2007). Retirement and cognitive reserve: A stochastic frontier approach to survey data. CREPP Working Paper 2007/04., , , & (
2002). Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of support, 10th edn. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation. (
2005). Complexity of work and risk of Alzheimer's disease: A population-based study of Swedish twins. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Science, 60: 251–258., , , , , & (
1994). Psychometric evidence of intellectual growth spurts in early adolecence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14: 328–344., & (
. The citations in the text will guide the reader to the source. All editions of Aristotle, no matter what the publisher and date, have the same chapter and page numbers in the margins and those are what are cited herein.
Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304, 122 S.CT 2242 (2002).
Black v. State, No. M2004-01345-CCA-R3-PD, 2005 Tenn. Crim. App. LEXIS 1129 (Tenn. 2005).
2006). How similar are fluid cognition and general intelligence? A developmental neuroscience perspective on fluid cognition as an aspect of human cognitive ability. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29: 109–160. (
2005). Rising mean IQ: Cognitive demand of mathematics education for young children, population exposure to formal schooling, and the neurology of the prefrontal cortex. Intelligence, 33: 93–106., , , & (
1993). Well-being over time in Britain and the USA. Paper presented at the Economics of Happiness Conference, London School of Economics., , & (
1969). Evolution des côtes à quelques tests [Evolution of scores from several tests]. Brussels: Belgian Armed Forces, Center for Research Into Human Traits. (
Bowling v. Commonwealth, 163 S.W.3d 361 (Ky. 2005).
1975). Brain electrical potentials and individual psychological differences. New York: Grune & Statton. (
1988). Nationally normed elementary achievement testing in America's public schools: How all fifty states are above the national average. Unpublished paper, Friends for Education. (
2001). Integrating concepts and tests of intelligence from the differential and developmental traditions. Intelligence, 29: 307–336., , , & (
1973). The prevention of subcultural subnormality: Problems and prospects. British Journal of Subnormality, 19: 7–20. (
1978). Technical report on Edmonton Grade III achievement: 1956–1977 comparisons. Edmonton, Canada: University of Alberta., , & (
2005). The mature mind: The positive power of the aging brain. New York: Basic Books. (
2002, and 2004., , & (in press). Generational changes on the Draw-a-Man test: A comparison of Brazilian urban and rural children tested in 1930,
2005). The generational intelligence gains are caused by decreasing variance in the lower half of the distribution: Supporting evidence for the nutrition hypothesis. Intelligence, 33: 83–92., , & (
2003). IQ on the rise: The Flynn effect in rural Kenyan children. Psychological Science, 14: 215–219., , , , & (
2001). Intelligence: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (
1998). A triarchic theory of Jensenism: Persistent, conservative reductionism. Intelligence, 26: 273–282., & (
2004). Extending and testing the reciprocal effects model. Brookings proposal to the National Institute on Ageing. (
2007). What is g? Brookings mimeo (June). (
2001a). Great leap forward: A new theory of intelligence. New Scientist, April 21, 44–47., & (
2001b). Heritability estimates versus large environmental effects: The IQ paradox resolved. Psychological Review, 108: 346–369., & (
2006). Black Americans reduce the racial IQ gap: Evidence from standardization samples. Psychological Science, 17: 913–920., & (
2005). Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance. Psychological Science, 16: 939–944., & (
1974). Does economic growth improve the human lot? Some empirical evidence. In & (eds.), Nations and households in economic growth: Essays in honor of Moses Abramovitz. New York and London: Academic Press. (
1995). Will raising the incomes of all increase the happiness of all?Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organization, 27: 35–48. (
1993). Changing differences in intelligence? Comparisons between groups of thirteen-year-olds tested from 1960 to 1990. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 37: 259–277., , & (
2006). Tracking cognitive development with the Rasch Model: Empirical evidence of growth and heterogeneity. In & (eds.), Applications of Rasch measurement in science education (pp. 74–110). Maple Grove, MN: JAM Press., & (
Ex parte Murphy, No. WR-38, 198-03, 2006 Tex. Crim., App. (Tex., Jan. 18, 2006).
