Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-n6p7q Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-21T17:48:39.464Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Facts, Conventions, and the Levels of Selection

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 August 2021

Pierrick Bourrat
Affiliation:
Macquarie University, Sydney

Summary

Debates concerning the units and levels of selection have persisted for over fifty years. One major question in this literature is whether units and levels of selection are genuine, in the sense that they are objective features of the world, or merely reflect the interests and goals of an observer. Scientists and philosophers have proposed a range of answers to this question. This Element introduces this literature and proposes a novel contribution. It defends a realist stance and offers a way of delineating genuine levels of selection by invoking the notion of a functional unit.
Get access
Type
Element
Information
Online ISBN: 9781108885812
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication: 23 September 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Bibliography

Abrams, Marshall. (2009). “Fitness ‘Kinematics’: Biological Function, Altruism, and Organism–Environment Development.” Biology & Philosophy 24.4, pp. 487504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arnold, Anthony J. and Fristrup, Kurt. (1982). “The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection: A Hierarchical Expansion.” Paleobiology 8.2, pp. 113129.Google Scholar
Aspi, Jouni et al. (2003). “Multilevel Phenotypic Selection on Morphological Characters in a Metapopulation of Silene Tatarica.” Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution 57.3, pp. 509517.Google Scholar
Barker, Matthew J. and Velasco, Joel D.. (2013). “Deep Conventionalism about Evolutionary Groups.” Philosophy of Science 80.5, pp. 971982.Google Scholar
Birch, Jonathan. (2017). “Kin Selection, Group Selection, and the Varieties of Population Structure.” The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71.1, pp. 259286.Google Scholar
Birch, Jonathan. (2019). “Are Kin and Group Selection Rivals or Friends?Current Biology 29.11, R433R438.Google Scholar
Bonner, John Tyler. (2009). The Social Amoebae – The Biology of Cellular Slime Molds. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Bouchard, Frédéric. (2008). “Causal Processes, Fitness, and the Differential Persistence of Lineages.” Philosophy of Science 75.5, pp. 560570.Google Scholar
Bouchard, Frédéric. (2010). “Symbiosis, Lateral Function Transfer and the (Many) Saplings of Life.” Biology & Philosophy 25.4, pp. 623641.Google Scholar
Bouchard, Frédéric. (2011). “Darwinism without Populations: A More Inclusive Understanding of the ‘Survival of the Fittest’.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42.1, pp. 106114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bouchard, Frédéric and Rosenberg, Alex. (2004). “Fitness, Probability and the Principles of Natural Selection.” The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55.4, pp. 693712.Google Scholar
Bourke, Andrew F. G. (2011). Principles of Social Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Bourrat, Pierrick. (2021). “Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality: A Formal Analysis.” Synthese 198.7 pp. 36993731.Google Scholar
Bourrat, Pierrick. (2015a). “Distinguishing Natural Selection from Other Evolutionary Processes in the Evolution of Altruism.” Biological Theory 10.4, pp. 311321.Google Scholar
Bourrat, Pierrick. (2015b). “Levels of Selection Are Artefacts of Different Fitness Temporal Measures.” Ratio 28.1, pp. 4050.Google Scholar
Bourrat, Pierrick. (2015c). “Levels, Time and Fitness in Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality.” Philosophy & Theory in Biology 7:e601.Google Scholar
Bourrat, Pierrick. 2016). “Generalizing Contextual Analysis.” Acta Biotheoretica 64.2, pp. 197217.Google Scholar
Bourrat, Pierrick. (2017). “Explaining Drift from a Deterministic Setting.” Biological Theory 12, pp. 2738.Google Scholar
Bourrat, Pierrick. (2019a). Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality as Transitions in Functional Non-Aggregativity. Evolution of Complex Life Conference, Atlanta.Google Scholar
