Skip to main content
×
Home
Woodland in the Neolithic of Northern Europe
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Witcher, Robert 2017. New Book Chronicle. Antiquity, Vol. 91, Issue. 359, p. 1401.


    ×
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Woodland in the Neolithic of Northern Europe
    • Online ISBN: 9781316672006
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316672006
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
    ×
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The Neolithic period is one of the great transformations in human history - when agriculture first began and dramatic changes occurred in human society. These changes occurred in environments that were radically different to those that exist today, and in northern Europe many landscapes would have been dominated by woodland. Yet wood and woodland rarely figures in the minds of many archaeologists, and it plays no part in the traditional Three Age system that has defined the frameworks of European prehistory. This book explores how human-environment relations altered with the beginnings of farming, and how the Neolithic in northern Europe was made possible through new ways of living in and understanding the environment. Drawing on a broad range of evidence, from pollen data and stone axes to the remains of timber monuments and settlements, the book analyzes the relationship between people, their material culture, and their woodland environment.

Reviews

'… the book brings together a wide range of evidence to explore the dynamic relationship between groups of people and the wooded environments they inhabited in the Neolithic. … The different dimensions to the multifaceted relationship between people and environment are thoroughly explored in this book, with a range of approaches that could be applied to other areas.'

Source: Current Archaeology

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×
Aaby B. 1986. ‘Trees as anthropogenic indicators in regional pollen diagrams’, in Behre K. (ed.), Anthropogenic Indicators in Pollen Diagrams. Rotterdam: A. A.Balkema.
Aaby B. 1988. ‘The cultural landscape as reflected in percentage and influx pollen diagrams from two Danish ombrotrophic mires’, in Birks H. et al. (eds.), The Cultural Landscape: Past, Present and Future. Cambridge University Press, pp. 209–28.
Alberti B., and Bray T. L. 2009. ‘Introduction. Animating archaeology: of subjects, objects and alternative ontologies’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 19(3): 337–43.
Alberti B., Jones A. M., and Pollard J. (eds.). 2013. Archaeology after Interpretation: Returning Materials to Archaeological Theory. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.
Alberti B., and Marshall Y. 2009. ‘Animating archaeology: local theories and conceptually open-ended methodologies’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 19(3): 344–56.
Allen M. J. 1997. ‘Environment and land-use: the economic development of the communities who built Stonehenge (an economy to support the stones)’, in Cunliffe B. and Renfrew C. (eds.), Science and Stonehenge. Oxford University Press, pp. 115–44.
Allen M. J. 1998. ‘A note on reconstructing the prehistoric landscape environment in Cranborne Chase: the Allen Valley’, Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 120: 3944.
Allen M. J. 2000. ‘High resolution mapping of Neolithic and Bronze Age chalkland landscapes and land use: the combination of multiple palaeoenvironmental analyses and topographic modelling’, in Fairbairn A. S. (ed.), Plants in Neolithic Britain and Beyond. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 926.
Allen M. J., and Gardiner J. 2002. ‘A sense of time: cultural markers in the Mesolithic of southern England?’, in David B. and Wilson M. (eds.), Inscribed Landscapes: Marking and Making Place. Honolulu: University of Hawai`i Press, pp. 139–53.
Allen M. J., and Gardiner J. 2009. ‘If you go down to the woods today: a re-evaluation of the chalkland postglacial woodland’, in Allen M. J., Sharples N., and O’Connor T. (eds.), Land and People: Papers in Memory of John G. Evans. Oxford: Prehistoric Society Research Paper No. 2/Oxbow Books, pp. 4966.
Allen M. J., Sharples N., and O’Connor T. (eds.). 2009. Land and People: Papers in Memory of John G. Evans. Oxford: Prehistoric Society Research Paper No. 2/Oxbow Books.
Allen T., Barclay A., and Lamdin-Whymark H. 2004. ‘Opening the wood, making the land: the study of a Neolithic landscape in the Dorney area of the Middle Thames Valley’, in Cotton J. and Field D. (eds.), Towards a New Stone Age: Aspects of the Neolithic in South-East England. London: Council for British Archaeology, pp. 8298.
Andersen N. H. 1997. The Sarup Enclosures: The Funnel Beaker Culture of the Sarup Site Including Two Causewayed Camps Compared to the Contemporary Settlement in the Area and Other European Enclosures. Aarhus: Jutland Archaeological Society Publications XXXIII.
Andersen S. H., and Johansen E. 1990. ‘An early Neolithic grave at Bjørnsholm, North Jutland’, Journal of Danish Archaeology 9: 3858.
Andersen S. Th. 1988. ‘Changes in agricultural practices in the Holocene indicated in a pollen diagram from a small hollow in Denmark’, in Birks H. et al. (eds.), The Cultural Landscape: Past, Present and Future. Cambridge University Press, pp. 395407.
Andersen S. Th. 1992. ‘Early and middle Neolithic agriculture in Denmark: pollen spectra from soils in burial mounds of the Funnel Beaker Culture’, Journal of European Archaeology 1: 153–80.
Andersen S. Th. 1995. ‘Pollen analytical investigations of barrows from the funnel beaker and single grave cultures in the Vroue area, West Jutland, Denmark’, Journal of Danish Archaeology 12: 107–32.
Anderson B., and Harrison P. 2010a. ‘The promise of non-representational theories’, in Anderson B. and Harrison P. (eds.), 2010b, Taking-Place: Non-Representational Theories and Geography. Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 136.
Anderson B., and Harrison P. (eds.). 2010b. Taking-Place: Non-Representational Theories and Geography. Farnham: Ashgate.
Andersson M. 2004. Making Place in the Landscape: Early and Middle Neolithic Societies in Two West Scanian Valleys. Malmö: Riksantikvarieämbetet.
Andersson M., Karsten P., Knarrström B., and Svensson M. 2004. Stone Age Scania: Significant Places Dug and Read by Contract Archaeology. Malmö: Riksantikvarieämbetet Förlag Skrifter, p. 52.
Appadurai A. 1986. ‘Introduction: commodities and the politics of value’, in Appadurai A. (ed.), The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, pp. 363.
Århem K. 1996. ‘The cosmic food web: human-nature relatedness in the Northwest Amazon’, in Descola P. and Pálsson G. (eds.), Nature and Society: Anthropological Perspectives. London: Routledge, pp. 185204.
Ashbee P. 1966. ‘The Fussell’s Lodge long barrow excavations 1957’, Archaeologia 100: 180.
Ashbee P. 1970. The Earthen Long Barrow in Britain. London: Dent.
Ashmore W., and Knapp A. B. (eds.), 1999. Archaeologies of Landscape. Oxford: Blackwell.
Atkinson R. J. C. 1956. Stonehenge. London: Hamish Hamilton.
Atkinson R. J. C. 1965. ‘Wayland’s smithy’. Antiquity 39: 126–33.
Austin P. 2000. ‘The emperor’s new garden: woodland, trees and people in the Neolithic of southern Britain’, in Fairbairn A. S. (ed.), Plants in Neolithic Britain and Beyond. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 6378.
Bakels C. C. 1978. ‘Four Linearbandkeramik settlements and their environment: a palaeoecological study of Sittard, Stein, Elsloo and Hienheim’, Analecta Praehistorica Leidensia 25: 5568.
Bakels C. C. 1992. ‘Research on land clearance during the early Neolithic in the loess regions of the Netherlands, Belgium and Northern France’, in Frenzel B. (ed.), Evaluation of Land Surfaces Cleared from Forest by Prehistoric Man in Early Neolithic Times and the Time of Migrating Germanic Tribes. Mainz: Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, pp. 4755.
Bakker J. A. 1982. ‘TRB settlement patterns on the Dutch sandy soils’, Analecta Praehistorica Leidensia 15: 87124.
Bakker K., and Bridge G. 2006. ‘Material worlds? Resource geographies and the “matter of nature”’, Progress in Human Geography 30(1): 527.
Bakker R. 2003. The Emergence of Agriculture on the Drenthe Plateau: A Palaeobotanical Study Supported by High-Resolution 14C Dating. Groningen: Archäologische Berichte 16.
Balasse M., Boury L., Ughetto-Monfrin J., and Tresset A. 2012. ‘Stable isotope insights into cattle and sheep husbandry at Bercy (Paris, France, 4th millennium BC): birth seasonality and winter leaf foddering’, Environmental Archaeology, 17: 2944.
Bankoff H. A., and Winter F. A. 1979. ‘A house-burning in Serbia: what do buried remains tell an archaeologist?Archaeology, 32: 814.
Barclay A., and Hey G. 2007. ‘The Thames Valley in the late fifth and early fourth millennium cal BC: the appearance of domestication and the evidence for change’. Proceedings of the British Academy 144: 399422.
Barclay A., Lambrick G., Moore J., and Robinson M. 2003. Lines in the Landscape: Cursus Monuments in the Upper Thames Valley. Oxford: Oxford Archaeology Thames Valley Landscapes Monograph 15.
Barclay G. J., and Brophy K. 2004. ‘A rectilinear timber structure and post-ring at Carsie Mains, Meikleour, Perthshire’, Tayside and Fife Archaeological Journal 10: 122.
Barclay G. J., and Maxwell G. S. 1991. ‘Excavation of a Neolithic long mortuary enclosure within the Roman legionary fortress at Inchtuthil, Perthshire’, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 121: 2744.
Barclay G. J., and Maxwell G. S. 1998. The Cleaven Dyke and Littleour: Monuments in the Neolithic of Tayside. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Monograph Series 13.
Barclay G. J., and Wickham-Jones C. R. 2002. ‘The investigation of some lithic scatters in Perthshire’, Tayside and Fife Archaeological Journal 8: 111.
Barrett J. 1994. Fragments from Antiquity. Oxford: Blackwell.
Barrett J. C., and Fewster K. J. 1998. ‘Stonehenge: is the medium the message?Antiquity 72: 847–52.
Bartholin T. S. 1987. ‘“Oak and willow”: active and passive periods at Alvastra pile dwelling. A result of dendrochronological and wood anatomical investigations’, in Burenhult G. (ed.), Theoretical Approaches to Artefacts, Settlement and Society, Studies in Honour of Mats P. Malmer. Oxford: Archaeopress. British Archaeological Reports, International Series No. 366, pp. 123–32.
Battaglia D. 1983. Projecting personhood in Melanesia: the dialectics of artefact symbolism on Sabarl Island, Man 18(2): 289304.
Beckensall S., Díaz-Andreu M., Frodsham P., Harding J., Speak S., Vyner B., and Waddington C. 2006. ‘Resource assessment: Neolithic and Early Bronze Age’, in D. Petts and C. Gerrard (eds.), Shared Visions: The North-East Regional Research Framework for the Historic Environment, http://content.durham.gov.uk/PDFRepository/NERFFBook2.pdf
Beckett S. C., and Hibbert F. A. 1979. ‘Vegetational change and the influence of prehistoric man in the Somerset Levels’, New Phytologist 83(2): 577600.
Bell C. 1992. Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice. Oxford University Press.
Bell M. 1983. ‘Valley sediments as evidence of Prehistoric land-use on the South Downs’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 49: 119–50.
Bell M. 2007. Prehistoric Coastal Communities: The Mesolithic in Western Britain. York: CBA Research Report 149.
Bender B. 1992. ‘Theorizing landscapes, and the prehistoric landscapes of Stonehenge’, Man 27: 735–55.