2006). Human traces. London: Vintage Books. (
1999). Comparison of the development of formal thought in adolescent cohorts aged 10 to 15 years (1967–1996 and 1972–1993). Developmental Psychology, 35: 1048–1058. (
1986). L'évolution du niveau intellectuel des enfants de 8 ans sur une période de 40 ans, 1944–1984 [The evolution of the intellectual level of 8-year-old children over a period of 40 years, 1944–1984]. L'orientation scolaire et professionelle, 15: 61–83., , & (
1984a). IQ gains and the Binet decrements. Journal of Educational Measurement, 21: 283–290. (
1984b). The mean IQ of Americans: Massive gains 1932 to 1978. Psychological Bulletin, 95: 29–51. (
1985). Wechsler intelligence tests: Do we really have a criterion of mental retardation?American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 90: 236–244. (
1987). Massive IQ gains in 14 nations: What IQ tests really measure. Psychological Bulletin, 101: 171–191. (
1991a). Asian Americans: Achievement beyond IQ. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. (
1991b). Reaction times show that both Chinese and British children are more intelligent than one another. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 72: 544–546. (
1993a). Derrida: What does he believe?Political Theory Newsletter, 5: 180–181. (
1993b). Skodak and Skeels: The inflated mother–child IQ gap. Intelligence, 17: 557–561. (
1998a). IQ gains over time: Toward finding the causes. In (ed.), The rising curve: Long-term gains in IQ and related measures (pp. 25–66). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. (
1998b). Israeli military IQ tests: Gender differences small; IQ gains large. Journal of Biosocial Science, 30: 541–553. (
1998c). WAIS-III and WISC-III: IQ gains in the United States from 1972 to 1995; how to compensate for obsolete norms. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 86: 1231–1239. (
2000a). How to defend humane ideals: Substitutes for objectivity. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press. (
2000b). IQ gains, WISC subtests, and fluid g: g theory and the relevance of Spearman's hypothesis to race (followed by Discussion). In , , & (eds.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 202–227). Novartis Foundation Symposium 233. New York: Wiley. (
2000c). The hidden history of IQ and special education: Can the problems be solved?Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 6: 191–198. (
2006a). Efeito Flynn: Repensando a inteligência e seus efeitos [The Flynn effect: Rethinking intelligence and what affects it]. In & (eds.), Introdução à psicologia das diferenças individuais (pp. 387–411). [Introduction to the psychology of individual differences]. Porto Alegre, Brazil: ArtMed. (English trans:email@example.com) (
2006b). Tethering the elephant: Capital cases, IQ, and the Flynn effect. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 12: 170–178. (
2008). Where have all the liberals gone? Race, class, and ideals in America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (
Ethics of foreign policy. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Press. (in press). The America who would be king. In & (eds.),
(under review). Has Michael Shayer found the Holy Grail? Teaching mathematics, Piagetian skills, and the WISC subtests.
(under review). The United Kingdom and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices: IQ gains from 1947 to 2008.
, & (under review). Black men and women: The marriage market of perpetual war.
, & (under review). Beyond skulls and genes: Raven's and gender equality; also new massive IQ gains.
2007). American IQ gains from 1932 to 2002: The WISC subtests and educational progress. International Journal of Testing, 7: 1–16., & (
1967). Education of the American population (A 1960 Census Monograph). Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce., & (
2001). Pictorial test of intelligence, 2nd edn. Austin, TX: PRO-ED. (
1999). Happiness, economics, and institutions. Unpublished paper, University of Zurich., & (
2003). Mental retardation: A primer to cope with expert testimony. Access: http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents 1066919805.15/Mental%20Retardation.pdf See p. 3 (as of Jan. 6, 2006). (Fall
Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 (1972).
