Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-7479d7b7d-m9pkr Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-14T07:23:41.296Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Adaptive Governance to Manage Human Mobility and Natural Resource Stress

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 January 2023

Saleem H. Ali
University of Delaware
Martin Clifford
University of Delaware
Dominic Kniveton
University of Sussex
Caroline Zickgraf
Université de Liège, Belgium
Sonja Ayeb-Karlsson
University College London and United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security, Bonn


Connections between resources and migration operate as a complex adaptive system rather than being premised in linear, causal mechanisms. The systems thinking advocated within this Element increases the inclusion of socio-psychological, financial, demographic, environmental and political dimensions that mediate resource-(im)mobility pathways. The Earth Systems Governance paradigm provides a way to manage global migration flows more effectively, allowing for consideration of networks and interdependencies in addition to its inherent adaptiveness. Resource rushes, hydropower displacement, and climate-induced retreat from coastal areas are all examples of circumstances linking resources and human mobility. Movement can also ameliorate environmental conditions and hence close monitoring of impacts and policies which harness benefits of migration is advocated. Green remittance bonds, and land tenure policies favoring better arable resource usage are key ingredients of a more systems-oriented approach to managing mobility. The Global Compact on Migration offers an opportunity to operationalize such adaptive governance approaches in the Anthropocene.
Get access
Online ISBN: 9781009357708
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication: 09 February 2023

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abbas Khan, K., Zaman, K., Shoukry, A. M. et al. (2019). Natural disasters and economic losses: Controlling external migration, energy and environmental resources, water demand, and financial development for global prosperity. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(14), 1428714299. ScholarPubMed
Abdul-Rahim, A., Sun, C., & Noraida, A. (2018). The impact of soil and water conservation on agricultural economic growth and rural poverty reduction in China. Sustainability, 10(12), 4444. Scholar
Adams, R. H. (2007). International remittances and the household: Analysis and review of global evidence. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, 4116, 32.Google Scholar
Adger, W.N., Pulhin, J.M., Barnett, J., Dabelko, G.D., Hovelsrud, G.K., Levy, M., Oswald Spring, Ú, and Vogel, C.H.. (2014). Human security. In Field, C.B., Barros, V.R., Dokken, D.J., Mach, K.J., Mastrandrea, M.D., Bilir, T.E., Chatterjee, M., Ebi, K.L., Estrada, Y.O., Genova, R.C., Girma, B., Kissel, E.S., Levy, A.N., MacCracken, S., Mastrandrea, P.R., and White, L.L. (Eds.), Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (pp. 755–791). Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Adger, W. N. (2006). Vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 268281. Scholar
Adger, W. N., de Campos, R. S., Codjoe, S. N. A. et al. (2021). Perceived environmental risks and insecurity reduce future migration intentions in hazardous migration source areas. One Earth, 4(1), 146157. Scholar
Afifi, T. (2011). Economic or Environmental Migration? The Push Factors in Niger. International Migration, 49(s1), 95124. Scholar
Afifi, T., Liwenga, E., & Kwezi, L. (2014). Rainfall-induced crop failure, food insecurity and out-migration in Same-Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Climate and Development, 6(1), 5360. Scholar
Ahmed, I., Ayeb-Karlsson, S., van der Geest, K., Huq, S., & Jordan, J. C. (2019). Climate change, environmental stress and loss of livelihoods can push people towards illegal activities: A case study from coastal Bangladesh. Climate and Development, 11(10), 907917. Scholar