Bourrat, Pierrick. (2019b). “Natural Selection and the Reference Grain Problem.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A, 80, pp. 18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bourrat, Pierrick and Griffiths, Paul E.. (2018). “Multispecies Individuals.” History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40.2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40656-018-0194-1Google Scholar
Boyd, Lawrence H. and Iversen, Gudmund R.. (1979). Contextual Analysis: Concepts and Statistical Techniques. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.Google Scholar
Brandon, Robert N. (1982). “The Levels of Selection.” PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982, pp. 315323.Google Scholar
Brandon, Robert N. (1988). “The Levels of Selection: A Hierarchy of Interactors.” The Role of Behavior in Evolution. Ed. by Plotkin, Henry C.. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, pp. 5171.Google Scholar
Brandon, Robert N. (1990). Adaptation and Environment. English. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Caro, Tim et al. (2014). “The Function of Zebra Stripes.” Nature Communications 5.1, pp. 110.Google Scholar
Cheverud, James M. and Routman, Eric J.. (1995). “Epistasis and Its Contribution to Genetic Variance Components.” Genetics 139.3, pp. 14551461.Google Scholar
Clarke, Ellen. (2011). “Plant Individuality and Multilevel Selection Theory.” In Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, pp. 227250.Google Scholar
Clarke, Ellen. (2016). “Levels of Selection in Biofilms: Multispecies Biofilms Are Not Evolutionary Individuals.” Biology & Philosophy 31.02, pp. 191212.Google Scholar
Corning, Peter. (2003). Nature’s Magic: Synergy in Evolution and the Fate of Humankind. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Corning, Peter. (2010). Holistic Darwinism: Synergy, Cybernetics, and the Bioeconomics of Evolution. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Corning, Peter A. and Szathmáry, Eörs. (2015). “ ‘Synergistic Selection’: A Darwinian Frame for the Evolution of Complexity.Journal of Theoretical Biology 371, pp. 4558.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Damuth, John and Heisler, I. Lorraine. (1988). “Alternative Formulations of Multilevel Selection.” Biology and Philosophy 3.4, pp. 407430.Google Scholar
Darwin, Charles. (1859). On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. London: J. Murray.Google Scholar
Darwin, Charles. (1871). The Descent of Man. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
Dawkins, Richard. (1976). The Selfish Gene. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Dawkins, Richard. (1982). The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
De Leeuw, Jan and Meijer, Erik. (2008). “Introduction to Multilevel Analysis.” In Handbook of Multilevel Analysis. Ed. by De Leeuw, Jan and Meijer, Erik. New York: Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, pp. 175.Google Scholar
Doebeli, Michael, Ispolatov, Yaroslav, and Simon, Burt. (2017). “Towards a Mechanistic Foundation of Evolutionary Theory.” In eLife 6. Ed. by Shou, Wenying, e23804. DOI: http://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23804CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doulcier, Guilhem, Takacs, Peter, and Bourrat, Pierrick. (2021). “Taming Fitness: Organism-Environment Interdependencies Preclude Long-Term Fitness Forecasting.” BioEssays 43.1, p. 2000157.Google Scholar
Earnshaw, Eugene. (2015). “Group Selection and Contextual Analysis.” Synthese 192.1, pp. 305316.Google Scholar
Ereshefsky, Marc and Pedroso, Makmiller. (2013). “Biological Individuality: The Case of Biofilms.” Biology & Philosophy 28.2, pp. 331349.Google Scholar
Falconer, Douglas S. and Trudy, F. C. Mackay. (1996). Introduction to Quantitative Genetics (4th Edn). Essex: Longman.Google Scholar
Falk, Raphal and Sarkar, Sahotra. (1992). “Harmony from Discord.” Biology and Philosophy 7.4, pp. 463472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fisher, Ronald A. (1930). The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection: A Complete Variorum Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Fisher, Ronald A. (1941). “Average Excess and Average Effect of a Gene Substitution.” Annals of Eugenics 11.1, pp. 5363.Google Scholar
