Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: March 2013

15 - Vascular Dementia

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

References

1. FratliglioniL, De RonchiD, Agüero-TorresH. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of dementia. Drugs Aging. 1999;15:365–375.
2. World Health Organization. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Disorders for Diagnostic Guidelines. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1992.
3. WinkerMAAging: a global issue. JAMA. 1997;278:1377.
4. RoccaWA, HofmanA, BrayneC, et al. The prevalence of vascular dementia in Europe: facts and fragments from 1980–1990 studies: EURODEM-Prevalence Research Group. Ann Neurol. 1991;30:817–824.
5. JormAF. Cross-national comparisons of the occurrence of Alzheimer’s and vascular dementias. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1991;240:218–222.
6. OttA, BretelerMM, van HarskampF, et al. Incidence and risk of dementia: the Rotterdam Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;147:574–580.
7. HerbertR, BrayneC. Epidemiology of vascular dementia. Neuroepidemiology. 1995;14:240–257.
8. ChuHC, VictoroffJI, MargolinD, et al. Criteria for the diagnosis of ischemic vascular dementia proposed by the State of California Alzheimer’s Disease Diagnostic and Treatment Centers. Neurology. 1992;42:473–489.
9. JellingerKA, AttemsJ. Prevalence and pathogenic role of cerebrovascular lesions in Alzheimer disease. J Neurol Sci. 2005;229–230:37–41.
10. de la TorreJC. Alzheimer disease as a vascular disorder: nosological evidence. Stroke. 2002;33:1152–1162.
11. AlzheimerA. (1907). About a peculiar disease of the cerebral cortex. (translated by Jarvik L., Greenson H). Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 1987;1:7–8.
12. JellingerKA. Pathology and pathophysiology of vascular cognitive impairment: a critical update. Panminerva Med. 2004;46:217–226.
13. PohjasvaaraT, MäntyläR, YlikoskiR, et al. Comparison of different clinical criteria (DS-111, ADDTC, ICD-10, NINDS-AIREN, DSM-IV) for the diagnosis of vascular dementia. Stroke. 2000;31:2952–2957.
14. WolfsonC, WolfsonDB, AsgharianM, et al. A reevaluation of the duration of survival after the onset of dementia. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1111–1116.
15. NeyenhuisDL, GorelickPB. Vascular dementia: a contemporary review of epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998;46:1437–1438.
16. WhitmerRA, SidneyS, SelbyJ, et al. Midlife cardiovascular risk factors and risk of dementia in late life. Neurology. 2005;64:277–281.
17. LenziGL, JonesT, MossS. The relationship between regional oxygen utilization and cerebral blood flow in multi-infarct dementia. Acta Neurol Scand. 1997;64(Suppl):248–249.
18. ShawTG, MortelKF, MeyerJS, et al. Cerebral blood flow changes in benign aging and cerebrovascular disease. Neurology. 1984;34:855–862.
19. FazekasF, NiederkornK, SchmidtR, et al. White matter signal abnormalities in normal individuals: correlation with carotid ultrasonography, cerebral blood flow measurements, and cerebrovascular risk factors. Stroke. 1988;19:1285–1288.
20. MarkusHS, LythgoeDJ, OstegaardL, et al. Reduced cerebral blood flow in white matter in ischaemic leukoaraiosis demonstrated using quantitative exogenous contrast based perfusion MRI. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000;69:48–53.
21. FurutaA, IshiiN, NishiharaY, HorieA. Medullary arteries in aging and dementia. Stroke. 1991;22:442–446.
22. OstrowPT, MillerLL. Pathology of small artery disease. Adv Neurol. 1993;62:93–123.
23. FazekasF, KleinertR, OffenbacherH, et al. Pathologic correlates of incidental MRI white matter signal hypertensities. Neurology. 1993;43:1683–1689.
24. PantoniL, GarciaJH. Pathogenesis of leukoaraiosis: a review. Stroke. 1997;28:652–659.
25. RománGC. White matter lesions and normal-pressure hydrocephalus: Binswanger’s disease or Hakim syndrome?AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1991;12:40–41.
26. Graff-RadfordNR, GoderskyJC. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and systemic hypertension. Neurology. 1987;37:868–871.