Bennett J. 2010. Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Berggren A. 2014. ‘A sense of place at a fen’, in Furholt M. et al., Landscapes, Histories and Societies in the Northern European Neolithic. Kiel: German Research Foundation Program, pp. 227–34.
Berglund B. E. 1988. ‘The cultural landscape during 6000 years in South Sweden – an interdisciplinary project’, in Birks H. et al. (eds.), The Cultural Landscape: Past, Present and Future. Cambridge University Press, pp. 241–54.
Bird-David N. 1990. ‘The giving environment: another perspective on the economic system of gatherer-hunters’, Current Anthropology 31(2): 189–96.
Bird-David N. 1999. ‘“Animism” revisited: personhood, environment, and relational epistemology’, Current Anthropology 40(S): 6791
Birks H. H., Birks H. J. B., Kaland P. E., and Moe D. (eds.), 1988. The Cultural Landscape: Past, Present and Future. Cambridge University Press.
Bloch M. 1998. ‘Why trees, too, are good to think with: towards an anthropology of the meaning of life’, in Rival L. (ed.), 1998a, The Social Life of Trees: Anthropological Perspectives on Tree Symbolism. Oxford: Berg, pp. 3955.
Bogaard A. 2004. Neolithic Farming in Central Europe. London: Routledge.
Bogaard A., and Jones G. 2007. ‘Neolithic farming in Britain and central Europe: contrast or continuity?’, in Whittle A. and Cummings V. (eds.), Going Over: The Mesolithic-Neolithic Transition in North-west Europe. London: British Academy, pp. 357–75.
Boivin N. 2004. ‘Mind over matter? Collapsing the mind-matter dichotomy in material culture studies’, in DeMarrais E., Gosden C., and Renfrew C. (eds.), Rethinking Materiality: The Engagement of Mind with the Material World. Cambridge: McDonald Institute Monograph, pp. 6371.
Boivin N. 2008. Material Cultures, Material Minds: The Role of Things in Human Thought, Society and Evolution. Cambridge University Press.
Bonnemère P. 1998. ‘Trees and people: some vital links. Tree products and other agents in the life cycle of the Ankave-Anga of Papua New Guinea’, in Rival L. (ed.), 1998a, The Social Life of Trees: Anthropological Perspectives on Tree Symbolism. Oxford: Berg, pp. 113–31.
Bradley R. 1978. The Prehistoric Settlement of Britain. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Bradley R. 1984. The Social Foundations of Prehistoric Britain: Themes and Variations in the Archaeology of Power. London: Longman.
Bradley R. 1990. ‘Perforated stone axe-heads in the British Neolithic: their distribution and significance’, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 9: 299304.
Bradley R. 1993, Altering the Earth, Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland Monograph Series 8.
Bradley R. 1998. The Significance of Monuments. London: Routledge.
Bradley R. 2000. An Archaeology of Natural Places. London: Routledge.
Bradley R. 2001a. ‘The birth of architecture’, in Runciman W. G. (ed.), The Origin of Human Social Institutions. Oxford University Press, pp. 6992.
Bradley R. 2001b. ‘Orientations and origins: a symbolic dimension to the long house in Neolithic Europe’, Antiquity 75: 50–6.
Bradley R. 2005. Ritual and Domestic Life in Prehistoric Europe. London: Routledge.
Bradley R. 2007a. The Prehistory of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press.
Bradley R. 2007b. ‘Houses, bodies and tombs’, Proceedings of the British Academy 144: 347–55.
Bradley R., and Chambers R. 1988. ‘A new study of the cursus complex at Dorchester on Thames’, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 7: 271–89.
Bradley R., and Edmonds M. 1993. Interpreting the Axe Trade: Production and Exchange in Neolithic Britain. Cambridge University Press.
Bradley R., and Sheridan A. 2005. ‘Croft Moraig and the chronology of stone circles’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 71: 269–81.
Bradshaw R. H. W., Hannon G. E., and Lister A. M. 2003. ‘A long-term perspective on ungulate-vegetation interactions’, Forest Ecology and Management 181: 267–80.
Brennand M., and Taylor M. 2003. ‘The survey and excavation of a Bronze Age timber circle at Holme-next-the-Sea, Norfolk, 1998–9’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 69: 184.
Brindley A. L., and Lanting J. N. 1998. ‘Radiocarbon dates for Irish trackways’, Journal of Irish Archaeology 9: 4567.
Brink K. 2004. ‘The palisade enclosure at Hyllie, SW Scania’, Journal of Nordic Archaeological Sciences 14: 3544.
Brink K., Kishonti I., and Magnell O. 2009. ‘On the shore: life inside a palisaded enclosure and cultural change during the middle Neolithic B in southern Scandinavia’, Current Swedish Archaeology 17: 79107.
Brophy K. 1999. ‘The cursus monuments of Scotland’, in Barclay A. and Harding J. (eds.), Pathways and Ceremonies: The Cursus Monuments of Britain and Ireland. Oxford: Oxbow, pp. 120–9.
Brophy K. 2004. ‘Ruins in the landscape: modern monuments’, in Barclay G. J. and Shepherd I. (eds.), Scotland in Ancient Europe: The Neolithic and Early Bronze Age of Scotland in their European Context. Edinburgh: SAS Monograph, pp. 143–54.
Brophy K. 2007. ‘From big house to cult house: early Neolithic timber halls in Scotland’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 73: 7596.
Brophy K., and Cowley D. C. (eds.), 2005. From the Air: Understanding Aerial Archaeology. Stroud: Tempus.
Browall H. 2011. Alvastra pålbyggnad: 1909–1930 års utgrävningar. Stockholm: Kungl Vitterhetsakademiens.
Brown A. G. 1982. ‘Human impact on the former floodplain woodlands of the Severn’, in Bell M. and Limbrey S. (eds.), Archaeological Aspects of Woodland Ecology. Oxford: Archaeopress. British Archaeological Reports, International Series No. 146, pp. 93105.
Brown A. G. 1997. ‘Clearance and clearings: deforestation in Mesolithic/Neolithic Britain’, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 16(2): 133–46
Brown A. G. 2000. ‘Floodplain vegetation history: clearings as potential ritual spaces?’, in Fairbairn A. S. (ed.), Plants in Neolithic Britain and Beyond. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 4962.
Brück J. 2001. ‘Body metaphors and technologies of transformation in the English Middle and Late Bronze Age’, in Brück J. (ed.), Bronze Age Landscapes: Tradition and Transformation. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 149–60.
Brück J. 2005. ‘Experiencing the past? The development of a phenomenological archaeology in British prehistory’, Archaeological Dialogues 12(1): 4572.
Brück J. 2006. ‘Fragmentation, personhood and the social construction of technology in Middle and Bronze Age Britain’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 16: 297315.
Buckley D. G., Hedges J. D., and Brown N. 2001. ‘Excavations at a Neolithic cursus, Springfield, Essex, 1979–85’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 67: 101–62.
Burgess C., 1976. ‘Meldon Bridge: a Neolithic defended promontory complex near Peebles’, in Burgess C. and Miket R. (eds.), Settlement and Economy in the Third and Second Millennia BC. Oxford: Archaeopress. British Archaeological Reports, British Series No. 33, pp. 151–80.
Burrow S. 2010. ‘Bryn Celli Ddu passage tomb, Anglesey: alignment, construction, date and ritual’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 76: 249–70.
Butler S. 1995. ‘Post-processual palynology’, Scottish Archaeological Review 9/10: 1522.
Callon M. 1986. ‘Some elements for a sociology of translation: domestication of the scallops and the fishermen of St Brieuc Bay’, in Law J. (ed.), Power, Action and Belief: A New Sociology of Knowledge? London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. 196223.
Campbell G., and Robinson M. 2007. ‘Environment and land use in the valley’, in Harding J. and Healy F. (eds.), The Raunds Area Project: A Neolithic and Bronze Age Landscape in Northamptonshire. Swindon: English Heritage, pp. 1836.
Case H. J., 1969. ‘Neolithic explanations’, Antiquity 43: 176–86.
Caseldine C. J. 1980. Aspects of the vegetation history of South-East Perthshire. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of St Andrews.
Caseldine C. J., and Fyfe R. M. 2006. ‘A modelling approach to locating and characterising elm decline/landnam clearances’, Quaternary Science Reviews 25: 632–44.
Caseldine C. J., Fyfe R. M., and Hjelle K. 2008. ‘Pollen modelling, palaeoecology and archaeology – virtualisation and/or visualisation of the past?’, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17: 543–49.
Caseldine C. J., and Hatton J. 1993. ‘The development of high moorland on Dartmoor: fire and the influence of Mesolithic activity on vegetation change’, in Chambers F. M. (ed.), Climate Change and Human Impact on the Landscape. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 119–32.
Caseldine C. J., and Hatton J. 1996. ‘Into the mists? Thoughts on the prehistoric and historic environmental history of Dartmoor’, Proceedings of the Devon Archaeological Society 52: 3547.
Chapman H. P., and Gearey B. R. 2000. ‘Palaeoecology and the perception of prehistoric landscapes: some comments on visual approaches to phenomenology’, Antiquity 74(284): 316–19.
Childe V. G. 1939. The Dawn of European Civilization, 3rd edn. London: Kegan Paul.
Childe V. G. 1942. What Happened in History. Hamondsworth: Penguin.
Clark G. 1965. ‘Traffic in stone axe and adze blades’, The Economic History Review 18(1): 128.
Clay P. 2001. An archaeological resource assessment and research agenda for the Neolithic and Early-Middle Bronze Age of the East Midlands. East Midlands Archaeological Research Framework, www.le.ac.uk/ulas/publications/documents/emidnba_000.pdf
Cleal R. M. J., Walker K. E., and Montague R. 1995. Stonehenge in Its Landscape: Twentieth-Century Excavations. London: English Heritage.
Coates P. 1998. Nature: Western Attitudes since Ancient Times. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Coles B., and Coles J. 1986. Sweet Track to Glastonbury. London: Thames and Hudson.
Coles J. 1973. Archaeology by Experiment. London: Hutchison & Co.
Coles J. 1979. Experimental Archaeology. London: Academic Press.
Coles J. M., Heal S. V. E., and Orme J. 1978. ‘The use and character of wood in prehistoric Britain and Ireland’. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 44: 145.
Coles J. M., and Orme B. J. 1980. Prehistory of the Somerset Levels. Hertford: Somerset Levels Project.
Coles J. M., Orme B. J., Hibbert F. A., and Jones R. A. 1975. The Somerset Levels Papers 1. Cambridge University Press.
Coles J. M., and Simpson D. D. A. 1965. ‘The excavation of a Neolithic round barrow at Pitnacree, Perthshire, Scotland’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 31: 3457.
Coneller C. 2011. An Archaeology of Materials: Substantial Transformations in Early Prehistoric Europe. London: Routledge.
Cooney G. 2000. Landscapes of Neolithic Ireland. London: Routledge.
Cooney G. 2002. ‘So many shades of rock: colour symbolism and Irish stone axeheads’, in Jones A. and MacGregor G. (eds.), Colouring the Past: The Significance of Colour in Archaeological Research. Oxford: Berg, pp. 93108.
Cooney G. 2008. ‘Engaging with stone’, Analecta Praehistorica Leidensia 40: 203–14.
Cooney G. 2009. ‘Mundane stone and its meaning in the Neolithic’, in O’Connor B., Cooney G., and Chapman J. (eds.), Materialitas: Working Stone, Carving Identity. Oxford: Prehistoric Society Research Paper No. 3/Oxbow Books, pp. 6474.