Frank, Steven A. (1998). Foundations of Social Evolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Frank, Steven A. (2012). “Natural Selection. IV. The Price Equation.” Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25.6, pp. 10021019.Google Scholar
Gannett, Lisa. (2003). “Making Populations: Bounding Genes in Space and in Time.” Philosophy of Science 70.5, pp. 9891001.Google Scholar
Gardner, Andy. (2015). “The Genetical Theory of Multilevel Selection.” Journal of Evolutionary Biology 28.2, pp. 305319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glymour, Bruce. (2008). “Correlated Interaction and Group Selection.” The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59.4, pp. 835855.Google Scholar
Glymour, Bruce. (2017). “Cross-Unit Causation and the Identity of Groups.” Philosophy of Science 84.4, pp. 717736.Google Scholar
Godfrey-Smith, Peter. (1992). “Additivity and the Units of Selection.” PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992, pp. 315328.Google Scholar
Godfrey-Smith, Peter. (2006). “Local Interaction, Multilevel Selection, and Evolutionary Transitions.” Biological Theory 1.4, pp. 372380.Google Scholar
Godfrey-Smith, Peter. (2008). “Varieties of Population Structure and the Levels of Selection.” The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59.1, pp. 2550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Godfrey-Smith, Peter. (2009). Darwinian Populations and Natural Selection. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Goldstein, Harvey. (2011). Multilevel Statistical Models. 4th ed. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Goodnight, Charles J., Schwartz, James M., and Stevens, Lori. (1992). “Contextual Analysis of Models of Group Selection, Soft Selection, Hard Selection and the Evolution of Altruism.” American Naturalist 140.5, pp. 743761.Google Scholar
Goodnight, Charles J. and Stevens, Lori. (1997). “Experimental Studies of Group Selection: What Do They Tell Us about Group Selection in Nature?The American Naturalist 150.S1, s59s79.Google Scholar
Goodnight, Charles. (2020). “The Theory of Multilevel Selection”. In The Theory of Evolution: Principles, Concepts, and Assumptions. Ed. by Scheiner, Samuel M. and Mindell, David P.. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, pp. 194210.Google Scholar
Grafen, Alan. (1985). “A Geometric View of Relatedness.” Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology 2.2, pp. 2889.Google Scholar
Griesemer, James R. (2000). “The Units of Evolutionary Transition.” Selection 1.1–3, pp. 6780.Google Scholar
Griesemer, James R. (2005). “The Informational Gene and the Substantial Body: On the Generalization of Evolutionary Theory by Abstraction.” In Idealization XII: Correcting the Model – Idealization and Abstraction in the Sciences. Ed. by Jones, Martin R. and Cartwright, Nancy. Amsterdam: Rodopi, pp. 59115.Google Scholar
Griesemer, James R. (2014). “Reproduction and the Scaffolded Development of Hybrids.” In Developing Scaffolds in Evolution, Culture, and Cognition. Ed. by Caporael, Linnda R., Griesemer, James R., and Wimsatt, William C.. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, p. 23.Google Scholar
Griesemer, James R. (2016). “Reproduction in Complex Life Cycles: Toward a Developmental Reaction Norms Perspective.” Philosophy of Science 83.5, pp. 803815.Google Scholar
Griesemer, James R. and Wade, Michael J.. (2000). “Populational Heritability: Extending Punnett Square Concepts to Evolution at the Metapopulation Level.” Biology and Philosophy 15.1, pp. 117.Google Scholar
Hamilton, William D. (1963). “The Evolution of Altruistic Behavior.” The American Naturalist 97.896, pp. 354356.Google Scholar
Hamilton, William D. (1964). “The Genetical Evolution of Social Behaviour. II.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 7.1, pp. 1752.Google Scholar
Hamilton, William D. (1975). “Innate Social Aptitudes of Man: An Approach from Evolutionary Genetics.” In Biosocial Anthropology. Ed. by Fox, Robin. London: Malaby Press, pp. 133153.Google Scholar
Hammerschmidt, Katrin et al. (2014). “Life Cycles, Fitness Decoupling and the Evolution of Multicellularity.” Nature 515.7525, pp. 7579.Google Scholar
Heisler, I. Lorraine and Damuth, John. (1987). “A Method for Analyzing Selection in Hierarchically Structured Populations.” The American Naturalist 130.4, pp. 582602.Google Scholar
