1. . Regenerating the central nervous system: how easy for planarians! Dev Genes Evol 2007; 217: 733–48.
2. , , , et al. Structure of the planarian central nervous system (CNS) revealed by neuronal cell markers. Zoolog Sci 1998; 15: 433–40.
3. , , . The planarian flatworm: an in vivo model for stem cell biology and nervous system regeneration. Dis Model Mech 2011; 4: 12–19.
4. , . Evolution and regeneration of the planarian central nervous system. Dev Growth Differ 2009; 51: 185–95.
5. , , , et al. Wnt signaling is required for antero-posterior patterning of the planarian brain. Dev Biol; 306: 714–24.
6. , , , et al. The structure of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 1986; 314: 1–340.
7. , , , et al. Neurosurgery: functional regeneration after laser axotomy. Nature 2004; 432: 822.
8. , , , et al. Axon regeneration requires a conserved MAP kinase pathway. Science 2009; 323: 802–6.
9. , , , et al. Calcium and cyclic AMP romote axonal regeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans and require DLK-1 kinase. J Neurosci 2010; 30: 3175–83.
10. , , , et al. Axonal regeneration proceeds through specific axonal fusion in transected C. elegans neurons. Dev Dyn 2011; 240: 1365–72.
11. . Long-term survival of anucleate axons and its implications for nerve regeneration. Trends Neurosci 1991; 14: 188–93.
12. , , . A multisomatic axon in the central nervous system of the leech. J Comp Neurol 1975; 159: 1–13.
13. , , . Regeneration in crustacean motoneurons: evidence for axonal fusion. Science 1967; 156: 251–2.
14. , , . Behavioral recovery following spinal transection: functional regeneration in the lamprey CNS. Trends Neurosci 1988; 11: 227–31.
15. . Neurobiology of lampreys. Physiol Rev 1979; 59: 1007–77.
16. , , . Evolution of myelin sheaths: both lamprey and hagfish lack myelin. Neurosci Lett 1984; 48: 145–8.
17. . Variability in maps of identified neurons in the sea lamprey spinal cord examined by a wholemount technique. Brain Res 1979; 163: 181–93.
18. , . Axonal regeneration in lamprey spinal cord. J Neurosci 1983; 3: 1135–44.
19. . Mechanisms of functional recovery and regeneration after spinal cord transection in larval sea lamprey. J Physiol (Lond) 1978; 277: 395–408.
20. , , . Directional specificity in the regeneration of lamprey spinal axons. Science 1984; 224: 894–6.
21. , . Specificity of synaptic regeneration in the spinal cord of the larval sea lamprey. J Physiol (Lond) 1987; 388: 183–98.
22. , . Differential expression of Class 3 and 4 semaphorins and netrin in the lamprey spinal cord during regeneration. J Comp Neurol 2007; 501: 631–46.
23. , , , et al. Expression of the repulsive guidance molecule RGM and its receptor neogenin after spinal cord injury in sea lamprey. Exp Neurol 2009; 217: 242–51.
24. , . Extent and time course of restoration of descending brainstem projections in spinal cord-transected lamprey. J Comp Neurol 1994; 344: 65–82.
25. , , , et al. Recovery of neurofilament expression selectively in regenerating reticulospinal neurons. J Neurosci 1997; 17: 5206–20.
26. , . Semaphorins and their receptors in lamprey CNS: cloning, phylogenetic analysis and developmental changes during metamorphosisJ Comp Neurol 2006; 497: 115–32.
27. , . Expression of netrin receptor UNC-5 in lamprey brain; modulation by spinal cord transection. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2000; 14: 49–58.
28. , , . Delayed death of identified reticulospinal neurons after spinal cord injury in lampreys. J Comp Neurol 2008; 510: 269–82.
29. , . Effect of glial-ependymal scar and Teflon arrest on the regenerative capacity of goldfish spinal cord. Exp Neurol 1967; 19: 25–32.
30. , . Recovery from spinal transection in fish: regrowth of axons past the transection. Neurosci Lett 1983; 38: 227–31.
31. , , . Regeneration of descending projections to the spinal motor neurons after spinal hemisection in the goldfish. Brain Res 2007; 1155: 17–23.
32. , . Synaptic reorganization following regeneration of goldfish spinal cord. Exp Neurol 1973; 41: 402–10.
33. , . Recovery of C-starts, equilibrium and targeted feeding after whole spinal cord crush in the adult goldfish Carassius auratus. J Exp Biol 2003; 206: 3015–29.
34. , , , et al. Spinal cord regeneration in adult goldfish: implications for functional recovery in vertebrates. Prog Brain Res 1994; 103: 219–28.
35. , . Adult zebrafish as a model for successful central nervous system regeneration. Restor Neurol Neurosci 2008; 26: 71–80.
36. , , , et al. Functional regeneration in the larval zebrafish spinal cord. In , , eds. Model Organisms in Spinal Cord Regeneration. KGaA:Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co., 2007; 263–88.