Cooney G., and Mandal S. 1995. ‘Getting to the core of the problem: petrological results from the Irish Stone Axe Project’, Antiquity 69: 969–80.
Cosgrove D. E. 1984. Social Formation and Symbolic Landscape. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Cosgrove D. E., and Daniels S. 1988. The Iconography of Landscape: Essays on the Symbolic Representation, Design and Use of Past Environments. Cambridge University Press.
Croll E., and Parkin D. 1992a. ‘Anthropology, the environment and development’, in Croll E. and Parkin D. (eds.), Bush Base: Forest Farm. Culture, Environment and Development. London: Routledge, pp. 310.
Croll E., and Parkin D. 1992b. ‘Cultural understandings of the environment’, in Croll E. and Parkin D. (eds.), Bush Base: Forest Farm. Culture, Environment and Development. London: Routledge, pp. 1138.
Cummings V., and Fowler C. 2004. ‘The setting and form of Manx chambered carins: cultural comparisons and social interpretations’, in Cummings V. and Fowler C. (eds.), The Neolithic of the Irish Sea: Materiality and Traditions of Practice. Oxford: Oxbow, pp. 113–22.
Cummings V., and Whittle A. 2004a. Places of Special Virtue: Megaliths in the Neolithic Landscapes of Wales. Oxford: Oxbow.
Cummings V., and Whittle A. 2004b. ‘Tombs with a view: landscape, monuments and trees’, Antiquity 77: 255–66.
Cunnington M. E. 1929. Woodhenge: A Description of the Site as Revealed by Excavations Carried Out There by Mr and Mrs B. H. Cunnington, 1926/7/8. Devizes: George Simpson & Co.
Daniels S. 1988. ‘The political iconography of woodland in later Georgian England’, in Cosgrove D. E. and Daniels S. (eds.), The Iconography of Landscape: Essays on the Symbolic Representation, Design and Use of Past Environments. Cambridge University Press, pp. 4382.
Dark P., and Gent H. 2001. ‘Pests and diseases of prehistoric corps: a yield “honeymoon” for early grain crops in Europe?Oxford Journal of Archaeology 20(1): 5978.
Darrah R. 2006. ‘Wood technology’, in Evans C. and Hodder I. (eds.), A Woodland Archaeology: Neolithic Sites at Haddenham. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, pp. 118–27.
Darvill T., and Thomas J. (eds.). 2001. Neolithic Enclosures in Atlantic Northwest Europe. Oxford: Oxbow.
David A., Cole M., Horsley T., Linford N., Linford , and Martin L. 2004. ‘A rival to Stonehenge? Geophysical survey at Stanton Drew, EnglandAntiquity 78: 341–58.
Davies P., Robb J. G., and Ladbrook D. 2005. ‘Woodland clearance in the Mesolithic: the social aspects’, Antiquity 79: 280–88.
DeMarrais E. 2004. ‘The materialisation of culture’, in DeMarrais E., Gosden C., and Renfrew C. (eds.), Rethinking Materiality: The Engagement of Mind with the Material World. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, pp. 1122.
Descola P. 1996. In the Society of Nature: A Native Ecology in Amazonia. Cambridge: Cambridge Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology.
Descola P., and Pálsson G. 1996. ‘Introduction’. In Descola P. and Pálsson G. (eds.), Nature and Society: Anthropological Perspectives. London: Routledge, pp. 122.
Dickens P. 2004. Society & Nature: Changing Our Environment, Changing Ourselves. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Dickson C. 2000. ‘The decline of woodland in Orkney: early Neolithic to late Iron Age’, in Nicholson R. and O’Connor T. (eds.), People as Agents of Environmental Change. Oxford: Oxbow, pp. 3744.
Dimbleby G. 1985. The Palynology of Archaeological Sites. London: Academic Press.
Earwood C. 1993. Domestic Wooden Artefacts in Britain and Ireland from Neolithic to Viking Times. Exeter: University of Exeter Press.
Edmonds M. 1995. Stone Tools and Society: Working Stone in Neolithic and Bronze Age Britain. London: B. T. Batsford.
Edmonds M. 1998a. ‘Polished stone axeheads and associated artefacts’, in Pryor F. (ed.), Etton: Excavations at a Neolithic Causewayed Enclosure Near Maxey, Cambridgeshire 1982–7. London: English Heritage Archaeological Report 18, pp. 260–8.
Edmonds M. 1998b. ‘Sermons in stone: identity, value and stone tools in later Neolithic Britain’, in Edmonds M. and Richards C. (eds.), Understanding the Neolithic of North-Western Europe. Glasgow: Cruithne Press, pp. 248–76.
Edmonds M. 1999. ‘Inhabiting Neolithic landscapes’, Journal of Quaternary Science 14: 485–92.
Edmonds M., and Richards C. (eds.), 1998. Understanding the Neolithic of North-Western Europe. Glasgow: Cruithne Press.
Edmonds M., Sheridan A., and Tipping R. 1992. ‘Survey and excavation at Creag na Caillich, Killin, Perthshire’, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 122: 77112.
Edwards K. J. 1993. ‘Models of mid-Holocene forest farming for north-west Europe’, in Chambers F. M. (ed.), Climate Change and Human Impact on the Landscape. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 133–45.
Edwards K. J. 1995. ‘A mesolithic of the western and northern isles of Scotland?’, in Pollard T. and Morrison A. (eds.), The Early Prehistory of Scotland. Edinburgh University Press, pp. 2338.
Edwards K. J. 2004. ‘People, environmental impacts and the changing landscape of Neolithic and Bronze Age times’, in Shepherd I. A. G. and Barclay G. J. (eds.), Scotland in Ancient Europe. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, pp. 5569.
Edwards K. J., and Ralston I. 1984. ‘Postglacial hunter-gatherers and the vegetation history of Scotland’, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 114: 1535.
Edwards K. J., and Sadler J. (eds.), 1999. Holocene Environments of Prehistoric Britain. Quaternary Proceedings 7, Chichester: John Wiley.
Edwards K. J., and Whittington G. 1997. ‘Vegetation change’, in Edwards K. J. and Ralston I. B. M. (eds.), Scotland: Environment and Archaeology, 8000 BC–AD 1000. Chichester: Wiley, pp. 6382.
Edwards K. J., and Whittington G. 1998a. ‘The palaeoenvironmental background: pollen studies at Rae Loch’, in Barclay G. J. and Maxwell G. S. (eds.), The Cleaven Dyke and Littleour. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland Monograph Series 13, pp. 512.
Edwards K. J., and Whittington G. 1998b. ‘Soil pollen beneath the Cleaven Dyke’, in Barclay G. J. and Maxwell G. S. (eds.), The Cleaven Dyke and Littleour. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland Monograph Series 13, pp. 42–6.
Edwards K. J., Whittington G., and Hirons K. R. 1995. ‘The relationship between fire and long-term wet heath development in South Uist, Outer Hebrides, Scotland’, in Thompson D. B. A., Hester A. J., and Usher M. B. (eds.), Heaths and Moorland: Cultural Landscapes. Edinburgh: HMSO, pp. 240–8.
Eliade M. 1958. Patterns in Comparative Religion. London: Sheed and Ward.
Ellen R. 1996. ‘Introduction’, in Ellen R. and Fukui K. (eds.), Redefining Nature: Ecology, Culture and Domestication. Oxford: Berg, pp. 138.
Entwistle R., and Bowden M. 1991. ‘Cranborne chase: the molluscan evidence’, in Barrett J., Bradley R., and Hall M. (eds.), Papers on the Prehistoric Archaeology of Cranbourne Chase. Oxford: Oxbow Monograph 11, pp. 2048.
Evans C., and Hodder I. 2006. A Woodland Archaeology: Neolithic Sites at Haddenham. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.
Evans C., Pollard J., and Knight M. 1999. ‘Life in woods: tree-throws, “settlement” and forest cognition’. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 18(3): 241–54.
Evans J. 1897. Ancient Stone Implements: Weapons and Ornaments of Great Britain. London: Longmans.
Fahlander F. 2013. ‘Articulating relations: a non-representational view of Scandinavian rock art’, in Alberti B., Jones A. M., and Pollard J. (eds.), Archaeology after Interpretation: Returning Materials to Archaeological Theory. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, pp. 305–24.
Fairbairn A. S. (ed.), 2000. Plants in Neolithic Britain and Beyond. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
Fairweather A. D., and Ralston I. B. M. 1993. ‘The Neolithic timber hall at Balbridie, Grampian Region, Scotland: the building, the date, the plant macrofossils’, Antiquity 67: 313–23.
Fitzpatrick E. 2004. Royal Inauguration in Gaelic Ireland c. 1100–1600: A Cultural Landscape Study. Rochester: Boydell.
Fleming A. 1999. ‘Phenomenology and the megaliths of Wales: a dreaming too far?’, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 18(2): 119–25.
Fleming A. 2005. ‘Megaliths and post-modernism: the case of Wales’, Antiquity 79: 921–32.
Fowler C. 2003. ‘Rates of (ex)change: decay and growth, memory and the transformation of the dead in early Neolithic southern Britain’, in Williams H. (ed.), Archaeologies of Remembrance: Death and Memory in Past Societies. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp. 4563.
Fowler C. 2010. ‘Pattern and diversity in the early Neolithic mortuary practices of Britain and Ireland: contextualising the transformation of the dead’, Documenta Praehistorica XXXVII: 118.
Fowler C., and Cummings V. 2003. ‘Places of transformation: building monuments from water and stone in the Neolithic of the Irish Sea’, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 9: 120.
French C. A. I. 2006. ‘Micromorphological analysis’, in Evans C. and Hodder I. (eds.), A Woodland Archaeology: Neolithic Sites at Haddenham. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, pp. 3941.
French C. A. I. 2009. ‘A landscape tale of two soil histories in lowland zones of England: the fen-edge of Cambridgeshire and the downland of Cranbourne Chase’, in Allen M. J., Sharples N., and O’Connor T. (eds.), Land and People: Papers in Memory of John G. Evans. Oxford: Prehistoric Society Research Paper No. 2/Oxbow Books, pp. 89104.
French C. A. I., Lewis H. A., Allen M., Scaife R., and Green M. 2003. ‘Archaeological and palaeoenvironmental investigations of the upper Allen valley, Cranborne Chase, Dorset’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 69: 201–34.
French C. A. I., Lewis H. A., Scaife R., and Allen M. 2005. ‘New perspectives on Holocene landscape development in the southern English chalklands: the upper Allen valley, Cranborne Chase, Dorset’, Geoarchaeology 20(2): 109–34.
Frenzel B. (ed.), 1992. Evaluation of Land Surfaces Cleared from Forest by Prehistoric Man in Early Neolithic Times and the Time of Migrating Germanic Tribes. Mainz: Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur.
Fries M. 1967. ‘Lennart von post’s pollen diagram series of 1916’, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 4: 913.
Friman B. 1997. ‘Neolithization and “classical” elm decline: a synthesis of two debates’, Lund Archaeological Review 1996: 516.
Furholt M., Hinz M., Mischka D., Noble G., and Olausson D. (eds.). 2014. Landscapes, Histories and Societies in the Northern European Neolithic. Kiel: German Research Foundation Program SPP 1400 Early Monumentality and Social Differentiation.
Fyfe R. 2006. ‘GIS and the application of a model of pollen deposition and dispersal: a new approach to testing landscape hypotheses using the POLLANDCAL models’, Journal of Archaeological Science 33: 483–93.