27. FeiginI, PopoffN. Neuropathological changes late in cerebral edema: the relationship to trauma, hypertensive disease and Binswanger’s encephalopathy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1963;22:500–511.
28. SpanglerKM, ChallaVR, MoodyDM, BellMA. Arteriolar tortuosity of the white matter in aging and hypertension: a microradiographic study. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1994;53:22–26.
29. MoodyDM, ThoreCR, AnstromJA, et al. Quantification of afferent vessels shows reduced brain vascular density in subjects with leukoaraiosis. Radiology. 2004;233:883–890.
30. LeiferD, BuonannoFS, RichardsonEP Jr. Clinicopathologic correlations of cranial magnetic resonance imaging of periventricular white matter. Neurology. 1990;40:911–918.
31. van SwietenJC, van den HoutJHW, van KetelBA, et al. Periventricular lesions in the white matter on magnetic resonance imaging in the elderly: a morphometric correlation with arteriolosclerosis and dilated perivascular spaces. Brain. 1991;114:761–774.
32. ErkinjunttiT, GaoF, LeeDH, et al. Lack of difference in brain hypertensities between patients with early Alzheimer’s disease and control subjects. Arch Neurol. 1994;51:260–268.
33. HendrieHC, FarlowMR, AustomGM, EdwardsMK, WilliamsMA. Foci of increased T2 signal intensity on brain MR scans of healthy elderly subjects. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1989;10:703–707.
34. HuntAL, OrrisonWW, YeoRA, et al. Clinical significance of MRI white matter lesions in the elderly. Neurology. 1989;39:1470–1474.
35. PantoniL, GarciaJH. The significance of cerebral white matter abnormalities 100 years after Binswanger’s report: a review. Stroke. 1995;26:1293–1301.
36. BretelerMB, van SwietenJC, BotsML, et al. Cerebral white matter lesions, vascular risk factors and cognitive function in a population-based study: the Rotterdam Study. Neurology. 1994;44:1246–1252.
37. InzitariD, DiazF, FoxA, et al. Vascular risk factors and leuko-araiosis. Arch Neurol. 1987;44:42–47.
38. CadeloM, InzitariD, PracucciG, MasalchiM. Predictors of leukoaraiosis in elderly neurological patients. Cerebrovasc Dis. 1991;1:345–351.
39. LjindgrenA, RoijerA, RudlingO, et al. Cerebral lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, heart, disease, and vascular risk factors in subjects without stroke. Stroke. 1994;25:929–934.
40. MoodyDM, SantamoreWP, BellMA. Does the tortuosity in cerebral arterioles impair down-autoregulation in hypertensive and elderly normotensive: a hypothesis and computer model. Clin Neurosurg. 1990;37:372–387.
41. PrinsND, van DijkEJ, Den HeijerT, et al. Cerebral small-vessel disease and decline in information processing speed, executive function and memory. Brain. 2005;128:2034–2041.
42. DeGrootJC, de LeeuwFF, OudkerkM, et al. Cerebral white matter lesions and cognitive function: the Rotterdam Scan Study. Ann Neurol. 2000;47:145–151.
43. WolfeN, LinnR, BabikianVL, et al. Frontal systems impairment following multiple lacunar infarcts. Arch Neurol. 1990;47:129–132.
44. TohgiH, YonezawaH, TakahashiS, et al. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in senile dementia of Alzeheimer’s type and vascular dementia with deep white matter changes. Neuroradiology. 1998;40:131–137.
45. PavicsL, GrunwaldF, ReichmannK, et al. Regional cerebral blood flow single-photon emission tomography with 99mTc-HMPAO and the acetazolamide test in the evaluation of vascular and Alzheimer’s dementia. Eur J Nucl Med. 1999;26:239–245.
46. De RueckJ, DecooD, HaenbroekxMC, et al. Acetazolamide vasoreactivity in vascular dementia: a positron emission tomography study. Eur Neurol. 1999;41:31–36.
47. DrzezgaA, GrimmerT, RiemenschneiderM, et al. Prediction of individual clinical outcome in MCI by means of genetic assessment and (18)F-FDG PET. J Nucl Med. 2005;46:1625–1632.
48. JellingerKA. Alpha-synuclein lesions in normal aging, Parkinson disease, and Alzheimer disease: evidence from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). J Neuropathol Sci. 2005;65:554.
