Skip to main content
Woodland in the Neolithic of Northern Europe
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Woodland in the Neolithic of Northern Europe
    • Online ISBN: 9781316672006
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The Neolithic period is one of the great transformations in human history - when agriculture first began and dramatic changes occurred in human society. These changes occurred in environments that were radically different to those that exist today, and in northern Europe many landscapes would have been dominated by woodland. Yet wood and woodland rarely figures in the minds of many archaeologists, and it plays no part in the traditional Three Age system that has defined the frameworks of European prehistory. This book explores how human-environment relations altered with the beginnings of farming, and how the Neolithic in northern Europe was made possible through new ways of living in and understanding the environment. Drawing on a broad range of evidence, from pollen data and stone axes to the remains of timber monuments and settlements, the book analyzes the relationship between people, their material culture, and their woodland environment.


'… the book brings together a wide range of evidence to explore the dynamic relationship between groups of people and the wooded environments they inhabited in the Neolithic. … The different dimensions to the multifaceted relationship between people and environment are thoroughly explored in this book, with a range of approaches that could be applied to other areas.'

Source: Current Archaeology

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

B. Alberti , and Y. Marshall 2009. ‘Animating archaeology: local theories and conceptually open-ended methodologies’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 19(3): 344–56.

A. Appadurai 1986. ‘Introduction: commodities and the politics of value’, in A. Appadurai (ed.), The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, pp. 363.

P. Ashbee 1966. ‘The Fussell’s Lodge long barrow excavations 1957’, Archaeologia 100: 180.

R. J. C. Atkinson 1965. ‘Wayland’s smithy’. Antiquity 39: 126–33.

K. Bakker , and G. Bridge 2006. ‘Material worlds? Resource geographies and the “matter of nature”’, Progress in Human Geography 30(1): 527.

M. Balasse , L. Boury , J. Ughetto-Monfrin , and A. Tresset 2012. ‘Stable isotope insights into cattle and sheep husbandry at Bercy (Paris, France, 4th millennium BC): birth seasonality and winter leaf foddering’, Environmental Archaeology, 17: 2944.

J. C. Barrett , and K. J. Fewster 1998. ‘Stonehenge: is the medium the message?Antiquity 72: 847–52.

D. Battaglia 1983. Projecting personhood in Melanesia: the dialectics of artefact symbolism on Sabarl Island, Man 18(2): 289304.

S. C. Beckett , and F. A. Hibbert 1979. ‘Vegetational change and the influence of prehistoric man in the Somerset Levels’, New Phytologist 83(2): 577600.

M. Bell 1983. ‘Valley sediments as evidence of Prehistoric land-use on the South Downs’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 49: 119–50.

B. Bender 1992. ‘Theorizing landscapes, and the prehistoric landscapes of Stonehenge’, Man 27: 735–55.

N. Bird-David 1990. ‘The giving environment: another perspective on the economic system of gatherer-hunters’, Current Anthropology 31(2): 189–96.

N. Bird-David 1999. ‘“Animism” revisited: personhood, environment, and relational epistemology’, Current Anthropology 40(S): 6791

R. Bradley 1990. ‘Perforated stone axe-heads in the British Neolithic: their distribution and significance’, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 9: 299304.

197 R. Bradley 2001b. ‘Orientations and origins: a symbolic dimension to the long house in Neolithic Europe’, Antiquity 75: 50–6.

R. Bradley 2007a. The Prehistory of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press.

R. Bradley , and R. Chambers 1988. ‘A new study of the cursus complex at Dorchester on Thames’, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 7: 271–89.

R. Bradley , and A. Sheridan 2005. ‘Croft Moraig and the chronology of stone circles’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 71: 269–81.

R. H. W. Bradshaw , G. E. Hannon , and A. M. Lister 2003. ‘A long-term perspective on ungulate-vegetation interactions’, Forest Ecology and Management 181: 267–80.

M. Brennand , and M. Taylor 2003. ‘The survey and excavation of a Bronze Age timber circle at Holme-next-the-Sea, Norfolk, 1998–9’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 69: 184.

K. Brophy 2007. ‘From big house to cult house: early Neolithic timber halls in Scotland’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 73: 7596.

A. G. Brown 1997. ‘Clearance and clearings: deforestation in Mesolithic/Neolithic Britain’, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 16(2): 133–46

J. Brück 2005. ‘Experiencing the past? The development of a phenomenological archaeology in British prehistory’, Archaeological Dialogues 12(1): 4572.