1988). The Milwaukee Project: Preventing mental retardation in children at risk. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation. (
1983). Frames of mind. New York: Basic Books. (
1993). Introduction. In Frames of mind: Tenth-anniversary edition. New York: Basic Books. (
1999). Intelligence reframed. New York: Basic Books. (
2002). Cognitive skills valued by educators: Historic content analysis of testing in Ohio. Journal of Educational Research, 96: 101–114. (
1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam. (
1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam. (
2001). Book review: “Practical intelligence in everyday life.” Intelligence, 29: 363–365. (
2003). Action video game modifies visual selective attention. Nature, 423: 534–537., & (
1998). The cultural evolution of IQ. In (ed.), The rising curve: Long-term gains in IQ and related measures (pp. 81–123). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. (
1979). The foundations of primitive thought. Oxford: Clarendon Press. (
1963). Freedom and reason. London: Oxford University Press. (
2001). The importance of non-cognitive skills: Lessons from the GED testing program. American Economic Review, 91: 145–149., & (
2006). The effects of cognitive and non-cognitive abilities on labor market outcomes and social behavior. Journal of Labor Economics, 24: 411–482., , & (
1998). The influence of relative age on success and dropout in male soccer players. American Journal of Human Biology, 10:791–798., , & (
1994). The bell curve: Intelligence and class in American life. New York: Free Press., & (
1991). Psycholinguistic implications for linguistic relativity: A case study of Chinese. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. (
1999). Preliminary real-world evidence that average intelligence really is rising. Intelligence, 27: 235–250. (
In re Hicks, 375 F.3d 1237 (11th Cir. 2004).
1972). Genetics and education. London: Methuen. (
1973a). Educability and group differences. New York: Harper & Row. (
1973b). Educational differences. London: Methuen. (
1979). The nature of intelligence and its relation to learning. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 12: 79–85. (
1980). Bias in mental testing. London: Methuen. (
1981). Straight talk about mental tests. New York: Free Press. (
1983). Effects of inbreeding on mental-ability factors. Personality and Individual Differences, 4: 71–87. (
1998). The g factor: The science of mental ability. Westport, CT: Praeger. (
1994). Speed of accessing arithmetic facts in long term memory: A comparison of Chinese American and Anglo-American children. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19: 1–12., & (
2005). Everything bad is good for you: How today's popular culture is actually making us smarter. New York: Rimerhead Books. (
2003). The Flynn effect and US policies: The impact of rising IQ scores on American society via mental retardation diagnoses. American Psychologist, 58: 778–790., , & (
2005). Multiphase learning for an interval based hybrid dynamical system. IEICE Transactions Fundamentals, E88-A: 3022–3035., & (
1993). How Bell Labs creates star performers. Harvard Business Review, 71: 128–139., & (
The increase of intelligence in Sudan, 1964–2006. Personality and Individual Differences., , , & . (in press).
An increase of intelligence in Sudan, 1987–2007. Journal of Biosocial Science., , & (in press).
2008). Height of US-born non-Hispanic children and adolescents ages 2–19, born 1942–2002 in the NHANES samples. American Journal of Human Biology, 20: 60–71., & (
1994). Peddling poverty: Economic sense and nonsense in the age of diminished expectations. New York: W. W. Norton. (
2001). Appraising birth order in career assessment: Linkages to Holland's and Super's models. Journal of Career Assessment, 9: 25–39., , , & (
1976a). Further remarks on race and the genetics of intelligence. In & (eds.), The IQ controversy (pp. 107–112). New York: Pantheon Books. (
1976b). Race and intelligence. In & (eds.), The IQ controversy (pp. 78–92). New York: Pantheon Books. (
1976). Cognitive development: Its cultural and social foundations. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. (
1987). Japan: Land of the rising IQ. A reply to Flynn. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 40: 464–468. (
1989). Positive correlation between height, head size and IQ: A nutrition theory of the secular increases in intelligence. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 59: 372–377. (
1996a). Dysgenics: Genetic deterioration in modern populations. Westport, CT: Praeger. (
1996b). Racial and ethnic differences in intelligence in the United States on the Differential Ability Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 20: 271–273. (
2007). Book review: What is intelligence? Beyond the Flynn Effect. Intelligence, 35: 515–516. (
The intelligence of East Asians: A thirty year controversy and its resolution. The Mankind Quarterly. (in press).