Albaladejo, J., Díaz-Pereira, E., & de Vente, J. (2021). Eco-holistic soil conservation to support land degradation neutrality and the sustainable development goals. CATENA, 196, 104823. Scholar
Alden Wily, L. (2018). Risks to the sanctity of community lands in Kenya. A critical assessment of new legislation with reference to forestlands. Land Use Policy, 75, 661672. Scholar
Amoah, N., & Stemn, E. (2018). Siting a centralised processing centre for artisanal and small-scale mining – A spatial multi-criteria approach. Journal of Sustainable Mining, 17(4), 215225. Scholar
Audia, C., Visman, E., Fox, G., Mwangi, E., Kilavi, M., Arango, M., Ayeb-Karlsson, S., & Kniveton, D. (2021). Decision-making heuristics for managing climate-related risks: introducing equity to the FREE framework. In Conway, D. & Vincent, K. (Eds.), Climate Risk in Africa: Adaptation and Resilience (pp. 5776). Springer International Publishing. Scholar
Ayeb-Karlsson, S., Hayward, G., & Kniveton, D. (forthcoming). A systems analysis of the complex pathways linking natural resources and human (im)mobility in the Sahel region. Working Paper 1.1.Google Scholar
Ayeb-Karlsson, S., Smith, C. D., & Kniveton, D. (2018). A discursive review of the textual use of ‘trapped’ in environmental migration studies: The conceptual birth and troubled teenage years of trapped populations. Ambio, 47(5), 557573. Scholar
Ayeb-Karlsson, S., van der Geest, K., Ahmed, I., Huq, S., & Warner, K. (2016). A people-centred perspective on climate change, environmental stress, and livelihood resilience in Bangladesh. Sustainability Science, 11(4), 679694. Scholar
Baldwin, A., Fröhlich, C., & Rothe, D. (2019). From climate migration to anthropocene mobilities: Shifting the debate. Mobilities, 14(3), 289297. Scholar
Baldwin, A., Methmann, C., & Rothe, D. (2014). Securitizing ‘climate refugees’: The futurology of climate-induced migration. Critical Studies on Security, 2(2), 121130. Scholar
Banerjee, S., Kniveton, D., Black, R. et al. (2017). Do Financial Remittances Build Household- Level Adaptive Capacity? A Case Study of Flood-Affected Households in India. KNOMAD WORKING PAPER 18. Scholar
Barrett, C. B., & Bevis, L. E. M. (2015). The self-reinforcing feedback between low soil fertility and chronic poverty. Nature Geoscience, 8(12), 907912. Scholar
Barnett, J., & O’Neill, S. (2010). Maladaptation. Global Environmental Change, 20(2), 211213. Scholar
Beine, M., & Parsons, C. (2015). Climatic factors as determinants of international migration. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 117(2), 723767. Scholar
Berkes, F., Colding, J., & Folke, C. (Eds.). (2002). Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change. Cambridge University Press. Scholar
Bermeo, S. B., & Leblang, D. (2015). Migration and foreign aid. International Organization, 69(3), 627657. Scholar
Berry, H. L., Waite, T. D., Dear, K. B. G., Capon, A. G., & Murray, V. (2018). The case for systems thinking about climate change and mental health. Nature Climate Change, 8(4), 282290. Scholar
Biermann, F. (2007). ‘Earth system governance’ as a crosscutting theme of global change research. Global Environmental Change, 17 (3–4), 326337. Scholar
Biermann, F. (2010). Earth system governance and the social sciences. In Gross, M. & Heinrichs, H. (Eds.), Environmental Sociology: European Perspectives and Interdisciplinary Challenges (pp. 5978). Springer. Scholar
Biermann, F., Abbott, K., Andresen, S. et al. (2012). Navigating the anthropocene: Improving earth system governance. Science, 335(6074), 13061307. Scholar
Biermann, F., Betsill, M. M., Gupta, J. et al. (2010). Earth system governance: A research framework. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 10(4), 277298. Scholar
Biermann, F., & Kalfagianni, A. (2020). Planetary justice: A research framework. Exploring Planetary Justice, 6, 100049. Scholar