Fyfe R., Brown A. G., and Rippon S. J. 2003. ‘Mid- to late-Holocene vegetation history of Greater Exmoor, UK: estimating the spatial extent of human-induced vegetation change’, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 12: 225–32.
Fyfe R. M., Twiddle C., Sugita S., Gaillard M., Barratt P., Caseldine C. J., Dodson J., Edwards K. J., Farrell M., Froyd C., Grant M. J., Huckerby E., Innes J. B., Shaw H., and Waller M. 2013. ‘The Holocene vegetation cover of Britain and Ireland: overcoming problems of scale and discerning patterns of openness’, Quaternary Science Reviews 73: 132–48.
Gearey B. R., Charman D. J., and Kent M. 2000. ‘Palaeoecological evidence for prehistoric settlement of Bodmin Moor, Cornwall, south-west England. Part II: Land use changes from the Neolithic to the present’, Journal of Archaeological Science 27: 493508.
Gebauer A. B. 1988. ‘The long dolmen at Asnæs Forskov, West Zealand’, Journal of Danish Archaeology 7: 4052.
Gell A. 1975. Metamorphosis of the Cassowaries: Umeda Society, Language and Ritual. New Jersey: Humanities Press.
Gell A. 1995. ‘The language of the forest: landscape phonological iconism in Umeda’, in Hirsch E. and O’Hanlon M. (eds.), The Anthropology of Landscape: Perspectives on Place and Space. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 232–54.
Gell A. 1998. Art and Agency: An Anthropological Theory. Oxford University Press.
Giambelli R. A. 1998. ‘The coconut, the body and the human being: metaphors of life and growth in Nusa Penida and Bali’, in Rival L. (ed.), 1998a, The Social Life of Trees: Anthropological Perspectives on Tree Symbolism. Oxford: Berg, pp. 133–58.
Gibson A. 1992a. ‘Possible timber circles at Dorchester-on-Thames’. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 11(1): 8591.
Gibson A. 1992b. ‘Excavations at the Sarn-y-bryn-caled cursus complex, Welshpool, Powys and the timber circles of Great Britain and Ireland’. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 60: 143223.
Gibson A. 1998. ‘Hindwell and the palisaded enclosures of Britain and Ireland’, in Gibson A. M. and Simpson D. D. A. (eds.), Prehistoric Ritual and Religion. Stroud: Alan Sutton, pp. 6879.
Gibson A. 1999. The Walton Basin Project: Excavation and Survey in a Prehistoric Landscape 1993–7. York: Council for British Archaeology.
Gibson A. 2002. ‘The Late Neolithic palisaded enclosures of Britain’, in Gibson A. (ed.), Behind Wooden Walls: Neolithic Palisaded Enclosures in Europe. Oxford: Archaeopress. British Archaeological Reports, International Series No. 1013, pp. 523.
Gibson A. 2005. Stonehenge and Timber Circles, 2nd edn. Stroud: The History Press.
Gibson A., and Loveday R. 1989. ‘Excavations at the cursus monument of Aston on Trent, Derbyshire’, in Gibson A. (ed.), Midlands Prehistory. Oxford: Archaeopress. British Archaeological Reports, British Series No. 204, pp. 2750.
Gibson J. J. 1986. The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. London: Erlbaum.
Gillings M., and Pollard J. 2004. Avebury. London: Duckworth.
Göransson H. 1994a. ‘Elm, lime and Middle Neolithic cultivation – a solvable problem’, Current Swedish Archaeology 2: 123–39.
Göransson H. 1994b. ‘Comments on “Neolithic farming practice – an archaeological response to the Göransson hypothesis”’, Fornvännen 89: 168–84.
Gosden C. 2005. ‘What do objects want?’, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 12(3): 193211.
Gow P. 1995. ‘Land, people and paper in western Amazonia’, in Hirsch E. and O’Hanlon M. (eds.), The Anthropology of Landscape: Perspectives on Place and Space. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 4362.
Greenhough B. 2010. ‘Vitalist geographies: life and the more-than-human’, in Anderson B. and Harrison P. (eds.), 2010b, Taking-Place: Non-Representational Theories and Geography. Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 3754.
Groves C. 2003. ‘Dendrochronology’, in M. Brennand and M. Taylor (eds.), The survey and excavation of a Bronze Age timber circle at Holme-next-the-Sea, Norfolk, 1998–9’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, pp. 31–36.
Haggarty A. 1991. ‘Machrie Moor, Arran: recent excavations at two stone circles’, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 121: 5194.
Hamilton J., Hedges R. E. M., and Robinson M. 2009. ‘Rooting for pigfruit: pig feeding in Neolithic and Iron Age Britain compared’, Antiquity 83: 9981011.
Harding A., and Young R. 1979. ‘Reconstruction of the hafting methods and function of stone implements’, in Clough T. H. McKenzie and Cummins W. A. (eds.), Stone Axe Studies: Archaeological, Petrological, Experimental and Ethnographic. London: Council for British Archaeology Research Report 23, pp. 102–5.
Harding J., and Healy F. (eds.), 2007. The Raunds Area Project: A Neolithic and Bronze Age Landscape in Northamptonshire. Swindon: English Heritage.
Hartwell B. 2002. ‘A Neolithic ceremonial complex at Ballynahatty, Co. Down’, Antiquity 76: 526–32.
Hedges R. E. M., Stevens R. E., and Pearson J. A. 2007. ‘Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions of animal and human bone from Ascott-under-Wychwood long barrow’, in Benson D. and Whittle A. (eds.), Building Memories: The Neolithic Cotswold Long Barrow at Ascott-under-Wychwood, Oxfordshire. Oxford: Oxbow, pp. 255–62.
Henare A., Holbraad M., and Wastell S. 2007. ‘Introduction: thinking through things’, in Henare A., Holbraad M., and Wastell S. (eds.), Thinking through Things: Theorising Artefacts Ethnographically. London: Routledge, pp. 131.
Herva V., and Salmi A. 2011. ‘Engaging with sea and seals: environmental and human-animal relations on the Northern coast of the early modern Gulf of Bothnia’, Norwegian Archaeological Review 43(2): 115–27.
Hey G., and Barclay A. 2007. ‘The Thames Valley in the late fifth and early fourth millennium cal BC: the appearance of domestication and the evidence for change’, Proceedings of the British Academy 144: 399422.
Hicks S. P., 1972. ‘The impact of man on the East Moor of Derbyshire from Mesolithic times’, Archaeological Journal 129: 121.
Higgs E. S. 1975. Palaeoeconomy. Cambridge University Press.
Hilbers D. 2005. The Nature Guide to Białowieża Primeval Forest. Utrecht: KNNV Publishing.
Hodder I. 1982. Reading the Past: Current Approaches to Interpretation in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press.
Hodder I. 1990. The Domestication of Europe. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Hodder I. 1994. ‘Architecture and meaning: the example of Neolithic houses and tombs’, in Pearson M. Parker and Richards C. (eds.), Architecture and Order: Approaches to Social Space. London: Routledge, pp. 7386.
Hodder I. 2011. ‘Human-thing entanglement: towards an integrated archaeological perspective’, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 17: 154–77.
Hodder I. 2012. Entangled: An Archaeology of the Relationships between Humans and Things. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Hodgson J., and Brennand M. 2006. ‘The prehistoric period resource assessment’, in M. Brennand (ed.), The Archaeology of North West England: An Archaeological Research Framework for the North West Region, pp. 23–58. Archaeology North West 8, www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/mol/archaeology/arf/vol2/resource_assessments/arch_NW_vol18_06_contents.pdf
Holbraad M. 2009. ‘Ontology, ethnography, archaeology: an afterword on the ontography of things’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 19(3): 431–41.
Hosler D. 1995. ‘Sound, colour and meaning in the metallurgy of Ancient West Mexico’, World Archaeology 27(1): 100–15.
Howell S. 1996. ‘Nature in culture or culture in nature? Chewong ideas of “humans” and other species’, in Descola P. and Pálsson G. (eds.), Nature and Society: Anthropological Perspectives. London: Routledge, pp. 127–44.
Hulme P. D., and Shirriffs J. 1985. ‘Pollen analysis of a radiocarbon-dated core from North Mains, Strathallan, PerthshireProceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 115: 105–13.
Hultkrantz A. 1996. ‘A new look at the world pillar in Arctic and Sub-Arctic religions’, in Pentikäinen J. (ed.), Shamanism and Northern Ecology. New York/Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 3150.
Huntley B., and Birks H. J. B. 1983. An Atlas of Past and Present Pollen Maps of Europe 0–13,000 Years Ago. Cambridge University Press.
Hurcombe L. 2014. Perishable Material Culture in Prehistory: Investigating the Missing Majority. London: Routledge.
Ichikawa M. 1996. ‘The co-existence of man and nature in the African rain forest’, in Ellen R. and Fukui K. (eds.), Redefining Nature: Ecology, Culture and Domestication. Oxford: Berg, pp. 467–92.
Ingold T. 1992. ‘Culture and the perception of the environment’, in Croll E. and Parkin D. (eds.), Bush Base: Forest Farm. Culture, Environment and Development. London: Routledge, pp. 3956.
Ingold T. 1993. ‘The temporality of the landscape’, World Archaeology 25: 152–74.
Ingold T. 2000. The Perception of the Environment. London: Routledge.
Ingold T. 2007. ‘Materials against materiality’, Archaeological Dialogues 14(1): 116.
Ingold T. 2011. Being Alive: Essays on Movement, Knowledge and Description. London: Routledge.
Insoll T. 2007. ‘Natural or human spaces? Tallensi sacred groves and shrines and their potential implications for aspects of northern European prehistory and phenomenological interpretation’, Norwegian Archaeological Review 40: 138–58.
Iversen J. 1941. Land Occupation in Denmark’s Stone Age: A Pollen-Analytical Study of the Influence of a Farmer Culture on Vegetational Development. Copenhagen: C. A. Reitzels Forlag.
Iversen J. 1967. ‘Stone Age man’s transformation and exploitation of the primeval forest’, republished and translated in Fischer A. and Kristiansen K. (eds.), 2002 The Neolithisation of Denmark: 150 Years of Debate. Sheffield: Sheffield Archaeological Monographs 12, pp. 196209.
Iversen J. 1969. ‘The influence of prehistoric man on vegetation’, republished in Fischer A. and Kristiansen K. (eds.), 2002, The Neolithisation of Denmark: 150 Years of Debate. Sheffield: Sheffield Archaeological Monographs 12, pp. 105–16.
Jennbert K. 1992. ‘Evaluation of human impact on vegetation and the determination of areas cleared from forests in Southern Scandinavia during Late Mesolithic and Neolithic times’, in Frenzel B. (ed.), Evaluation of Land Surfaces Cleared from Forest by Prehistoric Man in Early Neolithic Times and the Time of Migrating Germanic Tribes. Mainz: Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, pp. 102–14.
Jennbert K. 1994. Den produktiva gåvan. Tradition och innovation I Sydskandinavien för omkring 5300 år sedan, Lund: Acta Archaeological Lundensia.
Johansson P. 2004. ‘The lure of origins: an inquiry into human-environment relationships, focused around the Neolithization of Sweden’, in Knutsson H. (ed.), Coast to Coast – Arrival. Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, pp. 3743.
Johnson M. 2007. Ideas of Landscape. Oxford: Blackwell.
Johnston R. 1998a. ‘The paradox of landscape’, Journal of European Archaeology 1(3): 313–25.