198 J. Brück 2006. ‘Fragmentation, personhood and the social construction of technology in Middle and Bronze Age Britain’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 16: 297315.

D. G. Buckley , J. D. Hedges , and N. Brown 2001. ‘Excavations at a Neolithic cursus, Springfield, Essex, 1979–85’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 67: 101–62.

S. Burrow 2010. ‘Bryn Celli Ddu passage tomb, Anglesey: alignment, construction, date and ritual’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 76: 249–70.

H. J. Case , 1969. ‘Neolithic explanations’, Antiquity 43: 176–86.

C. J. Caseldine , and R. M. Fyfe 2006. ‘A modelling approach to locating and characterising elm decline/landnam clearances’, Quaternary Science Reviews 25: 632–44.

C. J. Caseldine , R. M. Fyfe , and K. Hjelle 2008. ‘Pollen modelling, palaeoecology and archaeology – virtualisation and/or visualisation of the past?’, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17: 543–49.

C. J. Caseldine , and J. Hatton 1993. ‘The development of high moorland on Dartmoor: fire and the influence of Mesolithic activity on vegetation change’, in F. M. Chambers (ed.), Climate Change and Human Impact on the Landscape. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 119–32.

H. P. Chapman , and B. R. Gearey 2000. ‘Palaeoecology and the perception of prehistoric landscapes: some comments on visual approaches to phenomenology’, Antiquity 74(284): 316–19.

G. Clark 1965. ‘Traffic in stone axe and adze blades’, The Economic History Review 18(1): 128.

J. M. Coles , S. V. E. Heal , and J. Orme 1978. ‘The use and character of wood in prehistoric Britain and Ireland’. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 44: 145.

J. M. Coles , and D. D. A. Simpson 1965. ‘The excavation of a Neolithic round barrow at Pitnacree, Perthshire, Scotland’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 31: 3457.

G. Cooney , and S. Mandal 1995. ‘Getting to the core of the problem: petrological results from the Irish Stone Axe Project’, Antiquity 69: 969–80.

P. Dark , and H. Gent 2001. ‘Pests and diseases of prehistoric corps: a yield “honeymoon” for early grain crops in Europe?Oxford Journal of Archaeology 20(1): 5978.

200 A. David , M. Cole , T. Horsley , N. Linford , Linford , and L. Martin 2004. ‘A rival to Stonehenge? Geophysical survey at Stanton Drew, EnglandAntiquity 78: 341–58.

P. Davies , J. G. Robb , and D. Ladbrook 2005. ‘Woodland clearance in the Mesolithic: the social aspects’, Antiquity 79: 280–88.

P. Descola 1996. In the Society of Nature: A Native Ecology in Amazonia. Cambridge: Cambridge Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology.

C. Earwood 1993. Domestic Wooden Artefacts in Britain and Ireland from Neolithic to Viking Times. Exeter: University of Exeter Press.

M. Edmonds 1999. ‘Inhabiting Neolithic landscapes’, Journal of Quaternary Science 14: 485–92.

K. J. Edwards 1993. ‘Models of mid-Holocene forest farming for north-west Europe’, in F. M. Chambers (ed.), Climate Change and Human Impact on the Landscape. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 133–45.

C. Evans , J. Pollard , and M. Knight 1999. ‘Life in woods: tree-throws, “settlement” and forest cognition’. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 18(3): 241–54.

A. D. Fairweather , and I. B. M. Ralston 1993. ‘The Neolithic timber hall at Balbridie, Grampian Region, Scotland: the building, the date, the plant macrofossils’, Antiquity 67: 313–23.

A. Fleming 1999. ‘Phenomenology and the megaliths of Wales: a dreaming too far?’, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 18(2): 119–25.

A. Fleming 2005. ‘Megaliths and post-modernism: the case of Wales’, Antiquity 79: 921–32.

C. Fowler 2003. ‘Rates of (ex)change: decay and growth, memory and the transformation of the dead in early Neolithic southern Britain’, in H. Williams (ed.), Archaeologies of Remembrance: Death and Memory in Past Societies. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp. 4563.

C. Fowler , and V. Cummings 2003. ‘Places of transformation: building monuments from water and stone in the Neolithic of the Irish Sea’, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 9: 120.