Biermann, F., Kanie, N., & Kim, R. E. (2017). Global governance by goal-setting: The novel approach of the UN sustainable development goals. Open Issue, Part II, 26–27, 2631. Scholar
Biermann, F., & Kim, R. E. (Eds.). (2020). Architectures of Earth System Governance: Institutional Complexity and Structural Transformation (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. Scholar
Bilsborrow, R. E., & DeLargy, P. F. (1990). Land use, migration, and natural resource deterioration: The experience of Guatemala and the Sudan. Population and Development Review, 16, 125147. Scholar
Biswas, B., & Mallick, B. (2021). Livelihood diversification as key to long-term non-migration: Evidence from coastal Bangladesh. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23(6), 89248948. Scholar
Black, R., Adger, W. N., Arnell, N. W. et al. (2011). The effect of environmental change on human migration. Global Environmental Change, 21, S3S11. Scholar
Black, R., Arnell, N. W., Adger, W. N., Thomas, D., & Geddes, A. (2013). Migration, immobility and displacement outcomes following extreme events. Environmental Science & Policy, 27, S32S43. Scholar
Bohra-Mishra, P., Oppenheimer, M., Cai, R., Feng, S., & Licker, R. (2017). Climate variability and migration in the Philippines. Population and Environment, 38(3), 286308. Scopus. Scholar
Borrelli, P., Robinson, D. A., Fleischer, L. R. et al. (2017). An assessment of the global impact of 21st century land use change on soil erosion. Nature Communications, 8(1), 2013. Scholar
Borrelli, P., Robinson, D. A., Panagos, P. et al. (2020). Land use and climate change impacts on global soil erosion by water (2015–2070). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(36), 2199422001. Scholar
Brown, O. (2008). Migration and Climate Change (IOM Migration Research Series). International Organization for Migration (IOM).Google Scholar
Brown, O., & McLeman, R. (2013). Climate change and migration: An overview. In Ness, I. (ed) The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration. Blackwell. Scholar
Burch, S., Gupta, A., Inoue, C. Y. A. et al. (2019). New directions in earth system governance research. Earth System Governance, 1, 100006. Scholar
Burkett, M. (2015). Rehabilitation: A proposal for a climate compensation mechanism for small Island states. Santa Clara Journal of International Law, 13(1), 81124.Google Scholar
Cai, R., Feng, S., Oppenheimer, M., & Pytlikova, M. (2016). Climate variability and international migration: The importance of the agricultural linkage. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 79, 135151. Scholar
Brief, Carbon. (2017). Explainer: Dealing with the ‘Loss and Damage’ Caused by Climate Change. Carbon Brief. Scholar
Cardona, O.-D., van Aalst, M. K., Birkmann, J. et al. (2012). Determinants of risk: Exposure and vulnerability. In Field, C. B., Barros, V., Stocker, T. F., & Dahe, Q. (Eds.), Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (pp. 65108). Cambridge University Press. Scholar
Carey, J. (2020). Core Concept: Managed retreat increasingly seen as necessary in response to climate change’s fury. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(24), 13182. Scholar
Cattaneo, C., Beine, M., Fröhlich, C. J. et al. (2019). Human migration in the era of climate change. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 13(2), 189206. Scholar
Clifford, M. J. (2014). Future strategies for tackling mercury pollution in the artisanal gold mining sector: Making the minamata convention work. Futures, 62, 106112. Scholar
Dalby, S. (2002). Environmental Security. University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
de Haas, H. (2010). Migration and development: A theoretical perspective. International Migration Review, 44(1), 227264. Scholar
De Santo, E. M., Ásgeirsdóttir, Á., Barros-Platiau, A. et al. (2019). Protecting biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction: An earth system governance perspective. Earth System Governance, 2, 100029. Scholar