Johnston R. 1998b. ‘Approaches to the perception of landscape: philosophy, theory, methodology’, Archaeological Dialogues 5(1): 5468.
Johnston R. 1999. ‘An empty path? Processions, memories and the Dorset Cursus’, in Barclay A. and Harding J. (eds.), Pathways and Ceremonies: The Cursus Monuments of Neolithic Britain. Oxford: Oxbow, pp. 3948.
Johnston R. 2009. ‘Breaking down and cracking up: rock, art and the materiality of stone in Kilmartin, Argyll’, in O’Connor B., Cooney G., and Chapman J. (eds.), Materialitas: Working Stone, Carving Identity. Oxford: Prehistoric Society Research Paper No. 3/Oxbow Books, pp. 161–8.
Jones A., and MacGregor G. (eds.). 2002. Colouring the Past. Oxford: Berg.
Jones A. M. 2011. Prehistoric Materialities: Becoming Material in Prehistoric Britain and Ireland. Oxford University Press.
Jones A. M., and Alberti B. 2013. ‘Archaeology after interpretation’, in Alberti B., Jones A. M., and Pollard J. (eds.), Archaeology after Interpretation: Returning Materials to Archaeological Theory. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, pp. 1542.
Jones A. M., Freedman B., O’Connor H., Lamdin-Whymark H., Tipping R., and Watson A. 2011. An Animate Landscape: Rock Art and the Prehistory of Kilmartin, Argyll, Scotland. Oxford: Windgather Press.
Jones O., and Cloke P. 2002. Tree Cultures: The Place of Trees and Trees in Their Place. Oxford: Berg.
Jordan P. 2003. Material Culture and Sacred Landscape: The Anthropology of the Siberian Khanty. New York: Rowman and Littlefield.
Jørgensen S. 1985. Tree Felling with Original Neolithic Flint-Axes in Draved Wood: Report on the Experiments in 1952–54. Copenhagen: National Museum of Denmark.
Kaul F. 1988. ‘Neolitiske gravanlæg på Onsved Mark, Horns Herred, Sjælland’, Aarboger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie 1: 2783.
Keen I. 1990. ‘Ecological community and species attributes in Yolngu religious symbolism’, in Willis R. G. (ed.), Signifying Animals: Human Meaning in the Natural World. London: Unwin Hyman, pp. 85102.
Kelsen H. 1946. Society and Nature: A Sociological Enquiry. London: Kegan Paul.
Kendrick J. (ed.), 1995. ‘Excavation of a Neolithic enclosure and an Iron Age settlement at Douglasmuir, Angus’, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 125: 2967.
Kendrick T. D. 1925. The Axe Age: A Study in British Prehistory. London: Methuen.
Kinnes I. 1992. Non-Megalithic Long Barrows and Allied Structures in the British Neolithic. London: British Museum.
Kinnes I., and Hibbs J. 1989. ‘Le Gardien du Tombeau: further reflections on the initial Neolithic’, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 8: 159–66.
Knight J. 1998. ‘The second life of trees: family forestry in upland Japan’, in Rival L. (ed.), 1998a, The Social Life of Trees: Anthropological Perspectives on Tree Symbolism. Oxford: Berg, pp. 197220.
Krause-Kyora B., Makarewixz C., Evin A., Flink L. G., Dobney K., Larson G., Hartz S., Schreiber S., von Carnap-Bornheim C., con Wurmb-Schwark N., and Nebel A. 2013. ‘Use of domesticated pigs by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in northwestern Europe’, Nature Communications 4: 2348.
Kreuz A. 2008. ‘Closed forest or open woodland as natural vegetation in the surroundings of Linearbandkeramik settlements’, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17: 5164.
Kristiansen K. 1993. ‘Neolithic farming practices – an archaeological response to the Göransson hypothesis’, Fornvännen 88: 247–51.
Lamdin-Whymark H. 2007. The Residue of Ritualised Action: Neolithic Deposition Practices in the Middle Thames Valley. Oxford: Archaeopress.
Langohr R. 1993. ‘Types of tree windthrow, their impact on the environment and their importance for the understanding of archaeological excavation data’, Helinium XXXIII(1): 3649.
Larson G., Albarella U., Dobney K., Rowley-Conwy P., Schibler J., Tresset A., Vigne J. D., Edwards CJ., Schlumbaum A., Dinu A., Balacsescu A., Dolman G., Tagliacozzo A., Manaseryan N., Miracle P., Van Wijngaarden-Bakker L., Masseti M., Bradley D. G., and Cooper A. 2007. ‘Ancient DNA, pig domestication, and the spread of the Neolithic into Europe’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 15276–81.
Larsson L. 2000. ‘The passage of axes: fire transformation of flint objects in the Neolithic of southern Sweden’, Antiquity 74: 602–10.
Larsson L. (ed.). 2002. Monumental Gravformer I Det Äldsta Bondesamhället. Lund: University of Lund, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Report Series 83.
Larsson L. 2008. ‘Ritual structures in south Scandinavian prehistory’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 74: 193214.
Larsson L. 2014. ‘Neolithic transformations: relationships between society and landscape, in Furholt M. et al. (eds.), Landscapes, Histories and Societies in the Northern European Neolithic. Kiel: German Research Foundation Program, pp. 197206.
Larsson M. 1986. ‘Neolithicization in Scania – a Funnel Beaker perspective’, Journal of Danish Archaeology 5: 244–7.
Larsson M. 2014. Paths Towards a New World: Neolithic Sweden. Oxford: Oxbow.
Latour B. 1993. We Have Never Been Modern. London and Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Latour B. 1999. Pandora’s Hope: Essays on the Reality of Science Studies. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Law J. 1992. ‘Notes on the theory of the actor network: ordering, strategy and heterogeneity’, Systems Practice 5: 379–93.
Le Roux C. 1998. ‘Specialised production, diffusion and exchange during the Neolithic in Western France: the example of polished stone axes’, in Edmonds M. and Richards C. (eds.), Understanding the Neolithic of North-Western Europe. Glasgow: Cruithne Press, pp. 370–84.
Leach M. 1992. ‘Women’s crops in women’s spaces: gender relations in Mende rice faming’, in Croll E. and Parkin D. (eds.), Bush Base: Forest Farm, Culture, Environment and Development. London: Routledge, pp. 7696.
Lee F., and Wakely J. 2006. ‘Burial dynamics: the interred’, in Evans C. and Hodder I. (eds.), A Woodland Archaeology: Neolithic Sites at Haddenham. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, pp. 140–53.
Lelong O., and Pollard T. 1998. ‘The excavation and survey of prehistoric enclosures at Blackshouse Burn, Lanarkshire’, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 128: 1353.
Liversage D. 1980. ‘Neolithic monuments at Lindebjerg, Northwest Zealand’, Acta Archaeologica 51: 85152.
Liversage D. 1983. ‘Træbyggede grave fra den ældste bondestenalder: Udgravninger ved Lindebjerg’, Nationalmuseets Arbejdsmark 1: 516.
Liversage D. 1992. Barkaer: Long Barrows and Settlements. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag Universitetsforlag, København.
Lorimer H. 2005. ‘Cultural geography: the busyness of being “more-than-representational”’, Progress in Human Geography 29(1): 8394.
Lorimer H. 2010. ‘Forces of nature, forms of life: calibrating ethology and phenomenology’ in Anderson B. and Harrison P. (eds.), 2010b, Taking-Place: Non-Representational Theories and Geography. Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 5578.
Loveday R. 1989. ‘The Barford ritual complex: further excavations (1972) and a regional perspective’, in Gibson A. (ed.), Midlands Prehistory. Oxford: Archaeopress. British Archaeological Reports, British Series No. 204, pp. 5184.
Lubbock J. 1865. Pre-Historic Times: As Illustrated by Ancient Remains, and the Manners and Customs of Modern Savages. London: Williams and Norgate.
Lund K. A., and Benediktsson K. 2010. ‘Introduction: starting a conversation with landscape’, in Lund K. Anna and Benediktsson K. (eds.), Conversations with Landscape. Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 112.
Lynch A. H., Hamilton J., and Hedges R. E. M. 2008. ‘Where the wild things are: aurochs and cattle in England’, Antiquity 82: 1025–39.
MacGregor G., and Lelong O. 2008. The Lands of Ancient Lothian: Interpreting the Archaeology of the A1. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.
Macnaghten P., and Urry J. 1998. Contested Natures. London: Sage.
Macphail R. I., and Goldberg P. 1990. ‘The micromorphology of tree subsoil hollows: their significance to soil science and archaeology’, in Douglas L. A. (ed.), Soil-Micromorphology: A Basic and Applied Science. Amsterdam: Developments in Soil Science 19, pp. 425–9.
Madgwick R., Mulville J., and Stevens R. E. 2014. ‘Diversity in foddering strategy and herd management in late Bronze Age Britain: an isotopic investigation of pigs and other fauna from two midden sites’, Environmental Archaeology 17: 126–40.
Madsen T. 1972. ‘Grave med teltformet overbygning fra tidlig-neolitisk tid’, Kuml 1972: 127–49.
Madsen T. 1979. ‘Earthen long barrows and timber structures: aspects of the early Neolithic mortuary practice in Denmark’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 45: 301–28.
Madsen T. 1993. ‘Barrows with timber-built structures’, in Hvass S. and Storgaard B. (eds.), Digging into the Past: 25 Years of Archaeology in Denmark. Aarhus: Jutland Archaeological Society, pp. 96–9.
Madsen T., and Jensen H. J. 1982. ‘Settlement and land use in early Neolithic Denmark’, Analecta Praehistorica Leidensia 15: 6386.
Madsen T., and Petersen J. E. 1984. ‘Tidligneolitiske anlæg ved Mosegården: regionale og kronologiske forskelle i tidligneolitikum’, Kuml 1982–3: 61115.
Malmer M. P. 2002. The Neolithic of South Sweden: TRB, GRK and STR. Stockholm: Royal Swedish Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities.
Marquer L., Gaillard M., Sugita S., Trondman A., Mazier F., Birgitte Nielsen A., Fyfe R. M., Vad Odgaard B., Alenius T., Birks H. J. B., Bjune A. E., Christiansen J., Dodson J., Edwards K.J., Giesecke T., Herzschuh U., Kangur M., Lorenz S., Poska A., Schult M., and Seppa H. 2014. ‘Holocene changes in vegetation composition in northern Europe: why quantitative pollen-based vegetation reconstructions matter’, Quaternary Science Reviews 90: 199216.
Maxwell G. S. 1978. ‘Air photography and the work of the Royal Commission for the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland’, Aerial Archaeology 2: 3745.
McClatchie M., Bogaard A., Colledge S., Whitehouse N., Schulting R., Barratt P., and McLaughlin R. 2013. ‘Neolithic farming in north-western Europe: new archaeobotanical evidence from Ireland’, Journal of Archaeological Science 10: 110.
McGlade J. 1995. ‘Archaeology and the ecodynamics of humanly-modified landscapes’, Antiquity 69: 113–32.
Mellars P. A. 1976. ‘Fire ecology, animal populations and man: a study of some ecological relationships in prehistory’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 42: 1545.
Mercer R. 1981. ‘The excavation of a late Neolithic henge-type enclosure at Balfarg, Markinch, Fife, 1977–78’, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 111: 63171.
Midgley M. 1992. TRB Culture: The First Farmers of the North European Plain. Edinburgh University Press.
Midgley M. 2005. The Monumental Cemeteries of Prehistoric Europe. Stroud: Tempus.