C. A. I. French , H. A. Lewis , M. Allen , R. Scaife , and M. Green 2003. ‘Archaeological and palaeoenvironmental investigations of the upper Allen valley, Cranborne Chase, Dorset’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 69: 201–34.

C. A. I. French , H. A. Lewis , R. Scaife , and M. Allen 2005. ‘New perspectives on Holocene landscape development in the southern English chalklands: the upper Allen valley, Cranborne Chase, Dorset’, Geoarchaeology 20(2): 109–34.

M. Fries 1967. ‘Lennart von post’s pollen diagram series of 1916’, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 4: 913.

R. Fyfe 2006. ‘GIS and the application of a model of pollen deposition and dispersal: a new approach to testing landscape hypotheses using the POLLANDCAL models’, Journal of Archaeological Science 33: 483–93.

R. Fyfe , A. G. Brown , and S. J. Rippon 2003. ‘Mid- to late-Holocene vegetation history of Greater Exmoor, UK: estimating the spatial extent of human-induced vegetation change’, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 12: 225–32.

R. M. Fyfe , C. Twiddle , S. Sugita , M. Gaillard , P. Barratt , C. J. Caseldine , J. Dodson , K. J. Edwards , M. Farrell , C. Froyd , M. J. Grant , E. Huckerby , J. B. Innes , H. Shaw , and M. Waller 2013. ‘The Holocene vegetation cover of Britain and Ireland: overcoming problems of scale and discerning patterns of openness’, Quaternary Science Reviews 73: 132–48.

B. R. Gearey , D. J. Charman , and M. Kent 2000. ‘Palaeoecological evidence for prehistoric settlement of Bodmin Moor, Cornwall, south-west England. Part II: Land use changes from the Neolithic to the present’, Journal of Archaeological Science 27: 493508.

A. Gibson 1992a. ‘Possible timber circles at Dorchester-on-Thames’. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 11(1): 8591.

A. Gibson 1992b. ‘Excavations at the Sarn-y-bryn-caled cursus complex, Welshpool, Powys and the timber circles of Great Britain and Ireland’. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 60: 143223.

C. Gosden 2005. ‘What do objects want?’, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 12(3): 193211.

J. Hamilton , R. E. M. Hedges , and M. Robinson 2009. ‘Rooting for pigfruit: pig feeding in Neolithic and Iron Age Britain compared’, Antiquity 83: 9981011.

B. Hartwell 2002. ‘A Neolithic ceremonial complex at Ballynahatty, Co. Down’, Antiquity 76: 526–32.

S. P. Hicks , 1972. ‘The impact of man on the East Moor of Derbyshire from Mesolithic times’, Archaeological Journal 129: 121.

I. Hodder 1994. ‘Architecture and meaning: the example of Neolithic houses and tombs’, in M. Parker Pearson and C. Richards (eds.), Architecture and Order: Approaches to Social Space. London: Routledge, pp. 7386.

I. Hodder 2011. ‘Human-thing entanglement: towards an integrated archaeological perspective’, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 17: 154–77.

I. Hodder 2012. Entangled: An Archaeology of the Relationships between Humans and Things. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

M. Holbraad 2009. ‘Ontology, ethnography, archaeology: an afterword on the ontography of things’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 19(3): 431–41.

A. Hultkrantz 1996. ‘A new look at the world pillar in Arctic and Sub-Arctic religions’, in J. Pentikäinen (ed.), Shamanism and Northern Ecology. New York/Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 3150.

T. Ingold 1993. ‘The temporality of the landscape’, World Archaeology 25: 152–74.

T. Ingold 2000. The Perception of the Environment. London: Routledge.

T. Ingold 2007. ‘Materials against materiality’, Archaeological Dialogues 14(1): 116.

205 T. Insoll 2007. ‘Natural or human spaces? Tallensi sacred groves and shrines and their potential implications for aspects of northern European prehistory and phenomenological interpretation’, Norwegian Archaeological Review 40: 138–58.

M. Johnson 2007. Ideas of Landscape. Oxford: Blackwell.

R. Johnston 1998b. ‘Approaches to the perception of landscape: philosophy, theory, methodology’, Archaeological Dialogues 5(1): 5468.

A. M. Jones 2011. Prehistoric Materialities: Becoming Material in Prehistoric Britain and Ireland. Oxford University Press.