Dirth, E., Biermann, F., & Kalfagianni, A. (2020). What do researchers mean when talking about justice? An empirical review of justice narratives in global change research. Exploring Planetary Justice, 6, 100042. Scholar
Döös, B. R. (1997). Can large-scale environmental migrations be predicted? Global Environmental Change, 7(1), 4161. Scholar
Duit, A., Galaz, V., Eckerberg, K., & Ebbesson, J. (2010). Governance, complexity, and resilience. Governance, Complexity and Resilience, 20(3), 363368. Scholar
Dun, O. (2011). Migration and displacement triggered by floods in the Mekong Delta. International Migration, 49 (SUPPL.1), e200e223. Scholar
Earth Systems Governance. (2022). New Earth Systems Governance Science and Implementation Plan. 15 August 2022.Google Scholar
Eriksen, S., Schipper, E. L. F., Scoville-Simonds, M. et al. (2021). Adaptation interventions and their effect on vulnerability in developing countries: Help, hindrance or irrelevance? World Development, 141, 105383. Scholar
FAO (Ed.). (2017a). The Future of Food and Agriculture: Trends and Challenges. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
FAO. (2017b). Water for Sustainable Food and Agriculture: A Report Produced for the G20 Presidency of Germany. FAO. Scholar
Felgentreff, C., & Pott, A. (2016). Climatic turn in migration studies? Geographical perspectives on the relationship between climate and migration. Erde, 147(2), 7380. Scholar
Feng, S., Krueger, A. B., & Oppenheimer, M. (2010). Linkages among climate change, crop yields and Mexico-US cross-border migration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(32), 1425714262. ScholarPubMed
Foresight. (2011). Foresight: Migration and Global Environmental Change. UK Government Office for Science, London. Scholar
Gemenne, F., Blocher, J., De Longueville, F. et al. (2017). Climate change, natural disasters and population displacements in West Africa. Geo-Eco-Trop, 41(3), 317337.Google Scholar
Giampietro, M. (2019). Multi-Scale Integrated Analysis of Agroecosystems. CRC PRESS.Google Scholar
Gottlieb, S. (1999). US government to sue tobacco companies. BMJ, 319(7214), 869869. Scholar
Gray, C. L. (2011). Soil quality and human migration in Kenya and Uganda. Global Environmental Change, 21(2), 421430. Scholar
Gray, C., & Wise, E. (2016). Country-specific effects of climate variability on human migration. Climatic Change, 135(3–4), 555568. Scholar
Greenhill, K. M. (2010). Weapons of Mass Migration (1st ed.). Cornell University Press. Scholar
Gruver, J. B. (2013). Prediction, Prevention and Remediation of Soil Degradation by Water Erosion | Learn Science at Scitable. Nature Education Knowledge.–113130829/.Google Scholar
Guadagno, L. (2017). Human mobility in a socio-environmental context: Complex effects on environmental risk. In Sudmeier-Rieux, K., Fernández, M., Penna, I. M., Jaboyedoff, M., & Gaillard, J. C. (Eds.), Identifying Emerging Issues in Disaster Risk Reduction, Migration, Climate Change and Sustainable Development: Shaping Debates and Policies (pp. 13–31). Springer. Scholar
Gunderson, L. H., & Holling, C. S. (2002). Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems. Island Press; Scholar
Hallegatte, S. (2009). Strategies to adapt to an uncertain climate change. Traditional Peoples and Climate Change, 19(2), 240247. Scholar
Hamilton, L. C., Colocousis, C. R., & Johansen, S. T. F. (2004). Migration from resource depletion: The case of the Faroe Islands. Society & Natural Resources, 17(5), 443453. Scholar
Hayward, G., & Ayeb-Karlsson, S. (2021). ‘Seeing with empty eyes’: A systems approach to understand climate change and mental health in Bangladesh. Climatic Change, 165(1), 29. Scholar
Herrick, J. E., Abrahamse, T., & United Nations Environment Programme. (2019). Land Restoration for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals an International Resource Panel Think Piece. UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya. Scholar