37. , , , et al. Axonal regrowth after spinal cord transection in adult zebrafish. J Comp Neurol 1997; 377: 577–95.
38. , . Regenerating descending axons preferentially reroute to the gray matter in the presence of a general macrophage/microglial reaction caudal to a spinal transection in adult zebrafish. J Comp Neurol 2001; 433: 131–47.
39. , , , et al. Differences in the regenerative response of neuronal cell populations and indications for plasticity in intraspinal neurons after spinal cord transection in adult zebrafish. Mol Cell Neurosci 2005; 30: 265–78.
40. , , , et al. L1.1 is involved in spinal cord regeneration in adult zebrafish. J Neurosci 2004; 24: 7837–42.
41. , , , et al. Readiness of zebrafish brain neurons to regenerate a spinal axon correlates with differential expression of specific cell recognition molecules. J Neurosci 1998; 18: 5789–803.
42. . Functional aspects of optical nerve regeneration in non-mammalian vertebrates. In , , eds. Model Organisms in Spinal Cord Regeneration. KGaA: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH&Co; 2007; 323–54.
43. , , , et al. Myelin-, reactive glia-, and scar-derived CNS axon growth inhibitors: Expression, receptor signaling, and correlation with axon regeneration. Glia 2004; 46: 225–51.
44. , . The glial scar and central nervous system repair. Brain Res Bull 1999; 49: 377–91.
45. . Overcoming inhibition in the damaged spinal cord. J Neurotrauma 2006; 23: 371–83.
46. , , . Guidance molecules in axon regeneration. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2010; 2: a001867.
47. , , , et al. Reevaluation of the growth-permissive substrate properties of goldfish optic nerve myelin and myelin proteins. J Neurosci 1995; 15: 7500–8.
48. , , , et al. Growth of regenerating goldfish axons is inhibited by rat oligodendrocytes and CNS myelin but not by goldfish optic nerve tract oligodendrocytelike cells and fish CNS myelin. J Neurosci 1991; 11: 626–40.
49. , , , et al. Target contact regulates GAP-43 and alpha-tubulin mRNA levels in regenerating retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci Res 1998; 52: 405–19.
50. , , , et al. Axonal regeneration of fish optic nerve after injury. Biol Pharm Bull 2004; 27: 445–51.
51. , , . Gradients of ephrin-A2 and ephrin-A5b mRNA during retinotopic regeneration of the optic projection in adult zebrafish. J Comp Neurol 2000; 427: 469–83.
52. , , . Repulsive guidance molecule plays multiple roles in neuronal differentiation and axon guidance. J Neurosci 2006; 26: 6082–8.
53. , , , et al. Time course of salamander spinal cord regeneration and recovery of swimming: HRP retrograde pathway tracing and kinematic analysis. Exp Neurol 1990; 108: 198–213.
54. , , , et al. Recovery of bimodal locomotion in the spinal-transected salamander, Pleurodeles waltlii. Eur J Neurosci 2004; 20: 1995–2007.
55. , , . Bulbospinal and intraspinal connections in normal and regenerated salamander spinal cord. Exp Neurol 1989; 103: 41–51.
56. , , . Meningeal cells and glia establish a permissive environment for axon regeneration after spinal cord injury in newts. Neural Dev 2011; 6: 1.
57. , . Spinal cord injury: plasticity, regeneration and the challenge of translational drug development. Trends Neurosci 2009; 32: 41–7.
58. . Transection of the spinal cord in developing Xenopus laevis. J Embryol Exp Morphol 1962; 10: 115–26.
59. , . Anatomical and behavioral recovery from the effects of spinal cord transection: dependence on metamorphosis in anuran larvae. J Neurosci 1982; 2: 654–52.
60. , , . Metamorphosis alters the response to spinal cord transection in Xenopus laevis frogs. J Neurobiol 1990; 21: 1108–22.
61. , , . Metamorphosis and the regenerative capacity of spinal cord axons in Xenopus laevis. Eur J Neurosci 2011; 33: 9–25.
62. , . Regeneration of descending projections in Xenopus laevis tadpole spinal cord demonstrated by retrograde double labeling. Brain Res 2006; 1088: 68–72.
63. , . Transection of the spinal cord in the adult frog. Anat Rec 1958; 131: 81–95.
64. , , . Central nervous system regeneration: from leech to opossum. J Physiol 2009; 587: 2775–82.
65. , , , et al. Regeneration in the era of functional genomics and gene network analysis. Biol Bull 2011; 221: 18–34.
66. , , . Thyroid hormone controls the development of connections between the spinal cord and limbs during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004; 101: 165–70.
67. , , , et al. CNS myelin and oligodendrocytes of the Xenopus spinal cord–but not optic nerve–are nonpermissive for axon growth. J Neurosci 1995; 15: 99–109.
68. , , , et al. The critical period for repair of CNS of neonatal opossum (Monodelphis domestica) in culture: correlation with development of glial cells, myelin and growth-inhibitory molecules. Eur J Neurosci 1995; 7: 2119–29.