A. M. Jones , B. Freedman , H. O’Connor , H. Lamdin-Whymark , R. Tipping , and A. Watson 2011. An Animate Landscape: Rock Art and the Prehistory of Kilmartin, Argyll, Scotland. Oxford: Windgather Press.

I. Kinnes , and J. Hibbs 1989. ‘Le Gardien du Tombeau: further reflections on the initial Neolithic’, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 8: 159–66.

B. Krause-Kyora , C. Makarewixz , A. Evin , L. G. Flink , K. Dobney , G. Larson , S. Hartz , S. Schreiber , C. von Carnap-Bornheim , N. con Wurmb-Schwark , and A. Nebel 2013. ‘Use of domesticated pigs by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in northwestern Europe’, Nature Communications 4: 2348.

A. Kreuz 2008. ‘Closed forest or open woodland as natural vegetation in the surroundings of Linearbandkeramik settlements’, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17: 5164.

G. Larson , U. Albarella , K. Dobney , P. Rowley-Conwy , J. Schibler , A. Tresset , J. D. Vigne , CJ. Edwards , A. Schlumbaum , A. Dinu , A. Balacsescu , G. Dolman , A. Tagliacozzo , N. Manaseryan , P. Miracle , L. Van Wijngaarden-Bakker , M. Masseti , D. G. Bradley , and A. Cooper 2007. ‘Ancient DNA, pig domestication, and the spread of the Neolithic into Europe’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 15276–81.

L. Larsson 2000. ‘The passage of axes: fire transformation of flint objects in the Neolithic of southern Sweden’, Antiquity 74: 602–10.

J. Law 1992. ‘Notes on the theory of the actor network: ordering, strategy and heterogeneity’, Systems Practice 5: 379–93.

H. Lorimer 2005. ‘Cultural geography: the busyness of being “more-than-representational”’, Progress in Human Geography 29(1): 8394.

A. H. Lynch , J. Hamilton , and R. E. M. Hedges 2008. ‘Where the wild things are: aurochs and cattle in England’, Antiquity 82: 1025–39.

208 T. Madsen 1979. ‘Earthen long barrows and timber structures: aspects of the early Neolithic mortuary practice in Denmark’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 45: 301–28.

L. Marquer , M. Gaillard , S. Sugita , A. Trondman , F. Mazier , A. Birgitte Nielsen , R. M. Fyfe , B. Vad Odgaard , T. Alenius , H. J. B. Birks , A. E. Bjune , J. Christiansen , J. Dodson , K.J. Edwards , T. Giesecke , U. Herzschuh , M. Kangur , S. Lorenz , A. Poska , M. Schult , and H. Seppa 2014. ‘Holocene changes in vegetation composition in northern Europe: why quantitative pollen-based vegetation reconstructions matter’, Quaternary Science Reviews 90: 199216.

J. McGlade 1995. ‘Archaeology and the ecodynamics of humanly-modified landscapes’, Antiquity 69: 113–32.

P. A. Mellars 1976. ‘Fire ecology, animal populations and man: a study of some ecological relationships in prehistory’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 42: 1545.

T. M. Mighall , S. Timpany , J. J. Blackford , J. B. Innes , C. E. O’Brien , W. O’Brien , and S. Harrison 2008. ‘Vegetation change during the Mesolithic and Neolithic on the Mizen Peninsula, Co. Cork, south-west Ireland’, Vegetation History & Archaeobotany 17: 617–28.

K. Milton 1996. Environmentalism and Cultural Theory: Exploring the Role of Anthropology in Environmental Discourse. London: Routledge.

F. J. G. Mitchell 2005. ‘How open were European primeval forests? Hypothesis testing using palaeoecological data’, Journal of Ecology 93: 168–77.

J. Moore 2000. ‘Forest fire and human interaction in the early Holocene woodlands of Britain’, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 164: 125–37.

F. M. Morgan 1959. ‘The excavation of a long barrow at Nutbane, Hants’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 25: 1551.

G. Noble , and K. Brophy 2011a. ‘Big enclosures: the later Neolithic palisaded enclosures of Scotland in their northwestern European context’, European Journal of Archaeology 14(1): 5683.

G. Noble , and K. Brophy 2011b. ‘Ritual and remembrance at a prehistoric ceremonial complex in central Scotland: excavations at Forteviot, Perth and Kinross’, Antiquity 85(329): 787804.