Higgins, D., Balint, T., Liversage, H., & Winters, P. (2018). Investigating the impacts of increased rural land tenure security: A systematic review of the evidence. Journal of Rural Studies, 61, 3462. Scholar
Hilson, G., & Garforth, C. (2012). ‘Agricultural poverty’ and the expansion of artisanal mining in sub-Saharan Africa: Experiences from Southwest Mali and Southeast Ghana. Population Research and Policy Review, 31(3), 435464. Scholar
Hilson, G., & Maponga, O. (2004). How has a shortage of census and geological information impeded the regularization of artisanal and small-scale mining? Natural Resources Forum, 28(1), 2233. Scholar
Hilson, G., & McQuilken, J. (2014). Four decades of support for artisanal and small-scale mining in sub-Saharan Africa: A critical review. The Extractive Industries and Society, 1(1), 104118. Scholar
Huidobro, P., Veiga, M. M., & Adler, S. (2006). Manual for Training Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Miners. GEF/UNDP/UNIDO.Google Scholar
Bryceson, Ian & Massinga, Alfredo. (2002). Coastal resources and management systems influenced by conflict and migration: Mecúfi, Mozambique. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 31(7), 512517. Scholar
IBRD, & World Bank. (2006). Economic Implications of Remittances and Migration. World Bank.Google Scholar
IGF. (2018). Global Trends in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM): A review of key numbers and issues. The International Institute for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, Canada. Scholar
International Organization for Migration and World Food Programme (2022). Understanding the adverse drivers and implications of migration from El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras. Scholar
Ionesco, D., Mokhnacheva, D., & Gemenne, F. (2017). The Atlas of Environmental Migration (1st ed.). Routledge. Scholar
Johnson, S. (19 August 2019). Expatriate workers’ remittances targeted as source of finance. Financial Times. Scholar
Juhola, S., Glaas, E., Linnér, B.-O., & Neset, T.-S. (2016). Redefining maladaptation. Environmental Science & Policy, 55, 135140. Scholar
Kashwan, P., Biermann, F., Gupta, A., & Okereke, C. (2020). Planetary justice: Prioritizing the poor in earth system governance. Exploring Planetary Justice, 6, 100075. Scholar
Kassam, A., Derpsch, R., & Friedrich, T. (2014). Global achievements in soil and water conservation: The case of conservation agriculture. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 2(1), 513. Scholar
Keesstra, S. D., Bouma, J., Wallinga, J. et al. (2016). The significance of soils and soil science towards realization of the United Nations sustainable development goals. SOIL, 2(2), 111128. Scholar
Kniveton, D. R., Smith, C. D., & Black, R. (2012). Emerging migration flows in a changing climate in dryland Africa. Nature Climate Change, 2(6), 444447. Scholar
Kniveton, D., Schmidt-Verkerk, K., Smith, C., & Black, R. (2008). Climate Change and Migration: Improving Methodologies to Estimate Flows IOM Migration Research Series, 33. IOM, Switzerland. Scholar
Kotzé, L. J., Kim, R. E., Blanchard, C. et al. (2022). Earth system law: Exploring new frontiers in legal science. Earth System Governance, 11, 100126. Scholar
Kraly, E. P., & Hovy, B. (2020). Data and research to inform global policy: The global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration. Comparative Migration Studies, 8(1), 11. Scholar
Lanati, M., & Thiele, R. (2018). The impact of foreign aid on migration revisited. World Development, 111, 5974. Scholar
Levitt, P. (1998). Social remittances: Migration driven local-level forms of cultural diffusion. The International Migration Review, 32(4), 926948. Scholar
Ma, X., Heerink, N., Feng, S., & Shi, X. (2015). Farmland tenure in China: Comparing legal, actual and perceived security. Land Use Policy, 42, 293306. Scholar
Mace, M. J., & Verheyen, R. (2016). Loss, damage and responsibility after COP21: All options open for the Paris agreement. Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law, 25(2), 197214. Scholar
