’, Review of Educational Research, 49: 389–410.

E. L. Cowen , P. A. Wyman , W. C. Work , J. Y. Kim , D. B. Fagen and K. B. Magnus (1997). ‘Follow-up study of young stress-affected and stress-resilient urban children’, Development and Psychopathology, 9: 565–77.

A. A. M. Crijnen , T. M. Achenbach and F. C. Verhulst (1997). ‘Comparisons of problems reported by parents of children in 12 cultures: Total problems, externalizing, and internalizing’, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36: 1269–77.

J. Curtis W. and D. Cicchetti (2003). ‘Moving research on resilience into the 21st century: Theoretical and methodological considerations in examining the biological contributors to resilience’, Development and Psychopathology, 15: 773–810.

R. J. Davidson (2000). ‘Affective style, psychopathology, and resilience: Brain mechanisms and plasticity’, American Psychologist, 55: 1196–214.

K. Deater-Deckard , K. A. Dodge , J. E. Bates and G. S. Pettit (1998). ‘Multiple risk factors in the development of externalizing behavior problems: Group and individual differences’, Development and Psychopathology, 10: 469–93.

K. A. Dodge , G. S. Pettit and J. E. Bates (1994). ‘Socialization mediators of the relation between socioeconomic status and child conduct problems’, Child Development, 65: 649–65.

G. J. Duncan , J. Brooks-Gunn and P. K. Klebanov (1994). ‘Economic deprivation and early childhood development’, Child Development, 65: 296–318.

G. J. Duncan and W. L. Rodgers (1988). ‘Longitudinal aspects of childhood poverty’, Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50: 1007–21.

G. J. Duncan , W. J. Yeung , J. Brooks-Gunn and J. R. Smith (1998a). ‘How much does childhood poverty affect the life chances of children?’, American Sociological Review, 63: 406–43.

R. A. Easterlin (1995). ‘Will raising the incomes of all increase the happiness of all?’, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 27: 35–47.

J. Eckenrode , E. Rowe , M. Laird and J. Brathwaite (1995). ‘Mobility as a mediator of the effects of child maltreatment on academic performance’, Child Development, 66: 1130–42.

B. Egeland , E. Carlson and L. A. Sroufe (1993). ‘Resilience as process’, Development and Psychopathology, 5: 517–28.

M. Egerton and A. H. Halsey (1993). ‘Trends by social-class and gender in access to higher-education in Britain’, Oxford Review of Education, 19: 183–96.

J. Elander and M. Rutter (1996). ‘Use and development of the Rutter parents' and teachers' scales’, International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 6: 63–78.

G. H. Elder (1968). ‘Achievement motivation and intelligence in occupational mobility: A longitudinal analysis’, Sociometry, 327–54.

G. H. Elder (1998). ‘The life course as developmental theory’, Child Development, 69: 1–12.

G. H. Elder and A. Caspi (1988a). ‘Economic stress in lives: developmental perspectives’, Journal of Social Issues, 44: 25–45.

G. H. Elder , R. D. Parke and J. Modell (1993). Children in time and place: Developmental and historical insights. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

C. Emslie , K. Hunt and S. MacIntyre (1999). ‘Gender differences in minor morbidity among full time employees of a British university’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 53: 465–75.

J. Epstein (1990). ‘School and family connection: Theory, research, and implications for interpreting sociologies of education and family’, Marriage and Family Review, 15: 99–126.

K. Evans (2002). ‘Taking control of their lives? Agency in young adult transitions in England and the New Germany’, Journal of Youth Studies, 5: 245–71.

D. L. Featherman and R. M. Lerner (1985). ‘Ontogenesis and sociogenesis – problematics for theory and research about development and socialization across the lifespan’, American Sociological Review, 50: 659–76.

L. Feinstein (2003). Inequality in the early cognitive development of British children in the 1970 cohort. Economica, 70: 73–98.

C. Feiring and M. Lewis (1996). ‘Finality in the eye of the beholder: Multiple sources, multiple time points, multiple paths’, Development and Psychopathology, 8: 721–33.

R. D. Felner , S. Brand , D. L. Dubois , A. M. Adan , P. F. Mulhall and E. G. Evans (1995). ‘Socioeconomic disadvantage, proximal environmental experiences, and socioemotional and academic adjustment in early adolescence – investigation of a mediated effects model’, Child Development, 66: 774–92.

S. Fergus and M. A. Zimmerman (2005). ‘Adolescent resilience: A framework for understanding healthy development in the face of risk’, Annual Review of Public Health, 26: 13.1–13.21.

D. M. Fergusson , L. J. Horwood and J. M. Lawton (1990). ‘Vulnerability to childhood problems and family social background’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 31: 1145–60.

D. M. Fergusson , L. J. Horwood and M. Lynskey (1994). ‘The childhoods of multiple problem adolescents – a 15-year longitudinal-study’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 35: 1123–40.

D. M. Fergusson and M. T. Lynskey (1996). ‘Adolescent resiliency to family adversity’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 37: 281–92.

E. Ferri (1998). ‘Forty years on: Professor Neville Butler and the British cohort studies’, Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 12: 31–44.

M. K. Finley (1984). ‘Teachers and tracking in a comprehensive high-school’, Sociology of Education, 57: 233–43.

K. Fogelman (1983). Growing up in Great Britain: Collected papers from the National Child Development Study. London: Macmillan.

M. W. Fraser , J. M. Richman and M. J. Galinsky (1999). ‘Risk, protection, and resilience: Toward a conceptual framework for social work practice’, Social Work Research, 23: 131–43.

Fussell, E. and Greene, M. E. (2002). ‘Demographic trends affecting youth around the world’, in B. B. Brown , R. Larson and T. S. Saraswathi (eds.), The world's youth: Adolescence in eight regions of the globe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press pp. 21–60.

N. Garmezy (1971). ‘Vulnerability research and the issue of primary prevention’, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 41: 101–16.

N. Garmezy (1991). ‘Resiliency and vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes associated with poverty’, American Behavioral Scientist, 34: 416–30.

N. Garmezy , A. S. Masten and A. Tellegen (1984). ‘The study of stress and competence in children – a building block for developmental psychopathology’, Child Development, 55: 97–111.

N. Glass (1999). ‘Sure Start: The development of an early intervention programme for young children in the United Kingdom’, Children and Society, 13: 257–64.

H. Goldstein (1979). ‘Some models for analysing longitudinal data on educational attainment’, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 142: 402–47.

L. S. Gottfredson (1981). ‘Circumscription and compromise – a developmental theory of occupational aspirations’, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28: 545–79.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 353 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 237 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 27th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.