Mighall T. M., Timpany S., Blackford J. J., Innes J. B., O’Brien C. E., O’Brien W., and Harrison S. 2008. ‘Vegetation change during the Mesolithic and Neolithic on the Mizen Peninsula, Co. Cork, south-west Ireland’, Vegetation History & Archaeobotany 17: 617–28.
Miller J., and Ramsay S. 2004. ‘The botanical remains’, in Barclay G. J. and Brophy K. (eds.), A rectilinear timber structure and post-ring at Carsie Mains, Meikleour, Perthshire’, Tayside and Fife Archaeological Journal 10: pp. 817.
Millican K. 2007. ‘Turning in circles: a new assessment of the Neolithic timber circles of Scotland’, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 137: 534.
Millican K. 2009. Contextualizing the Cropmark Record: The Timber Monuments of the Neolithic of Scotland. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Glasgow.
Milton K. 1996. Environmentalism and Cultural Theory: Exploring the Role of Anthropology in Environmental Discourse. London: Routledge.
Mitchell F. J. G. 2005. ‘How open were European primeval forests? Hypothesis testing using palaeoecological data’, Journal of Ecology 93: 168–77.
Modderman P. J. R. 1992. ‘Speculations on the earliest attack of farming communities on their environment in continental Europe’, in Frenzel B. (ed.), Evaluation of Land Surfaces Cleared from Forest by Prehistoric Man in Early Neolithic Times and the Time of Migrating Germanic Tribes. Mainz: Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, pp. 3940.
Moffett L., Robinson M., and Straker V. 1989. ‘Cereals fruit and nuts: charred plant remains from Neolithic sites in England and Wales and the Neolithic economy’, in Milles A., Williams D., and Gardner N. (eds.), The Beginnings of Agriculture. Oxford: Archaeopress. British Archaeological Reports, International Series No. 496, pp. 243–61.
Moore D. G. 2003. ‘Neolithic houses in Ballyharry Townland, Islandmagee, Co. Antrim’, in Armit I. et al. (eds.), Neolithic Settlement in Ireland and Western Britain. Oxford: Oxbow, pp. 156–63.
Moore J. 2000. ‘Forest fire and human interaction in the early Holocene woodlands of Britain’, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 164: 125–37.
Moore J., and Jennings D. 1992. Reading Business Park: A Bronze Age Landscape. Oxford Archaeological Unit Thames Valley Landscapes, the Kennet Valley 1.
Morgan F. M. 1959. ‘The excavation of a long barrow at Nutbane, Hants’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 25: 1551.
Morgan R. 2006. ‘Structural timbers and roundwood’, in Evans C. and Hodder I. (eds.), A Woodland Archaeology: Neolithic Sites at Haddenham. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, pp. 104–18.
Murray H. K., Murray J. C., and Fraser S. M. 2009. A Tale of the Unknown Unknowns: A Mesolithic Pit Alignment and a Neolithic Timber Hall at Warren Field, Crathes, Aberdeenshire. Oxford: Oxbow.
Nelson R. K. 1983. Make Prayers to the Raven: A Koyukon View of the Northern Forest. University of Chicago Press.
Noble G. 2006. The Neolithic of Scotland: Timber, Stone, Earth and Fire. Edinburgh University Press.
Noble G., and Brophy K. 2011a. ‘Big enclosures: the later Neolithic palisaded enclosures of Scotland in their northwestern European context’, European Journal of Archaeology 14(1): 5683.
Noble G., and Brophy K. 2011b. ‘Ritual and remembrance at a prehistoric ceremonial complex in central Scotland: excavations at Forteviot, Perth and Kinross’, Antiquity 85(329): 787804.
Noble G., Greig M., and Millican K. 2012. ‘Excavations at a multi-period site at Greenbogs, Aberdeenshire, Scotland and the four-post timber architecture tradition of late Neolithic Britain and Ireland’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 78: 135–71.
Noe-Nygaard N., Price T. D., and Hede S. U. 2005. ‘Diet of aurochs and early cattle in southern Scandinavia: evidence from 15N and 13C stable isotopes’, Journal of Archaeological Science 32: 855–71.
O’Connell M., and Molloy K. 2001. ‘Farming and woodland dynamics in Ireland during the Neolithic’, Biology and Environment (Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Series B) 101: 99128.
O’Connor B., and Cooney G. 2009. ‘Introduction: materialitas and the significance of stone’, in O’Connor B., Cooney G., and Chapman J. (eds.), Materialitas: Working Stone, Carving Identity. Oxford: Prehistoric Society Research Paper No. 3/Oxbow Books, pp. xxixxv.
O’Connor B., Cooney G., and Chapman J. (eds.), 2009. Materialitas: Working Stone, Carving Identity. Oxford: Prehistoric Society Research Paper No. 3/Oxbow Books.
Ó Drisceoil C. 2003. ‘Archaeological excavation of a Neolithic settlement at Coolfore, Co. Louth’, in Armit I. et al. (eds.), Neolithic Settlement in Ireland and Western Britain. Oxford: Oxbow, pp. 176–81.
Ó Nuailláin S. 1972. ‘A Neolithic house at Ballyglass near Ballycastle, Co. Mayo’, Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 106: 92117.
Olausson D. S. 1982. ‘Lithic technological analysis of the thin-butted flint axe’, Acta Archaeologica 53: 187.
Olausson D. S. 1983. ‘Flint and groundstone axes in the Scanian Neolithic’, Scripta Minora 2: 766.
Oliver J. 2007. ‘The paradox of progress: land survey and the making of agrarian society in colonial British Columbia’, in McAtackney L., Palus M., and Piccini A. (eds.), Contemporary and Historical Archaeology in Theory. BAR International Series S1677. Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 31–8.
Oliver J. 2010. Landscapes and Social Transformations on the Northwest Coast: Colonial Encounters in the Fraser Valley. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Olsen B. 2003. ‘Material culture after text: re-membering things’, Norwegian Archaeological Review 36(2): 87104.
Olsen B. 2007. ‘Keeping things at arm’s length: a genealogy of asymmetry’, World Archaeology 39(4): 579–88.
Olsen B. 2010. In Defense of Things: Archaeology and the Ontology of Objects. Lanham and New York: Altamire.
Ó Nuailláin S. 1972. ‘A Neolithic house at Ballyglass near Ballycastle, Co. Mayo’, Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 106: 92117.
Parker A. G., Goudie A. S., Anderson D. E., Robinson M. A., and Bonsall C. 2002. ‘A review of the mid-Holocene elm decline in the British Isles’, Progress in Physical Geography 26(1): 145.
Parker Pearson M. 2012. Stonehenge: Exploring the Greatest Stone Age Mystery. London: Simon & Schuster.
Parker Pearson M., Chamberlain A., Jay M., Marshall P., Pollard J., Richards C., Thomas J., Tilley C., and Welham K. 2009. ‘Who was buried at Stonehenge?Antiquity 83: 2339.
Parker Pearson M., Cleal R., Marshall P., Needham S., Pollard J., Richards C., Ruggles C., Sheridan A., Thomas J., Tilley C., Welham K., Chamberlain A., Chenery C., Evans J., Knüsel C., Linford N., Martin L., Montgomery J., Payne A., and Richards M. 2007. ‘The age of Stonehenge’. Antiquity 81: 617–39.
Parker Pearson M., Pollard J., Richards C., Thomas J., Tilley C., Welham K., and Albarella U. 2006. ‘Materializing Stonehenge’, Journal of Material Culture 11: 227–61.
Parker Pearson M., and Ramilisonina 1998. ‘Stonehenge for the ancestors: the stones pass on the message’, Antiquity 72: 308–26.
Pauketat T. R. 2013. An Archaeology of the Cosmos: Rethinking Agency and Religion in Ancient America. London: Routledge.
Peglar S. 2006. ‘The Ouse Channel Flandrian sequence’, in Evans C. and Hodder I. (eds.), A Woodland Archaeology: Neolithic Sites at Haddenham. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, pp. 26–9.
Peterken G. F. 1996 Natural Woodland: Ecology and Conservation in Northern Temperate Regions. Cambridge University Press.
Pétrequin P., Cassen S., Errera M., Klassen L., and Sheridan J. A. (eds.), 2012. Jade. Grandes haches alpines du Néolithique européen. Ve et IVe millénaires av. J.-C. Cahiers de la MSHE C.N. Ledoux, Besançon, Presses Universitaires de Franche-Comté et Centre de Recherche Archéologique de la Vallée de l’Ain.
Pétrequin P., Errera M., Pétrequin A., and Allard P. 2006. ‘The Neolithic quarries of Mont Viso (Piedmont, Italy). Initial radiocarbon dates’, European Journal of Archaeology, 9(1): 730.
Pétrequin P., Pétrequin A. M., Jeudy F., Jeunesse C., Monnier J., Pelegrin J., and Praud I. 1998. ‘From the raw material to the Neolithic stone axe: production processes and social context’, in Edmonds M. and Richards C. (eds.), Understanding the Neolithic of North-Western Europe. Glasgow: Cruithne Press, pp. 277311.
Phillips P. 1979. ‘Stone axes in ethnographic situations: some examples from New Guinea and the Solomon Islands’, in Clough T. H. McKenzie and Cummins W. A. (eds.), Stone Axe Studies: Archaeological, Petrological, Experimental, and Ethnographic. London: Council for British Archaeology Research Report 23, pp. 108–12.
Piggott S. 1972. ‘Excavation of the Dalladies long barrow, Fettercairn, Kincardineshire’, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 104: 2347.
Platenkamp J. D. M. 1992. ‘Transforming Tobelo ritual’, in de Coppet D. (ed.), Understanding Rituals. London: Routledge, pp. 7496.
Pollard J. 2000. ‘Neolithic occupation practices and social ecologies from Rinyo to Clacton’, in Ritchie A. (ed.), Neolithic Orkney in Its European Context. Cambridge: McDonald Institute, pp. 363–70.
Pollard J. 2006. ‘Solid nature and ephemeral architecture? Understanding the architecture of Earlier Neolithic occupation in Southern Britain from a dwelling perspective’, Journal of Iberian Archaeology 8: 4151.
Pollard J. 2009. ‘The materialization of religious structures in the time of Stonehenge’, Material Religion 5(3): 332–53.
Pollard J. 2013a. ‘Assembling the social’, in Alberti B., Jones A. M., and Pollard J. (eds.), 2013, Archaeology after Interpretation: Returning Materials to Archaeological Theory. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, pp. 173–76.
Pollard J. 2013b. ‘From Ahu to Avebury: monumentality, the social, and relational ontologies’, in Alberti B., Jones A M, and Pollard J. (eds.), 2013, Archaeology after Interpretation: Returning Materials to Archaeological Theory. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, pp. 177–96.
Pollard J., and Gillings M. 2009. ‘The world of the Grey Wethers’, in O’Connor B., Cooney G., and Chapman J. (eds.), Materialitas: Working Stone, Carving Identity. Oxford: Prehistoric Society Research Paper No. 3/Oxbow Books, pp. 2941.
Pollard J., and Robinson D. 2007. ‘A return to Woodhenge: the results and implications of the 2006 excavations’, in Larsson M. and Pearson M. Parker (eds.), From Stonehenge to the Baltic: Living with Cultural Diversity in the Third Millennium BC. BAR International Series 1692. Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 159–68.