Maclin, B. J., Kelly, J. T. D., Perks, R., Vinck, P., & Pham, P. (2017). Moving to the mines: Motivations of men and women for migration to artisanal and small-scale mining sites in Eastern democratic republic of the Congo. Resources Policy, 51, 115122. Scholar
Magnan, A., & Mainguy, G. (2014). Avoiding maladaptation to climate change: Towards guiding principles. S.A.P.I.EN.S. Surveys and Perspectives Integrating Environment and Society, 7.1, Article 7.1: 1–11 Scholar
Magnan, A. K., Schipper, E. L. F., Burkett, M. et al. (2016). Addressing the risk of maladaptation to climate change. WIREs Climate Change, 7(5), 646665. Scholar
Makhetha, E. (2020). Artisanal miners, migration and remittances in Southern Africa. In Moyo, I., Nshimbi, C. C., & Laine, J. P. (Eds.), Migration Conundrums, Regional Integration and Development: Africa-Europe Relations in a Changing Global Order (pp. 257270). Springer. Scholar
Mayumi, K., & Giampietro, M. (2006). The epistemological challenge of self-modifying systems: Governance and sustainability in the post-normal science era. Ecological Economics, 57(3), 382399. Scholar
Mbonile, M. J. (2005). Migration and intensification of water conflicts in the Pangani Basin, Tanzania. Habitat International, 29(1), 4167. Scholar
McAdam, J. (2009). Environmental migration governance. UNSW Law Research Paper No. 2009-1: 34pp. Scholar
McAdam, J. (2019). The global compacts on refugees and migration: A new era for international protection? International Journal of Refugee Law, 30(4), 571574. Scholar
McDaniels, J., Chouinard, R., & Veiga, M. M. (2010). Appraising the global mercury project: An adaptive management approach to combating mercury pollution in small-scale gold mining. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 41(3/4), 242. Scholar
McLeman, R., & Gemenne, F. (2018). Environmental migration research: Evolution and current state of the science. Chapter 1 In McLeman, R. & Gemenne, F. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Environmental Displacement and Migration. Routledge.Google Scholar
McLeman, R., Opatowski, M., Borova, B., & Walton-Roberts, M. (2016). Environmental migration and displacement: What we know and don’t know (p. 28). Wilfred Laurier University. Scholar
Morris, R. (2012). Scoping Study: Impact of Fly-in Fly-out/Drive-in Drive-out Work Practices on Local Government. Australian Centre of Excellence for Local Government, University of Technology, Sydney. Scholar
Mullan, K., Grosjean, P., & Kontoleon, A. (2011). Land tenure arrangements and rural–urban migration in China. World Development, 39(1), 123133. Scholar
Nawrotzki, R. J., Runfola, D. M., Hunter, L. M., & Riosmena, F. (2016). Domestic and international climate migration from rural Mexico. Human Ecology, 44(6), 687699. Scholar
Nicholson, C. T. M. (2014). Climate change and the politics of causal reasoning: The case of climate change and migration: Climate change and the politics of causal reasoning. The Geographical Journal, 180(2), 151160. Scholar
Nishimura, L. (2015). ‘Climate change migrants’: Impediments to a protection framework and the need to incorporate migration into climate change adaptation strategies. International Journal of Refugee Law, 27(1), 107134. Scopus. Scholar
Nyame, F. K., Andrew Grant, J., & Yakovleva, N. (2009). Perspectives on migration patterns in Ghana’s mining industry. Small-Scale Mining, Poverty and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa, 34(1), 611. Scholar
Nyantakyi-Frimpong, H., & Bezner Kerr, R. (2017). Land grabbing, social differentiation, intensified migration and food security in northern Ghana. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 44(2), 421444. Scholar
Obokata, R., Veronis, L., & McLeman, R. (2014). Empirical research on international environmental migration: A systematic review. Population and Environment, 36(1), 111135. Scholar
OECD. (2010). Sustainable Management of Water Resources in Agriculture. OECD. Scholar
