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  • Print publication year: 1991
  • Online publication date: March 2008

7 - Recession and resurgence (1849–1919)

The colonial rulers introduced a large measure of bureaucracy and the rule of law, which established a new kind of relationship between the individual and the state. To increase agricultural production and revenue from land the British administrators of the Punjab introduced reform in the agrarian system with periodic settlements and records of rights as its major planks. The British policy of maintaining balance between the various communities encouraged competition between them. Communal consciousness was not confined to the Aryas or the Hindus. The Sikh peasantry suffered economically in the late nineteenth century with the rising tide of indebtedness but much less than others. The first reformer to emphasize the importance of Singh identity under colonial rule was Baba Ram Singh. One great resentment which Baba Ram Singh developed against the British was over the killing of kine for beef. Like most of the educated Punjabis, the Singh reformers tried to promote their interests through journalism.
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The Sikhs of the Punjab
  • Online ISBN: 9781139053365
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