69. , . CNS injury, glial scars, and inflammation: inhibitory extracellular matrices and regeneration failure. Exp Neurol 2008; 209: 294–301.
70. , , . Structure of reticulospinal axon growth cones and their cellular environment during regeneration in the lamprey spinal cord. J Comp Neurol 1994; 344: 559–80.
71. , . Anti-Nogo on the go: from animal models to a clinical trial. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2010; 1198: E22–34.
72. , , , et al. Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans: key modulators of spinal cord and brain plasticity. Exp Neurol 2012; 235: 5–17.
73. , , , et al. Lack of enhanced spinal regeneration in Nogo-deficient mice. Neuron 2003; 38: 213–24.
74. , , , et al. A re-assessment of the effects of a Nogo-66 receptor antagonist on regenerative growth of axons and locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury in mice. Exp Neurol 2008; 209: 446–68.
75. , , , et al. Assessing spinal axon regeneration and sprouting in Nogo-, MAG-, and OMgp-deficient mice. Neuron 2010; 66: 663–70.
76. , . Cell lineage tracing during Xenopus tail regeneration. Development 2004; 131: 2669–79.
77. , , , et al. Neurogenesis during caudal spinal cord regeneration in adult newts. Dev Genes Evol 1999; 209: 363–9.
78. , . Ectoderm to mesoderm lineage switching during axolotl tail regeneration. Science 2002; 298: 1993–6.
79. , . Bridging the regeneration gap: genetic insights from diverse animal models. Nat Rev Genet 2006; 7: 873–84.
80. , . Tail regeneration in Xenopus laevis as a model for understanding tissue repair. J Dent Res 2008; 87: 806–16.
81. , . Considering the evolution of regeneration in the central nervous system. Nat Rev Neurosci 2009; 10: 713–23.
82. , . Eye regeneration at the molecular age. Dev Dyn 2003; 226: 211–24.
83. , , , et al. Neural retinal regeneration in the anuran amphibian Xenopus laevis post-metamorphosis: transdifferentiation of retinal pigmented epithelium regenerates the neural retina. Dev Biol 2007; 303: 45–56.
84. , . Retinal regeneration in the Xenopus laevis tadpole: a new model system. Mol Vis 2009; 15: 1000–13.
85. , . Regenerative medicine for retinal diseases: activating endogenous repair mechanisms. Trends Mol Med 2010; 16: 193–202.
86. , , . Regeneration of the newt retina: order of appearance of photoreceptors and ganglion cells. J Comp Neurol 1998; 396: 267–74.
87. , , . Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) induced transdifferentiation of retinal pigment epithelium: generation of retinal neurons and glia. Dev Dyn 1997; 209: 387–98.
88. . Optic nerve regeneration with return of vision in anurans. J Neurophysiol 1944; 7: 57–69.
89. , . Axon regeneration across the site of injury in the optic nerve of the newt Triturus pyrrhogaster. Cell Tissue Res 1977; 179: 501–16.
90. . Retinotopic analysis of fiber pathways in the regenerating retinotectal system of the adult newt cynops Pyrrhogaster. Brain Res 1981; 206: 27–37.
91. , . The organization of regenerating axons in the Xenopus optic nerve. Brain Res 1981; 229: 487–90.
92. , , , et al. Regeneration of retinotectal projections after optic tectum removal in adult newts. Mol Vis 2007; 13: 2112–8.
93. . Visuomotor coordination in the newt (Triturus viridescens) after regeneration of the optic nerve. J Comp Neurol 1943; 79: 33–55.
94. , , , et al. Fiber order of the normal and regenerated optic tract of the frog (Rana pipiens). J Comp Neurol 2004; 477: 43–54.
95. , . Visual map development: bidirectional signaling, bifunctional guidance molecules, and competition. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2010; 2: a001768.
96. , . Insights into activity-dependent map formation from the retinotectal system: a middle-of-the-brain perspective. J Neurobiol 2004; 59: 134–46.
97. , , , et al. Neural reconnection in the transected spinal cord of the freshwater turtle Trachemys dorbignyi. J Comp Neurol 2009; 515: 197–214.
98. , , , et al. Cell proliferation and cytoarchitectural remodeling during spinal cord reconnection in the fresh-water turtle Trachemys dorbignyi. Cell Tissue Res 2011; 344: 415–33.
99. , , . Neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the spinal cord of turtles. J Comp Neurol 2002; 453: 131–44.
100. , , , et al. Optic nerve regenerates but does not restore topographic projections in the lizard Ctenophorus ornatus. J Comp Neurol 1997; 377: 105–20.
101. , , , et al. Failure to restore vision after optic nerve regeneration in reptiles: interspecies variation in response to axotomy. J Comp Neurol 2004; 478: 292–305.
102. , , , et al. Training on a visual task improves the outcome of optic nerve regeneration. J Neurotrauma 2003; 20: 1263–70.
103. , , , et al. Recovery of control of posture and locomotion after a spinal cord injury: solutions staring us in the face. Prog Brain Res 2009; 175: 393–418.