Orievulu, K., Ayeb-Karlsson, S., Ngema, S. et al. (2020). Exploring linkages between drought and HIV treatment adherence in Africa: A Systematic Review [Preprint]. HIV/AIDS. Scholar
Pachauri, R. K., Mayer, L., & Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Eds.). (2015). Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.Google Scholar
Pierre-Nathoniel, D., Siegele, L., Roper, L.-A., & Menke, I. (2019). Loss and Damage at COP25: A Hard Fought Step in the Right Direction. Climate Analytics Blog. Scholar
Piguet, E. (2010). Linking climate change, environmental degradation, and migration: A methodological overview. WIREs Climate Change, 1(4), 517524. Scholar
Piguet, E. (2021). Linking climate change, environmental degradation, and migration: An update after 10 years. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 13( 1), e746. Scholar
Preiser, R., Biggs, R., De Vos, A., & Folke, C. (2018). Social-ecological systems as complex adaptive systems: Organizing principles for advancing research methods and approaches. Ecology and Society, 23(4), art46. Scholar
Rahman, H. M. T., & Hickey, G. M. (2020). An analytical framework for assessing context-specific rural livelihood vulnerability. Sustainability, 12(14), 5654. Scholar
Ramalingam, B. (2013). Aid on the Edge of Chaos: Rethinking International Cooperation in a Complex World (1st ed.). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Rammel, C., Stagl, S., & Wilfing, H. (2007). Managing complex adaptive systems—A co-evolutionary perspective on natural resource management. Ecological Economics, 63(1), 921. Scholar
Renaud, F. G., Dun, O., Warner, K., & Bogardi, J. (2011). A decision framework for environmentally induced migration. International Migration, 49(s1), e5e29. Scholar
Rigaud, K. K., de Sherbinin, A., Jones, B. et al. (2018). Groundswell: Preparing for Internal Climate Migration. World Bank. Scholar
Roberts, E., & Andrei, S. (2015). The rising tide: Migration as a response to loss and damage from sea level rise in vulnerable communities. International Journal of Global Warming, 8(2), 258. Scholar
Salerno, J., Mwalyoyo, J., Caro, T., Fitzherbert, E., & Mulder, M. B. (2017). The consequences of internal migration in sub-Saharan Africa: A case study. BioScience, 67(7), 664671. Scholar
Salerno, J. D., Mulder, M. B., & Kefauver, S. C. (2014). Human migration, protected areas, and conservation outreach in Tanzania: Human migration and protected areas. Conservation Biology, 28(3), 841850. Scholar
Sardadvar, S., & Vakulenko, E. (2017). A model of interregional migration under the presence of natural resources: Theory and evidence from Russia. The Annals of Regional Science, 59(2), 535569. Scholar
Schade, J. (2016). Land matters: The role of land policies and laws for environmental migration in Kenya. Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Policy Brief Series 1(2), Jan. 2016. Scholar
Scherr, S., & Yadav, S. (1996). Land Degradation in the Developing World: Implications for Food, Agriculture, and the Environment to 2020 (p. 42). International Food Policy Research Institute. Scholar
Schipper, E. L. F. (2020). Maladaptation: When adaptation to climate change goes very wrong. One Earth, 3(4), 409414. Scholar
Sheller, M. (2018). Mobility Justice: The Politics of Movement in the Age of Extremes. Verso.Google Scholar
Sheller, M. (2020). Mobility Justice: The Politics of Movement in an Age of Extremes. Verso.Google Scholar
Siebenhüner, B., Djalante, R., Jager, N. W., & King, J. P. (2021). Adaptiveness in earth system governance: Synthesis, policy relevance, and the way forward. In Siebenhüner, B. & Djalante, R. (Eds.), Adaptiveness: Changing Earth System Governance (pp. 188200). Cambridge University Press. Scholar
Simbizi, M. C. D., Bennett, R. M., & Zevenbergen, J. (2014). Land tenure security: Revisiting and refining the concept for sub-Saharan Africa’s rural poor. Land Use Policy, 36, 231238. Scholar