49. PantoniL. Subtypes of vascular dementia and their pathogenesis: a critical overview. In: BowlerJ, HachninskiV, eds. Vascular Cognitive Impairment-Preventable Dementia. New York: Oxford University Press; 2003:217–219.
50. GarciaJH, BrownGG. Vascular dementia: neuropathologic alterations and metabolic brain changes. J Neurol Sci. 1992;109:121–131.
51. BlassJ, HoyerS, NitschR. A translation of Otto Binswanger’s article, “The delineation of the generalized progressive paralyses.” 1894. Arch Neurol. 1991;48:961–972.
52. SchorerCE, RodinE. Binswanger’s disease: a complete translation. J Geriatr Psychiatr Neurol. 1990;3:61–66.
53. HachinskiVC, PotterP, MerskeyH. Leuko-ariosis. Arch Neurol. 1987;44:21–23.
54. RománGC. Senile dementia of the Binswanger type: a vascular form of dementia in the elderly. JAMA. 1987;258:1782–1788.
55. LongstrethWT Jr, ArnoldAM, BeauchampNJ Jr, et al. Incidence, manifestations, and predictors of worsening white matter on serial cranial magnetic resonance imaging in the elderly: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Stroke. 2005;36:56–61.
56. FazekasFC. Magnetic resonance signal abnormalities in asymptomatic individuals: prevalence and functional correlates. Eur Neurol. 1989;29:164–166.
57. McPhersonSE. Neuropsychological aspects of vascular dementia. Brain Cogn. 1996;31:269–282.
58. GrahamNL, EmeryT, HodgesJR. Distinctive cognitive profiles in Alzheimer’s disease and subcortical vascular dementia. J Neurol Neursurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:61–71.
59. BrownWR, MoodyDM, ThoreCR, ChallaVR. Cerebrovascular pathology in Alzheimer’s disease and leukoaraiosis. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2000;903:39–45.
60. MoodyDM, BrownWR, ChallaVR, Ghazi-BirryHS, ReboussinDM. Cerebral microvascular alterations in aging, leukoaraiosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1997;26:103–116.
61. ArimaK, YanagawaS, ItoN, IkedaS. Cerebral arterial pathology of CADASIL and CARRASIL (Maeda syndrome). Neuropathology. 2003;23:327–334.
62. DavousP. Cadasil: a review with proposed diagnostic criteria. Eur J Neurol. 1998;5:219–233.
63. BousserMG, Tournier-LasserveE. Summary of the proceedings of the First International Workshop on CADASIL. Paris, May 19–21, 1993. Stroke. 1994;25:704–707.
64. Tournier-LasserveE, JoutelA, MelkiJ, et al. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy maps to chromosome 19q12. Nat Genet. 1993;3:256–259.
65. JoutelA, CorpechotC, DocrosA, et al. Notch3 mutations in CADASIL, a hereditary adult-onset condition causing stroke and dementia. Nature. 1996;383:707–710.
66. MarkusHS, MartinRJ, SimpsonMA, et al. Diagnostic strategies in CADASIL. Neurology. 2002;59:1134–1138.
67. GreenbergSM. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: prospects for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Neurology. 1998;51:690–694.
68. KaseCS. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy. In: KaseCS, CaplanLR, eds. Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1994:179–200.
69. McCarronMO, NicollJA, GrahamDI. A quartet of Down’s syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and cerebral hemorrhage: interacting genetic risk factors. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1998;65:405–406.
70. PfeifferLA, WhiteLR, RossGW, et al. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy and cognitive function: the HAAS autopsy study. Neurology. 2002;58:1629–1634.
71. WerringDJ, FrazerDN, CowardLJ, et al. Cognitive dysfunction in patients with cerebral microbleeds on T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI. Brain. 2004;127:2265–2275.
72. CordonnierC, van der FlierWM, SluimerJD, et al. Prevalence and severity of microbleeds in a memory clinic setting. Neurology. 2006;66:1356–1360.
73. Lesnik ObersteinSA, van den BoomR, van BuchemMA, et al. Cerebral microbleeds in CADASIL. Neurology. 2001;57:1066–1070.
74. DichgansM, HoltmannspotterM, HerzogJ, PetersN, et al. Cerebral microbleeds in CADASIL: a gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging and autopsy study. Stroke. 2002;33:67–71.