G. Noble , M. Greig , and K. Millican 2012. ‘Excavations at a multi-period site at Greenbogs, Aberdeenshire, Scotland and the four-post timber architecture tradition of late Neolithic Britain and Ireland’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 78: 135–71.

N. Noe-Nygaard , T. D. Price , and S. U. Hede 2005. ‘Diet of aurochs and early cattle in southern Scandinavia: evidence from 15N and 13C stable isotopes’, Journal of Archaeological Science 32: 855–71.

B. Olsen 2003. ‘Material culture after text: re-membering things’, Norwegian Archaeological Review 36(2): 87104.

B. Olsen 2007. ‘Keeping things at arm’s length: a genealogy of asymmetry’, World Archaeology 39(4): 579–88.

A. G. Parker , A. S. Goudie , D. E. Anderson , M. A. Robinson , and C. Bonsall 2002. ‘A review of the mid-Holocene elm decline in the British Isles’, Progress in Physical Geography 26(1): 145.

M. Parker Pearson , A. Chamberlain , M. Jay , P. Marshall , J. Pollard , C. Richards , J. Thomas , C. Tilley , and K. Welham 2009. ‘Who was buried at Stonehenge?Antiquity 83: 2339.

P. Pétrequin , M. Errera , A. Pétrequin , and P. Allard 2006. ‘The Neolithic quarries of Mont Viso (Piedmont, Italy). Initial radiocarbon dates’, European Journal of Archaeology, 9(1): 730.

J. D. M. Platenkamp 1992. ‘Transforming Tobelo ritual’, in D. de Coppet (ed.), Understanding Rituals. London: Routledge, pp. 7496.

J. Pollard 2009. ‘The materialization of religious structures in the time of Stonehenge’, Material Religion 5(3): 332–53.

C. Richards 1996a. ‘Henges and water: towards an elemental understanding of monumentality and landscape in Late Neolithic Britain’, Journal of Material Culture 1: 313–36.

C. Richards 1996b. ‘Monuments as landscape: creating the centre of the world in Late Neolithic Orkney’, World Archaeology 28: 190208.

L. Rival 1993. ‘The growth of family trees: understanding Huaorani perceptions of the forest’, Man 28: 635–52.

D. E. Robinson 2003. ‘Neolithic and Bronze Age agriculture in southern Scandinavia – recent archaeobotanical evidence from Denmark’, Environmental Archaeology 8: 145–65.

D. E. Robinson , and J. H. Dickson 1988. ‘Vegetational history and land use: a radiocarbon dated pollen diagram from Machrie Moor, Arran, Scotland’, New Phytologist 109: 223–51.

P. Rowley-Conwy 2004. ‘How the west was lost: a reconsideration of agricultural origins in Britain, Ireland, and southern Scandinavia’, Current Anthropology 45: 83113.

S. Saraydar , and I. Shimada 1971. ‘A quantitative comparison of efficiency between a stone axe and a steel axe’, American Antiquity 36(2): 216–17.

C. Scarre 2001. ‘Modelling prehistoric populations: the case of Neolithic Brittany’, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 20(3): 285313.

R. Schulting , and M. Wysocki 2005. ‘“In this chambered tumulus were found cleft skulls…”: an assessment of the evidence for cranial trauma in the British Neolithic’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 71: 107–38.

G. Shaffer , 1993. ‘An archaeomagnetic study of a wattle and daub building collapse’, Journal of Field Archaeology 20: 5975.

I. G. Simmons 2001. ‘Ecology into landscape: some English moorlands in the later Mesolithic’, Landscapes 2: 4255.

R. Skeates 1995. ‘Animate objects: a biography of prehistoric “axe-amulets” in the central Mediterranean region’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 61: 279301.

J. Smyth 2006. ‘The role of the house in early Neolithic Ireland’, European Journal of Archaeology 9(2–3): 229–57.

M. Stevanovic 1997. ‘The age of clay: the social dynamics of house destruction’, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 16: 334–95.

C. J. Stevens , and D. Q. Fuller 2012. ‘Did Neolithic farming fail? The case for a Bronze Age agricultural revolution in the British Isles’, Antiquity 86: 707–22.

F. Sturt 2006. ‘Local knowledge is required: a rhythmanalytical approach to the late Mesolithic and early Neolithic of the East Anglian Fenland, UK’, Journal of Maritime Archaeology 1(2): 119–39.

J. C. Svenning 2002. ‘A review of natural vegetation openness in north-western Europe’, Biological Conservation 104: 233–48.