Telmer, K. H., & Veiga, M. M. (2009). World emissions of mercury from artisanal and small scale gold mining. In Mason, R. & Pirrone, N. (Eds.), Mercury Fate and Transport in the Global Atmosphere: Emissions, Measurements and Models (pp. 131172). Springer. Scholar
Tseng, T.-W. J., Robinson, B. E., Bellemare, M. F. et al. (2020). Influence of land tenure interventions on human well-being and environmental outcomes. Nature Sustainability, 4: 242251 Scholar
UNCCD. (2014). Land-based adaptation and Resilience: Powered by Nature. UNCCD. Scholar
UNDRR. (2022). Chart of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. 15 August 2022.Google Scholar
UNFCCC. (2021). Approaches to Address Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts in Developing Countries. UNFCCC.–4.Google Scholar
United Nations (Ed.). (2016). Climate Change Resilience: An Opportunity for Reducing Inequalities. United Nations.Google Scholar
Upadhyay, H., Kelman, I., Lingaraj, G. J. et al. (2015). Conceptualizing and contextualizing research and policy for links between climate change and migration. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, 7(3), 394417. Scholar
van den Hoek, R., Murillo-Sandoval, P., Landon Crumley, R., Devenish, A., Fein, F., Kennedy, R.E., Ichien, S., Wrathall, D. & Harris, T. (2018). Refugee Camps as Climate Traps: Measuring the Enviro-climatic Marginality of 922 Global Refugee Camps with Satellite Time Series Data. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting, December 2018. Scholar
van der Hel, S., & Biermann, F. (2017). The authority of science in sustainability governance: A structured comparison of six science institutions engaged with the sustainable development goals. Environmental Science & Policy, 77, 211220. Scholar
van der Vliet, J., & Biermann, F. (2022). Global governance of climate migrants: A critical evaluation of the global compacts. In Kent, A. & Behrman, S. (Eds.), Climate Refugees: Global, Local and Critical Approaches (pp. 6082). Cambridge University Press. Scholar
Van Praag, L., & Timmerman, C. (2019). Environmental migration and displacement: A new theoretical framework for the study of migration aspirations in response to environmental changes. Environmental Sociology, 5(4), 352361. Scholar
Vigil, S. (2018). Green grabbing-induced displacement. In McLeman, R. & Gemenne, F. (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Environmental Displacement and Migration (1st ed., pp. 370387). Routledge. Scholar
Vlassopoulos, C. A. (2013). Defining environmental migration in the climate change era: Problem, consequence or solution? In Faist, T. & Schade, J. (Eds.), Disentangling Migration and Climate Change (pp. 145163). Springer. Scholar
Wewerinke-Singh, M., & Salili, D. H. (2020). Between negotiations and litigation: Vanuatu’s perspective on loss and damage from climate change. Climate Policy, 20(6), 681692. Scholar
Wiek, A., & Walter, A. I. (2009). A transdisciplinary approach for formalized integrated planning and decision-making in complex systems. European Journal of Operational Research, 197(1), 360370. Scholar
Wilson, J. (2020). Temporary Protected Status: Overview and Current Issues. Congressional Research Service, p. 21. Scholar
Zhang, H., Yan, W., Oba, A., & Zhang, W. (2014). Radiation-driven migration: The case of Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima nuclear accident. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(9), 92869305. Scholar
Zickgraf, C. (2019). Keeping people in place: Political factors of (im)mobility and climate change. Social Sciences, 8(8), 228. Scholar

Save element to Kindle

To save this element to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Adaptive Governance to Manage Human Mobility and Natural Resource Stress
Available formats

Save element to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Adaptive Governance to Manage Human Mobility and Natural Resource Stress
Available formats

Save element to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Adaptive Governance to Manage Human Mobility and Natural Resource Stress
Available formats