Pott R. 1992. ‘The impact of early Neolithic agriculture on the vegetation of Northwestern Germany’, in Frenzel B. (ed.), Evaluation of Land Surfaces Cleared from Forest by Prehistoric Man in Early Neolithic Times and the Time of Migrating Germanic Tribes. Mainz: Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, pp. 5772.
Price N. 2002. The Viking Way: Religion and War in Late Iron Age Scandinavia. Uppsala University Press.
Pryor F. M. M. 1984. ‘Personalities of Britain: two examples of long-term regional contrast’, Scottish Archaeological Review 3: 815.
Purcell A. 2002. ‘Excavation of three Neolithic houses at Corbally, Kilcullen, Co. Kildare’, Journal of Irish Archaeology XI: 3175.
Rackham O. 1976. Trees and Woodland in the British Landscape. London: J. M. Dent.
Rackham O. 1986. The History of the Countryside. London: J. M. Dent.
Rackham O. 2003. Ancient Woodland: Its History, Vegetation and Uses in England. Dalbeattie: Castlepoint Press.
Rappaport R. A. 1968. Pigs for the Ancestors: Ritual in the Ecology of a New Guinea People. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
Rappaport A. 1969. House Form and Culture. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Rasmussen P. 1989. ‘Leaf-foddering of livestock in the Neolithic: archaeological evidence from Weier, Switzerland’, Journal of Danish Archaeology 8: 5171.
Renfrew C. 1973. Before Civilization: The Radiocarbon Revolution and Prehistoric Europe. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Richards C. 1991. ‘Skara Brae: revisiting a Neolithic village in Orkney’, in Hanson W. and Slater E. A. (eds.), Scottish Archaeology: New Perceptions. Aberdeen University Press, pp. 2443.
Richards C. 1993. ‘Monumental choreography: architecture and spatial representation in Late Neolithic Orkney’, in Tilley C. (ed.), Interpretative Archaeology. Oxford: Berg, pp. 143–80.
Richards C. 1996a. ‘Henges and water: towards an elemental understanding of monumentality and landscape in Late Neolithic Britain’, Journal of Material Culture 1: 313–36.
Richards C. 1996b. ‘Monuments as landscape: creating the centre of the world in Late Neolithic Orkney’, World Archaeology 28: 190208.
Richards C. 2004. ‘Labouring with monuments: constructing the dolmen at Carreg Samson, south-west Wales’, in Cummings V. and Fowler C. (eds.), The Neolithic of the Irish Sea: Materiality and Traditions of Practice. Oxford: Oxbow, pp. 7280.
Richards C. 2013. Building the Great Stone Circles of the North. Oxford: Windgather Press.
Richards C., and Thomas J. 1984. ‘Ritual activity and structured deposition in Later Neolithic Wessex’, in Bradley R. and Gardiner J. (eds.), Neolithic Studies: A Review of Some Current Research. Oxford: Archaeopress. British Archaeological Reports, British Series No. 133, pp. 189218.
Ritchie R. 1992. ‘Stone axeheads and cushion maceheads from Orkney and Shetland: some similarities and contrasts’, in Sharples N. and Sheridan A. (eds.), Vessels for the Ancestors: Essays on the Neolithic of Britain and Ireland in Honour of Audrey Henshall. Edinburgh University Press, pp. 213–20.
Rival L. 1993. ‘The growth of family trees: understanding Huaorani perceptions of the forest’, Man 28: 635–52.
Rival L. (ed.), 1998a. The Social Life of Trees: Anthropological Perspectives on Tree Symbolism. Oxford: Berg.
Rival L. 1998b. ‘Trees, from symbols of life and regeneration to political artefacts’, in Rival L. (ed.), The Social Life of Trees: Anthropological Perspectives on Tree Symbolism. Oxford: Berg, pp. 135.
Robinson D. E. 2003. ‘Neolithic and Bronze Age agriculture in southern Scandinavia – recent archaeobotanical evidence from Denmark’, Environmental Archaeology 8: 145–65.
Robinson D. E., and Dickson J. H. 1988. ‘Vegetational history and land use: a radiocarbon dated pollen diagram from Machrie Moor, Arran, Scotland’, New Phytologist 109: 223–51.
Robinson M. 1992. ‘Environmental archaeology of the river gravels: past achievements and future directions’, in Fulford M. and Nichols E. (eds.). Developing Landscapes of Lowland Britain: The Archaeology of the British Gravels: A Review. London: Society of Antiquaries Occasional Paper 14: 4762.
Robinson M. 2000. ‘Coleoptera evidence for the elm decline, Neolithic activity in woodland, clearance and the use of the landscape’, in Fairbairn A. S. (ed.), Plants in Neolithic Britain and Beyond. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 8591.
Robinson M. 2003. ‘Palaeoenvironmental studies’, in Barclay A. et al. (eds.), Lines in the Landscape: Cursus Monuments in the Upper Thames Valley. Oxford: Oxford Archaeology Thames Valley Landscapes Monograph 15.
Robinson M. 2009. ‘Ena Montana (Drap.) and Neolithic woodland regeneration in southern England’, in M. J. Allen, N. Sharples, and T. O’Connor (eds.), pp. 198–200.
Rønne P. 1979. ‘Høj over høj’, Skalk 5: 38.
Rowley-Conwy P. 1982. ‘Forest grazing and clearance in temperate Europe with special reference to Denmark: an archaeological view’, in Bell M. and Limbrey S. (eds.), Archaeological Aspects of Woodland Ecology. BAR International Series 146. Archaeopress: Oxford, pp. 199215.
Rowley-Conwy P. 2003. ‘No fixed abode? Nomadism in the Northwest European Neolithic’, in Burenhult G. and Westergaard S. (eds.), Stones and Bones: Formal Disposal of the Dead in Atlantic Europe during the Mesolithic-Neolithic Interface 6000–3000 BC. Archaeological Conference in Honour of the Late Professor Michael J. O’Kelly. Oxford: Archaeopress. British Archaeological Reports, pp. 115–44.
Rowley-Conwy P. 2004. ‘How the west was lost: a reconsideration of agricultural origins in Britain, Ireland, and southern Scandinavia’, Current Anthropology 45: 83113.
Rudebeck E. 1998. ‘Flint extraction, axe offering and the value of cortex’, in Edmonds M. and Richards C. (eds.), Understanding the Neolithic of North-Western Europe. Glasgow: Cruithne Press, pp. 312–27.
Sahlins M. 1972. Stone Age Economics. London: Walter de Gruyter & Co.
Saraydar S., and Shimada I. 1971. ‘A quantitative comparison of efficiency between a stone axe and a steel axe’, American Antiquity 36(2): 216–17.
Scarre C. 2001. ‘Modelling prehistoric populations: the case of Neolithic Brittany’, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 20(3): 285313.
Schechner R. 1994. ‘Ritual and performance’, in Ingold T. (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology. London: Routledge, pp. 613–47.
Schulting R., and Wysocki M. 2005. ‘“In this chambered tumulus were found cleft skulls…”: an assessment of the evidence for cranial trauma in the British Neolithic’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 71: 107–38.
Shaffer G., 1993. ‘An archaeomagnetic study of a wattle and daub building collapse’, Journal of Field Archaeology 20: 5975.
Sharpe K. E. 2007. ‘Rock-art and rough outs: the sacred and social dimensions of prehistoric carvings at Copt Howe, Cumbria’, in Mazel A., Nash G., and Waddington C. (eds.), Art as Metaphor: The Prehistoric Rock-Art of Britain. Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 150–73.
Sheridan A. 1992. ‘Scottish stone axeheads: some new work and recent discoveries’, in Sharples N. and Sheridan A. (eds.), Vessels for the Ancestors: Essays on the Neolithic of Britain and Ireland in Honour of Audrey Henshall. Edinburgh University Press, pp. 194212.
Sheridan J. A., and Pailler Y. 2012. Les haches alpines et leurs imitations en Grande Bretagne, Irlande et dans les Iles anglo-normandes, in Pétrequin et al. (eds.), 2012, Jade. Grandes haches alpines du Néolithique européen. Ve et IVe millénaires av. J.-C. Cahiers de la MSHE C.N. Ledoux, Besançon, Presses, pp. 1046–87.
Sherratt A. G. 1981. ‘Plough and pastoralism: aspects of the secondary products revolution’, in Renfrew C. and Shennan S. (eds.), Ranking, Resource and Exchange. Cambridge University Press, pp. 1326.
Shetelig H., and Falk H. 1937. Scandinavian Archaeology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Simmons I. G. 1996. The Environmental Impact of Later Mesolithic Cultures. Edinburgh University Press.
Simmons I. G. 2001. ‘Ecology into landscape: some English moorlands in the later Mesolithic’, Landscapes 2: 4255.
Simpson D. 1996. ‘The Ballygalley houses, Co. Antrim, Ireland’, in Darvill T. and Thomas J. (eds.), Neolithic Houses of Northwest Europe and Beyond. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 123–32.
Simpson I., and Davidson D. 1998. ‘Palaeosols of the Cleaven Dyke’, in Barclay G. J. and Maxwell G. S. (eds.), The Cleaven Dyke and Littleour. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland Monograph Series 13, pp. 3642.
Sjögren K. 2006. Ecology and Economy in Stone Age and Bronze Age Scania. Stockholm: Riksantikvarieämbetet.
Skeates R. 1995. ‘Animate objects: a biography of prehistoric “axe-amulets” in the central Mediterranean region’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 61: 279301.
Skeates R. 2010. An Archaeology of the Senses: Prehistoric Malta. Oxford University Press.
Sloane E. 1965. A Reverence for Wood. New York: Ballantine.
Smith A. G. 1970. ‘The influence of Mesolithic and Neolithic Man on British vegetation: a discussion’, in Walker D. and West R. G. (eds.), Studies in the Vegetational History of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press, pp. 8196.
Smyth J. 2006. ‘The role of the house in early Neolithic Ireland’, European Journal of Archaeology 9(2–3): 229–57.
Smyth J. 2014. Settlement in the Irish Neolithic: New Discoveries at the Edge of Europe. Prehistoric Society Research Paper No. 6. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
Spek T. 2004. Het Drentse esdorpen-landschap: Een historisch-geografische studie. Utrecht: Matrijis.
Steensberg A. 1957. ‘Some recent Danish experiments in Neolithic agriculture’, Agricultural History Review 5(2): 6673.
Steensberg A. 1979. Draved: An Experiment in Stone Age Agriculture, Burning, Sowing and Harvesting. Copenhagen: National Museum of Denmark.
Stevanovic M. 1997. ‘The age of clay: the social dynamics of house destruction’, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 16: 334–95.
Stevens C. J., and Fuller D. Q. 2012. ‘Did Neolithic farming fail? The case for a Bronze Age agricultural revolution in the British Isles’, Antiquity 86: 707–22.
Strathearn M. 1988. The Gender of the Gift: Problems with Women and Problems with Society in Melanesia. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Sturt F. 2006. ‘Local knowledge is required: a rhythmanalytical approach to the late Mesolithic and early Neolithic of the East Anglian Fenland, UK’, Journal of Maritime Archaeology 1(2): 119–39.
Stürup B. 1965. ‘En Ny Jordgrav Fra Tidlig-Neolitisk Tid’, Kuml 1: 1333.
Svenning J. C. 2002. ‘A review of natural vegetation openness in north-western Europe’, Biological Conservation 104: 233–48.
Svensson M. 2002. ‘Palisade enclosures: the second generation of enclosed sites in the Neolithic of northern Europe’, in Gibson A. (ed.), Behind Wooden Walls: Neolithic Palisaded Enclosures in Europe. BAR International Series 1013. Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 2858.