1991). Reaction times and intelligence in Chinese and British children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 72: 443–452., , & (
2004). New evidence of dysgenic fertility for intelligence in the United States. Intelligence, 32: 193–201., & (
2002). IQ and the wealth of nations. Westport, CT: Praeger., & (
2006). Comments on Flynn, “Beyond the Flynn effect.” At the symposium sponsored by Cambridge Assessment, Trinity College, Cambridge, 15 December 2006. (
2000). Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97: 4398–4403., , , , , , & (
1998). Nutrition and the worldwide rise in IQ scores. In (ed.), The rising curve: Long-term gains in IQ and related measures (pp. 183–206). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. (
2006). Disentangling age, cohort and time effects in the additive model. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 68: 473–495. (
2005). The Flynn effect in the Caribbean: Generational change in test performance in Dominica. Mankind Quarterly, 46: 29–70., , , & (
2005). Use it, don't lose it. New Scientist, December 17: 32–35. (
1998). America and Americans in Australia. Westport, CT: Praeger., & (
1974). Child development and personality, 4th edn. New York: Harper & Row., , & (
2003). The secular rise in IQs: In Estonia, the Flynn effect is not a Jensen effect. Intelligence, 31: 461–471., , & (
, , & (under review). Comparability of IQ scores over time.
Myers v. State, 278 P. 1106 (Okla. 2005).
1998). Jensen's chronometric research: Neither simple nor sufficient but a good place to start. Intelligence, 26: 233–241. (
2002). Humane Egalitarian Democratic Values Questionnaire (HED-VQ-1): Results of a pilot study. Unpublished manuscript. Available from firstname.lastname@example.org (
1999). John Nunn's chess puzzle book. London: Gambit. (
2008). Mental growth of humankind in history. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers.. (
2006). The challenge of affluence: Self-control and well-being in the United States and Britain since 1950. New York: Oxford University Press. (
1969). The cotton kingdom. New York: Modern Library. (
1997). Happiness and economic performance. The Economic Journal, 107: 1815–1831. (
People v. Superior Court (Vidal), 129 Cal. App. 4th 434, 28 Cal Rptr. 3d 529 (5th Ct. App. 2005), vacated and later proceedings at People v. S.C., 2005 Cal. LEXIS 13290 (Cal., Nov. 17, 2005).
2003). The WISC-IV technical manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. (
2000). Raven manual research supplement 3: American norms; neuropsychological applications. Oxford: Oxford Psychologists Press. (
1993). Manual for Raven's Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary Scales (section 1). Oxford: Oxford Psychologists Press., , & (
1988). The Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices in New Zealand. Paper given at Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) Seminar on Intelligence, Melbourne, Australia., & (
1995). Children working have higher IQs, study shows. Otago Daily Times, June 14, 1995, p. 34. (
1996). Brain, mind, and behavior: A new perspective on human nature. Westport, CT: Praeger. (
2003). Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th edn. Technical manual. Itasca, IL: Riverside. (
Flynn effects on sub-factors of episodic and semantic memory: Parallel gains over time and the same set of determining factors. Neuropsychologia., & (in press).
1997). A new dynamism in world politics: Increasingly skilled individuals?International Studies Quarterly, 41: 655–686., & (
2006). The expert mind. Scientific American, 295 (2): 64–71. (
1995). Race, evolution and behavior: A life history perspective. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. (
1997). Cranial size and IQ in Asian Americans from birth to seven. Intelligence, 25: 7–20. (
2000). Comments in discussion on James R. Flynn. In & (eds.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 222–223). Novartis Foundation Symposium 233. New York: Wiley. (
2006). Mental exercise and mental aging: Evaluating the validity of the “Use it or lose it” hypothesis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1: 68–87. (
1983). Fourteen-year cohort sequential analysis of adult intellectual development. Developmental Psychology, 19: 531–543., & (
2006). Smart as we can get?American Scientist, 94: 311–312. (
1998). Environmental complexity and the Flynn effect. In (ed.), The rising curve: Long-term gains in IQ and related measures (pp. 67–79). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. (
1965). The effects of inbreeding on Japanese children. New York: Harper & Row., & (
Large state-level fluctuations in mental retardation classifications related to introduction of renormed intelligence test. American Journal on Mental Retardation. (in press).
2003). Realising the cognitive potential of children 5–7 with a mathematical focus. International Journal of Educational Research, 39: 743–775., & (
, & (in press). Fostering cognitive development through the context of mathematics: Results of the CAME Project. Educational Studies in Mathematics.
, , & (in press). 30 years on – an anti-“Flynn effect”? The Piagetian test Volume & Heaviness norms 1975–2003. British Journal for Educational Psychology.