75. RoobG, SchmidtR, KapellerP, et al. MRI evidence of past cerebral microbleeds in a healthy elderly population. Neurology. 1999;52:991–994.
76. JeerakathilT, WolfPA, BeiserA, et al. Stroke risk profile predicts white matter hyperintensity volume: the Framingham Study. Stroke. 2004;35:1857–1861.
77. EckmanMH, RosandJ, KnudsenKA, et al. Can patients be anticoagulated after intracerebral hemorrhage? A decision analysis. Stroke. 2003;34:1710–1716.
78. DelayJ, BrionS. Les Démence senile mixte. In: DelayJ, BrionS, eds. Démences Tardives. Paris: Masson; 1962:195–201.
79. TomlinsonBE, BlessedG, RothM. Observations on the brains of demented old people. J Neurol Sci. 1970;11:205–242.
80. MölsaPK, PaljarviL, RinneJO, RinneUK, SakoE. Validity of clinical diagnosis in dementia: a prospective clinicopathological study. Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1985;48:1085–1090.
81. ChuiH, VictoroffJI, MargolinD, et al. Criteria for the diagnosis of ischemic vascular dementia proposed by the State of California Alzeheimer’s Disease Diagnostic and Treatment Centers. Neurology. 1992;42:473–480.
82. RománGC, TatemichiTK, ErkinjunttiT, et al. Vascular dementia: diagnostic criteria for research studies: report of the NINDS-AIREN International Workshop. Neurology. 1993;43:250–260.
83. CasserlyI, TopolE. Convergence of atherosclerosis and Alzehimer’s disease: inflammation, cholesterol, and misfolded proteins. Lancet. 2004;363:1139–1146.
84. HaanMN, ShemanskiL, JagustWJ, et al. The role of APOE epsilon4 in modulating effects of other risk factors for cognitive decline in elderly persons. JAMA. 1999;282:40–46.
85. SnowdonDA, GreinerLH, MortimerJA, et al. Brain infarction and the clinical expression of Alzheimer disease: the Nun Study. JAMA. 1997;277:813–817.
86. ZekryD, DuyckaertsC, MouliasR, et al. Degenerative and vascular lesions of the brain have synergistic effects in dementia of the elderly. Acta Neuropath. 2002;103:481–487.
87. EsiriMM, NagyZ, SmithMZ, et al. Cerebrovascular disease and threshold for dementia in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet. 1999;354:919–920.
88. JanotaI, MirsenTR, HachinskiVC, et al. Neuropathologic correlates of leukoaraiosis. Arch Neurol. 1989;46:1124–1128.
89. KawamuraJ, MeyerJS, TerayamaY, WeathersS. Leukoaraiosis correlates with cerebral hypoperfusion in vascular dementia. Stroke. 1991;22:609–614.
90. CoffmanJA, TorelloMW, BornsteinRA, et al. Leukoaraiosis in asymptomatic adult offspring of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease. Biol Psychiatry. 1990;27:1244–1248.
91. ThalDR, GhebremedhinE, OrantesM, WiestlerOD. Vascular pathology in Alzheimer disease: correlation of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and arteriosclerosis/lipohyalinosis with cognitive decline. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2003;63:1287–1301.
92. BrownWR, MoodyDM, TytellM, et al. Microembolic brain injuries from cardiac surgery: are they seeds of future Alzheimer’s disease?Ann NY Acad Sci. 1997;26:386–389.
93. ErkinjunttiT, Román, GC, GauthierS, et al. Emerging therapies for vascular dementia and vascular cognitive impairment. Stroke. 2004;35:1010–1017.
94. BlackS, RománGC, GeldmacherDS, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of donepezil in vascular dementia: positive results of a 24-week, multicenter, international, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Stroke. 2003;34:2323–2330.
95. WilkinsonD, DoodyR, HelmeR, et al. Donepezil in vascular dementia: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Neurology. 2003;61:479–486.
96. ErkinjunttiT, KurzA, GauthierS, et al. Efficacy of galantamine in probably vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease combined with cerebrovascular disease: a randomized trial. Lancet. 2002;359:1283–1290.
97. MorettiR, TorreP, AntonelloRM, et al. Rivastigmine in subcortical vascular dementia: an open 22-month study. J Neurol Sci. 2002;203–204:141–146.