Thomas J. 1990. ‘Silent running: the ills of environmental archaeology’, Scottish Archaeological Review 7: 26.
Thomas J. 1991. Rethinking the Neolithic. Cambridge University Press.
Thomas J. 1996. Time, Culture and Identity: An Interpretative Archaeology. London: Routledge.
Thomas J. 1999. Understanding the Neolithic. London: Routledge.
Thomas J. 2001. ‘Neolithic enclosures: reflection on excavations in Wales and Scotland’, in Darvill T. and Thomas J. (eds.), Neolithic Enclosures in Atlantic Northwest Europe. Oxford: Oxbow, pp. 132–43.
Thomas J. 2004. Archaeology and Modernity. London: Routledge.
Thomas J. 2006. ‘On the origins and development of cursus monuments in Britain’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 72: 229–42.
Thomas J. 2007. Place and Memory: Excavations at the Pict’s Knowe, Holywood and Holm Farm, Dumfries and Galloway, 1994–8. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
Thomas J. 2010. ‘The return of the Rinyo-Clacton Folk? The cultural significance of the Grooved Ware complex in Late Neolithic Britain’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 20(1): 115.
Thomas J. 2013. The Birth of Neolithic Britain: An Interpretative Account. Oxford University Press.
Thomas J., and Tilley C. 1993. ‘The axe and the torso: symbolic structures in the Neolithic of Brittany’, in Tilley C. (ed.), Interpretative Archaeology. Oxford: Berg.
Thomas K. 1984. Man and the Natural World: Changing Attitudes in England 1500–1800. London: Penguin.
Thörn R. 2007. Oresundsförbindelsen och Arkeologin: Det Ideologiska Landskapet. Malmöfynd 12. Malmö: Malmö Kulturmilkö.
Thrift N. 1996. Spatial Formations. London: Sage.
Thrift N. 2007. Non-Representational Theory: Space, Politics, Affect. London: Routledge.
Thrift N. 2009. ‘Understanding the Affective Spaces of Political Performance’ in Bondi L. et al. (eds.), Emotion, Place and Culture. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 7996.
Tilley C. 1991. Material Culture and Text: The Art of Ambiguity. London: Routledge.
Tilley C. 1994. A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places, Paths and Monuments. Oxford: Berg.
Tilley C. 1996. An Ethnography of the Neolithic: Early Prehistoric Societies in Southern Scandinavia. Cambridge University Press.
Tilley C. 2004. The Materiality of Stone: Explorations in Landscape Phenomenology. Oxford: Berg.
Tilley C. 2007. ‘The Neolithic sensory revolution: monumentality and the experience of landscape’, Proceedings of the British Academy 144: 329–45.
Tilley C., Hamilton S., Harrison S., and Anderson E. 2000. ‘Nature, culture, clitter: distinguishing between cultural and geomorphological landscapes; the case of hilltop tors in South-West England’, Journal of Material Culture 16(2): 197224.
Tipping R. 1994. ‘The form and fate of Scotland’s woodlands’, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 124: 154.
Tipping R. 2003. ‘Living in the past: woods and people in prehistory to 1000 BC’, in Smout T. C. (ed.), People and Woods in Scotland: A History. Edinburgh University Press, pp. 1439.
Tipping R. 2004. ‘Interpretative issues concerning the driving forces of vegetation change in the early Holocene of the British Isles’, in Saville A. (ed.), Mesolithic Scotland and Its Neighbours: The Early Holocene Prehistory of Scotland, Its British and Irish Context, and Some Northern European Perspectives. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, pp. 4554.
Tipping R. 2007. ‘Landscape history of the Don Valley and North East Scotland’, in Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCHAMS), In the Shadow of Bennachie: A Field Archaeology of the Valley of the Don. Edinburgh: Stationery Office, pp. 2544.
Tipping R., Bunting M. J., Davies A. L., Murray H., Fraser S., and McCulloch R. 2009. ‘Modelling land use around an early Neolithic timber “hall” in north east Scotland from high spatial resolution pollen analyses’, Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 140–49.
Toolis R. 2011. ‘Neolithic domesticity and other prehistoric anomalies: excavations at Laigh Newton, East Ayrshire’, Scottish Archaeological Internet Report 49: 171.
Toren C. 1995. ‘Seeing the ancestral sites: transformations in Fijian notions of the land’, in Hirsch E. and O’Hanlon M. (eds.), The Anthropology of Landscape: Perspectives on Place and Space. Oxford: Clarendon, pp. 163–83.
Turnbull C. M. 1976. The Forest People. London: Macmillan.
van Beek W. E. A., and Banga P. M. 1992. ‘The Dogon and their trees’, in Croll E. and Parkin D. (eds.), Bush Base: Forest Farm. Culture, Environment and Development. London: Routledge, pp. 5775.
Vera F. W. M. 2000. Grazing Ecology and Forest History. Oxon: Wallingford.
Vyner B. E. 1984. ‘The excavation of a Neolithic cairn at Street House, Loftus, Cleveland’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 50: 151–95.
Waddington C., Bailey G., and Milner N. (eds.). 2007. Mesolithic Settlement in the North Sea Basin: A Case Study from Howick, North-east England. Oxford: Oxbow.
Wainwright G. 1989. The Henge Monuments: Ceremony and Society in Prehistoric Britain. London: Thames and Hudson.
Wainwright G., and Longworth I. 1971. Durrington Walls: Excavations 1966–1968. London: Society of Antiquaries of London.
Waller M. P., and Hamilton S. 2000. ‘Vegetation history of the English chalklands: a mid-Holocene pollen sequence from the Caburn, East Sussex’, Journal of Quaternary Science 15: 253–72.
Warren G. 2005. Mesolithic Lives in Scotland. Stroud: Tempus.
Waterson R. 1997. The Living House: An Anthropology of Architecture in South-East Asia. London: Thames and Hudson.
Waterton E. ‘Landscape and non-representational theories’, in P. Howard, I. Thompson, and E. Waterton (eds.), 2012. The Routledge Companion to Landscape Studies, pp. 66–75.
Waton P. V. 1982. ‘Man’s impact on the chalklands: some new pollen evidence’, in M. Bell and S. Limbrey (eds.), Archaeological Aspects of Woodland Ecology. BAR International Series 146, pp. 75–91.
Watson A., 2001. ‘Composing Avebury’, World Archaeology 33(2): 296314.
Watson A., and Keating D. 1999. ‘Architecture and sound: an acoustic analysis of megalithic monuments in prehistoric Britain’, Antiquity 73: 325–36.
Watts C. (ed.). 2013. Relational Archaeologies: Humans, Animals, Things. London: Routledge.
Waughman M. 2005. Archaeology and Environment of Submerged Landscapes in Hartlepool Bay, England. Tees Archaeology Monograph Series.
Webmoor T., and Witmore C. L. 2008. ‘Things are us! A commentary on human/thing relations under the banner of a “social” archaeology’, Norwegian Archaeological Review 41(1): 5370.
Wentink K. 2008. ‘Crafting axes, producing meaning. Neolithic axe depositions in the northern Netherlands’, Archaeological Dialogues 15(2): 151–73.
Whatmore S. 2002. Hybrid Geographies: Natures, Cultures, Spaces. London: Sage.
Whitehouse N. J., 2006. ‘The Holocene British and Irish ancient woodland fossil beetle fauna: implications for woodland history, biodiversity and faunal colonisation’, Quaternary Science Review 25: 1755–89.
Whitehouse N. J., Schulting R. J., McClatchie M., Barratt P., Rowan McLaughlin T., Bogaard A., Colledge S., Marchant R., Gaffrey J., and Jane Bunting M. 2013. Neolithic agriculture on the European western frontier: the boom and bust of early farming in Ireland, Journal of Archaeological Science 30: 125.
Whitehouse N. J., and Smith D. 2010. ‘How fragmented was the British Holocene wildwood? Perspectives on the “Vera” grazing debate from the fossil beetle record’, Quaternary Science Reviews 29: 539–53.
Whitley J. 2002. ‘Too many ancestors’, Antiquity 76: 119–26.
Whittington G., and Edwards K. J. 1994. ‘Palynology as a predictive tool in archaeology’, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 124: 5566.
Whittle A. 1991. ‘Wayland’s Smithy, Oxfordshire: excavations at the Neolithic tomb in 1962–3 by R. J. C. Atkinson and S. Piggott’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 57: 61101.
Whittle A. 1995. ‘Gifts from the earth: symbolic dimensions of the use and production of Neolithic flint and stone axes’, Archaeologia Polona 33: 247–59.
Whittle A. 1996. Europe in the Neolithic: The Creation of New Worlds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Whittle A. 1998. ‘People and the diverse past: two comments on ‘Stonehenge for the ancestorsAntiquity 72: 852–4.
Whittle A. 2000. ‘Very like a whale’: menhirs, motifs and myths in the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition of Northwest Europe’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 10(2): 243–59.
Whittle A., Atkinson R. J. C., Chambers R., and Thomas N. 1992. ‘Excavations I the Neolithic and Bronze Age complex at Dorchester-on-Thames, Oxfordshire, 1947–1952 and 1981Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 58: 143201.
Whittle A., Bayliss A., and Wysocki M. 2007. ‘Once in a lifetime: the date of the Wayland’s Smithy long barrow’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 17(S1): 103–21.
Whittle A., Healy F., and Bayliss A. 2011. Gathering Time: Dating the Early Neolithic Enclosures of Southern Britain and Ireland. Oxford: Oxbow.
Whittle A., Pollard J., and Grigson C. 1991. The Harmony of Symbols: The Windmill Hill Causewayed Enclosure, Wiltshire. Oxford: Oxbow.
Wilkinson K., and Straker V. 2008. ‘Neolithic and early Bonze Age environmental background’, in Webster C. J. (ed.), The Archaeology of South West England: South West Archaeological Research Framework, Resource Assessment and Research Agenda. Taunton: Somerset County Council, pp. 6374.
Williams M. 2000. ‘Dark ages and dark areas: global deforestation in the deep past’, Journal of Historical Geography 26(1): 2846.
Williams M. 2003. ‘Growing metaphors: the agricultural cycle as metaphor in the later prehistoric period of Britain and North-Western Europe’, Journal of Social Archaeology 3: 223–55.
Witmore C. L. 2007. ‘Symmetrical archaeology: excerpts of a manifesto’, World Archaeology 39(4): 546–62.
Woodman P. 1985. Excavations at Mount Sandel 1973–77. Northern Ireland Archaeological Monographs 2. Belfast: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.
Woodward P. J., Davies S. M., and Graham A. H. 1993. Excavations at the Old Methodist Chapel and Greyhound Yard, Dorchester, 1981–1984. Dorchester: Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, Monograph Series 12.
Wringham R., and Carmody R. 2010. ‘Human adaptation to the control of fire’, Evolutionary Anthropology 19: 187–99.
Wysocki M., Bayliss A., and Whittle A. 2007. ‘Serious mortality: the date of the Fussell’s Lodge long barrow’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 17: 6584.
Wysocki M., and Whittle A. 2000. ‘Diversity, lifestyles and rites: new biological and archaeological evidence from British Earlier Neolithic mortuary assemblages’, Antiquity 74: 591601.
Zvelebil M., and Rowley-Conwy P. 1984. ‘Transition to farming in northern Europe: a hunter-gatherer perspective’, Norwegian Archaeological Review 17: 104–27.