Skip to main content
×
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 17
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Jeon, Hyeonjin and Lee, Seung-Hwan 2018. From Neurons to Social Beings: Short Review of the Mirror Neuron System Research and Its Socio-Psychological and Psychiatric Implications. Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience, Vol. 16, Issue. 1, p. 18.

    Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto 2015. Self-consciousness: beyond the looking-glass and what dogs found there. Ethology Ecology & Evolution, p. 1.

    Uchino, Emiko and Watanabe, Shigeru 2014. Self-recognition in pigeons revisited. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, Vol. 102, Issue. 3, p. 327.

    Carruthers, Glenn 2014. What makes us conscious of our own agency? And why the conscious versus unconscious representation distinction matters. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Vol. 8, Issue. ,

    Harley, Heidi E. 2013. Consciousness in dolphins? A review of recent evidence. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, Vol. 199, Issue. 6, p. 565.

    Savanah, Stephane 2013. Mirror self-recognition and symbol-mindedness. Biology & Philosophy, Vol. 28, Issue. 4, p. 657.

    Toda, Koji and Watanabe, Shigeru 2008. Discrimination of moving video images of self by pigeons (Columba livia). Animal Cognition, Vol. 11, Issue. 4, p. 699.

    Arp, R. 2006. The Environments of Our Hominin Ancestors, Tool-usage, and Scenario Visualization. Biology & Philosophy, Vol. 21, Issue. 1, p. 95.

    Silvia, Paul J. 2002. Self-awareness and emotional intensity. Cognition and Emotion, Vol. 16, Issue. 2, p. 195.

    Silvia, Paul J. 2001. Nothing or the opposite: intersecting terror management and objective self-awareness. European Journal of Personality, Vol. 15, Issue. 1, p. 73.

    Delfour, F and Marten, K 2001. Mirror image processing in three marine mammal species: killer whales (Orcinus orca), false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Behavioural Processes, Vol. 53, Issue. 3, p. 181.

    McLean, Andrew N. 2001. Cognitive abilities — the result of selective pressures on food acquisition?. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Vol. 71, Issue. 3, p. 241.

    McCowan, Brenda Marino, Lori Vance, Erik Walke, Leah and Reiss, Diana 2000. Bubble ring play of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Implications for cognition.. Journal of Comparative Psychology, Vol. 114, Issue. 1, p. 98.

    MITCHELL, ROBERT W. 1997. A Comparison of the Self-Awareness and Kinesthetic?Visual Matching Theories of Self-Recognition: Autistic Children and Others. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 818, Issue. 1 Self Across P, p. 39.

    Sedikides, Constantine and Skowronski, John J. 1997. The Symbolic Self in Evolutionary Context. Personality and Social Psychology Review, Vol. 1, Issue. 1, p. 80.

    Delfour, Fabienne and Aulagnier, Stéphane 1997. Bubbleblow in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas): a play activity?. Behavioural Processes, Vol. 40, Issue. 2, p. 183.

    Mitchell, Robert W. 1993. Recognizing one's self in a mirror? A reply to Gallup and Povinelli, de Lannoy, Anderson, and Byrne. New Ideas in Psychology, Vol. 11, Issue. 3, p. 351.

    ×
  • Print publication year: 1994
  • Online publication date: November 2009

24 - Evidence of self-awareness in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

Summary

Dolphins are big-brained, socially sophisticated mammals, socially and cognitively comparable to monkeys and apes in memory capacity, language comprehension, and other cognitive abilities (Herman, 1980). Their remarkable capacities suggest that dolphins, like apes, may come to recognize themselves in mirrors (e.g., Anderson, 1984; Gallup, 1970, 1982; Lethmate & Dlicker, 1973; Suarez and Gallup, 1981). This chapter reports on the results of a series of studies utilizing a mirror to assess whether dolphins recognize contingent representations of themselves or use the mirror to examine an area of the body not otherwise visible that has been marked with a highly salient substance. We adapted the mirror mark test (Gallup, 1970) for use with the bottlenose dolphin. We employed several control conditions, including mirror without mark, no mirror and no mark, and first encounter between unfamiliar dolphins through a barrier. We also devised and conducted several new tests for self-recognition, tailored for dolphins rather than primates. These tests, which utilize self-view television and video playback, are summarized here. This chapter focuses on interpreting mirror-directed behavior (both marked and unmarked) by comparing it to the control data. We address the central question of whether the dolphins' mirror-directed behavior is social or self-examination. We also discuss the role of environmental, social, and individual influences on the test results.

Methods

Subjects and setting

Five dolphins, 6–14 years old, living at Sea Life Park, served as subjects of this study (Table 24.1). The groups of dolphins changed throughout the course of the research.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Self-Awareness in Animals and Humans
  • Online ISBN: 9780511565526
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511565526
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×