1976). The distribution of Piagetian stages of thinking in British middle and secondary school children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46: 164–173., , & (
1949). A final follow-up study of one hundred adopted children. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 75: 85–125., & (
2006). Champ chimp. Scientific American Mind, 17 (4): 12–14. (
State v. Burke, 2005 Ohio 7020 (2005).
State v. Murphy, 2005 Ohio 423 (2005).
1988). The triarchic mind: A new theory of human intelligence. New York: Penguin. (
1999). Review of “Working with emotional intelligence.”Personnel Psychology, 52: 780–781. (
2006). The Rainbow Project: Enhancing the SAT through assessments of analytic, practical, and creative skills. Intelligence, 34: 321–350. (
2000). Practical intelligence in everyday life. New York: Cambridge University Press., , , , , , , & (
1990). Intelligence and giftedness: The contributions of heredity and early environment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. (
(in press). Linking psychometric and cognitive-developmental frameworks for thinking about intellectual functioning. In (ed.), Contributions to psychological and psychometric theory arising from studies with Raven's Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary Scales.
2004). The end of the Flynn effect? A study of secular trends in mean intelligence test scores of Norwegian conscripts during half a century. Intelligence, 32: 349–362., , & (
1931). Equality. London: Allen & Unwin. (
1989). Continued secular increases in intelligence and a stable prevalence of high intelligence levels. Intelligence, 13: 255–262., & (
2000). Forty-year secular trends in cognitive abilities. Intelligence, 28: 115–120., & (
1920). Intelligence and its uses. Harper's Magazine, 140: 227–235. (
1986). The Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scale, 4th edn. Technical manual. Chicago: Riverside Publishing Company., , & (
1960). Reason in ethics, 1st paperback edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (
2003). US Supreme Court finds execution of the mentally retarded “cruel and unusual”; you have to pass a test before you can be put to death? Access: http://www.trowbridgefoundation.org/docs/ execution.htm. See pp. 7–8 (as of Jan. 6, 2006). (April
1948). Soldier intelligence in World Wars I and II. American Psychologist, 3: 54–56. (
1975). Historical statistics of the United States, colonial times to 1970 (1975 bicentennial edn). (
1981). Statistical abstract of the United States. (
1990). Statistical abstract of the United States. (
2001). Statistical abstract of the United States. (
2003). The nation's report card: Reading 2002, NCES 2003-521, by W. S. Grigg, M. C. Daane, Y. Jin, and J. R. Campbell. Washington, DC.. Institute of Education Sciences. National Center for Educational Statistics (
2000). NAEP 1996 trends in academic progress, NCES 97-985r, by J. R. Campbell, K. E. Voelkl, and P. L. Donahue. Washington, DC. (
2001). The nation's report card: Mathematics 2000, NCES 2001-517, by J. S. Braswell, A. D. Lutkus, W. S. Grigg, S. L. Santapau, B. Tay-Lim, and M. Johnson. Washington, DC. (
1993). Happiness in nations: Subjective appreciation of life in 56 nations. Rotterdam: Erasmus University Risbo. (
1982). The abilities and achievements of orientals in North America. New York: Academic Press. (
Vineland (2006). Pre-publication data from the Vineland-II manual courtesy of S. Sparrow, Ph.D., Professor Emerita and Senior Research Scientist, Yale Child Study Center.
1984). Raven's score distribution of Dutch draftees. Personal communication, November 5. (
Walker v. True, 399 F.3d 315 (4th Cir. 2005), after remand, 401 F.3d 574 (4th Cir. 2005).
Walton v. Johnson, 407 F.3d 285, 295–97 (4th Cir. 2005).
1955). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: Manual. New York: The Psychological Corporation. (
1974). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Revised. New York: The Psychological Corporation. (
1981). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Revised: Manual. New York: The Psychological Corporation. (
1992). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edn. Manual (Australian Adaptation). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. (
1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edn. Manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. (
1966). The creative elite in America. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Press. (
1969). Some comparative performance indexes of American ethnic minorities. Mankind Quarterly, 9: 106–119. (
2008). Book review: What is intelligence? Beyond the Flynn Effect. Netherlands Journal of Psychology, 64. (
2004). Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? Investigating the Flynn effect. Intelligence, 32: 509–538., , , , , , & (
1997). Review of the criterion-related validity of the WISC-III: The first five years. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 85: 531–546., & (