J. Thomas 1999. Understanding the Neolithic. London: Routledge.

J. Thomas 2006. ‘On the origins and development of cursus monuments in Britain’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 72: 229–42.

J. Thomas 2010. ‘The return of the Rinyo-Clacton Folk? The cultural significance of the Grooved Ware complex in Late Neolithic Britain’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 20(1): 115.

J. Thomas 2013. The Birth of Neolithic Britain: An Interpretative Account. Oxford University Press.

R. Tipping , M. J. Bunting , A. L. Davies , H. Murray , S. Fraser , and R. McCulloch 2009. ‘Modelling land use around an early Neolithic timber “hall” in north east Scotland from high spatial resolution pollen analyses’, Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 140–49.

F. W. M. Vera 2000. Grazing Ecology and Forest History. Oxon: Wallingford.

B. E. Vyner 1984. ‘The excavation of a Neolithic cairn at Street House, Loftus, Cleveland’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 50: 151–95.

M. P. Waller , and S. Hamilton 2000. ‘Vegetation history of the English chalklands: a mid-Holocene pollen sequence from the Caburn, East Sussex’, Journal of Quaternary Science 15: 253–72.

A. Watson , 2001. ‘Composing Avebury’, World Archaeology 33(2): 296314.

A. Watson , and D. Keating 1999. ‘Architecture and sound: an acoustic analysis of megalithic monuments in prehistoric Britain’, Antiquity 73: 325–36.

T. Webmoor , and C. L. Witmore 2008. ‘Things are us! A commentary on human/thing relations under the banner of a “social” archaeology’, Norwegian Archaeological Review 41(1): 5370.

K. Wentink 2008. ‘Crafting axes, producing meaning. Neolithic axe depositions in the northern Netherlands’, Archaeological Dialogues 15(2): 151–73.

N. J. Whitehouse , 2006. ‘The Holocene British and Irish ancient woodland fossil beetle fauna: implications for woodland history, biodiversity and faunal colonisation’, Quaternary Science Review 25: 1755–89.

217 N. J. Whitehouse , and D. Smith 2010. ‘How fragmented was the British Holocene wildwood? Perspectives on the “Vera” grazing debate from the fossil beetle record’, Quaternary Science Reviews 29: 539–53.

J. Whitley 2002. ‘Too many ancestors’, Antiquity 76: 119–26.

A. Whittle 1991. ‘Wayland’s Smithy, Oxfordshire: excavations at the Neolithic tomb in 1962–3 by R. J. C. Atkinson and S. Piggott’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 57: 61101.

A. Whittle 1998. ‘People and the diverse past: two comments on ‘Stonehenge for the ancestorsAntiquity 72: 852–4.

A. Whittle 2000. ‘Very like a whale’: menhirs, motifs and myths in the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition of Northwest Europe’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 10(2): 243–59.

A. Whittle , R. J. C. Atkinson , R. Chambers , and N. Thomas 1992. ‘Excavations I the Neolithic and Bronze Age complex at Dorchester-on-Thames, Oxfordshire, 1947–1952 and 1981Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 58: 143201.

A. Whittle , A. Bayliss , and M. Wysocki 2007. ‘Once in a lifetime: the date of the Wayland’s Smithy long barrow’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 17(S1): 103–21.

M. Williams 2000. ‘Dark ages and dark areas: global deforestation in the deep past’, Journal of Historical Geography 26(1): 2846.

M. Williams 2003. ‘Growing metaphors: the agricultural cycle as metaphor in the later prehistoric period of Britain and North-Western Europe’, Journal of Social Archaeology 3: 223–55.

C. L. Witmore 2007. ‘Symmetrical archaeology: excerpts of a manifesto’, World Archaeology 39(4): 546–62.

M. Wysocki , A. Bayliss , and A. Whittle 2007. ‘Serious mortality: the date of the Fussell’s Lodge long barrow’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 17: 6584.

M. Wysocki , and A. Whittle 2000. ‘Diversity, lifestyles and rites: new biological and archaeological evidence from British Earlier Neolithic mortuary assemblages’, Antiquity 74: 591601.

M. Zvelebil , and P. Rowley-Conwy 1984. ‘Transition to farming in northern Europe: a hunter-gatherer perspective’, Norwegian Archaeological Review 17: 104–27.218


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 111 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 360 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 25th March 2017 - 27th July 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.