98. KumarV, AnadR, MessinaJ, et al. An efficacy and safety analysis of Exelon in Alzheimer’s disease patients with concurrent vascular risk factors. Eur J Neurol. 2000;7:159–169.
99. OrgogozoJM, RigaudAS, StofflerA, et al. Efficacy and safety of memantine in patients with mild to moderate vascular dementia: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial (MMM 300). Stroke. 2002;33:1834–1839.
100. WilcockG, MobiusHJ, StofflerA. MMM 500 group; a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre study of memantine in mild to moderate vascular dementia (MMM500). Internat Clin Psychopharmacol. 2002;17:297–305.
101. GörtelmeyerR, ErblerH. Memantine in the treatment of mild to moderate dementia syndrome: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Arzneimittelforschung. 1992;42:904–913.
102. KittnerB. Clinical trials of propentofylline in vascular dementia: European/Canadian Propentofylline Study Group. Alzheimer Dis Associat Disord. 1999;13(Suppl 3):S166–S171.
103. MielkeR, MöllerH-J, ErkinjuntiT, et al. Propentofylline in the treatment of vascular dementia and Alzheimer-type dementia: overview of phase I and phase II clinical trials. Alzheimer Dis Associat Disord. 1998;12(Suppl 2):29–35.
104. PantoniL, del SerT, SoglianAG, et al. Efficacy and safety of nimodipine in subcortical vascular dementia: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Stroke. 2005;36:619–624.
105. SHEP Cooperative Research Group. Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension: final results of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). SHEP Cooperative Research Group. JAMA. 1991;265:3255–3264.
106. ForetteF, SeuxML, StassenJA, et al. The prevention of dementia with antihypertensive treatment: new evidence from the Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) study. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:2046–2052.
107. TzourioC, AndersonC, PROGRESS Management Committee. Blood pressure reduction and risk of dementia in patients with stroke: rationale of the dementia assessment in PROGRESS (Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study). PROGRESS Management Committee. J Hypertens. 2000;18(Suppl):S21–S24.
108. LithelH, HanssonL, SkoogI, et al. The Study on Cognition and Prognosis in the Elderly (SCOPE): outcomes in patients not receiving add-on therapy after randomization. J Hypertens. 2004;22:1605–1612.
109. JacobsonEJ, SalehmoghaddamS, DormanJA, et al. The effect of blood pressure control on cognitive function (the FOCUS Study). Am J Hypertens. 2001;14(Suppl):55A–56A.
110. BiesselsGJ, StaekenborgS, BrunnerE, BrayneC, ScheltensP. Risk of dementia in diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Lancet Neurol. 2006;5:64–74.
111. CuckiermanT, GersteinHC, WilliamsonJD. Cognitive decline and dementia in diabetes: systematic overview of prospective observational studies. Diabetologia. 2005;48:2460–2469.
112. HassanA, HuntBJ, O’SullivanM, BellR, et al. Homocysteine is a risk factor for cerebral small vessel disease, acting via endothelial dysfunction. Brain. 2004;127:212–219.
113. McMahonJA, GreenTJ, SkeaffCM, et al. A controlled trial of homocysteine lowering and cognitive performance. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:2764–2772.
114. Del ParigiA, PanzaF, CapursoC, SolfrizziV. Nutritional factors, cognitive decline, and dementia. Brain Res Bull. 2006;69:1–19.
115. SeemanTE, SingerBH, RoweJW, HorwitzRI, McEwenBS. Price of adaptation: allostatic load and its health consequences. MacArthur studies of successful aging. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:2259–2268.
116. LaurinD, VerreaitR, LindsayJ, MacPhersonK, RockwoodK. Physical activity and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in elderly persons. Arch Neurol. 2001;58:498–504.
117. ColcombeSJ, EricksonKI, RazN, et al. Aerobic fitness reduces brain tissue loss in aging humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003;58:176–180.
118 YaffeK, BarnesD, NevittM, et al. A prospective study of physical activity and cognitive decline in elderly women: women who walk. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:1703–1708.
119. KalmijnS, LaunerLJ, OttA, et al. Dietary fat intake and the risk of incident dementia in the Rotterdam Study. Ann Neurol. 1997;42:776–792.
120. KalmijnS, FeskensEJ, LaunerLJ, KromhoutD. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and cognitive function in very old men. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;145:33–41.