Herron, Matthew D., Zamani-Dahaj, Seyed A., and Ratcliff, William C.. (2018). “Trait Heritability in Major Transitions.” BMC Biology 16.1, p. 145.Google Scholar
Hölldobler, Bert and Wilson, Edward O.. (2008). The Superorganism: The Beauty, Elegance, and Strangeness of Insect Societies. 1st ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
Hox, Joop J. (2010). Multilevel Analysis: Techniques and Applications. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Hull, David L. (1980). “Individuality and Selection.” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11, pp. 311332.Google Scholar
Jablonski, David. (2008). “Species Selection: Theory and Data.” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 39.1, pp. 501524.Google Scholar
Janzen, Daniel H. (1977). “What Are Dandelions and Aphids?The American Naturalist 111.979, pp. 586589.Google Scholar
Jeler, Ciprian. (2014). “Is There Such a Thing as ‘Group Selection’ in the Contextual Analysis Framework?History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 36.4, pp. 484502.Google Scholar
Jeler, Ciprian. (2017). “Multi-Level Selection and the Issue of Environmental Homoge-neity.” Biology & Philosophy 32.5, pp. 651681.Google Scholar
Kim, Jaegwon. (2005). Physicalism, or Something Near Enough. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Kitcher, Philip, Sterelny, Kim, and Kenneth Waters, C.. (1990). “The Illusory Riches of Sober’s Monism.” The Journal of Philosophy 87.3, p. 158.Google Scholar
Kojima, Tomoki et al. (2019). “Cows Painted with Zebra-like Striping Can Avoid Biting Fly Attack.” PLOS ONE 14.10, e0223447.Google Scholar
Krakauer, David et al. (2020). “The Information Theory of Individuality.” Theory in Biosciences 139.2, pp. 209223.Google Scholar
Krist, Miloš. (2011). “Egg Size and Offspring Quality: A Meta-Analysis in Birds.” Biological Reviews 86.3, pp. 692716.Google Scholar
Lande, Russell. (1979). “Quantitative Genetic Analysis of Multivariate Evolution, Applied to Brain: Body Size Allometry.” Evolution 33.1, pp. 402416.Google Scholar
Lande, Russell and Arnold, Stevan J.. (1983). “The Measurement of Selection on Correlated Characters.” Evolution 37.6, pp. 12101226.Google Scholar
Levins, Richard. (1970). “Complex Systems.” In Organization Stability and Process : Toward a Theoretical Biology Volume 3. Ed. by Waddington, Conrad H.. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
Lewens, Tim. (2018). “Cultural Evolution.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ed. by Zalta, Edward N.. Summer 2018. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.Google Scholar
Lewontin, Richard C. (1970). “The Units of Selection.” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 1.1, pp. 118.Google Scholar
Lewontin, Richard C. (1985). “Adaptation.” In Dialectics and Reductionism in Ecology. Ed. by Levins, Richard and Lewontin, Richard C.. 1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 6584.Google Scholar
Lewontin, Richard C. (1991). “The Structure and Confirmation of Evolution Theory.” Biology and Philosophy 6.4, pp. 461466.Google Scholar
Lloyd, Elisabeth A. (1988). The Structure and Confirmation of Evolutionary Theory. New York: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
Lloyd, Elisabeth A. (2017). “Units and Levels of Selection.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ed. by Zalta, Edward N.. Summer 2017. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.Google Scholar
Lloyd, Elisabeth A. and Gould, Stephen J.. (1993). “Species Selection on Variability.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90.2, pp. 595599.Google Scholar
Lloyd, Elisabeth A. and Wade, Michael J.. (2019). “Criteria for Holobionts from Community Genetics.” Biological Theory 14.3, pp. 151170.Google Scholar
Lloyd, Elisabeth A. et al. (2005). “Pluralism without Genic Causes?Philosophy of Science 72.2, pp. 334341.Google Scholar
Lynch, Michael and Walsh, Bruce. (1998). Genetics and Analysis of Quantitative Traits. Vol. 1. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.Google Scholar
MacArthur, Robert H. and Wilson, Edward O.. (1967). The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Matthewson, John. (2015). “Defining Paradigm Darwinian Populations.” Philosophy of Science 82.2, pp. 178197.Google Scholar
Smith, Maynard, John. (1964). “Group Selection and Kin Selection.” Nature 201.4924, pp. 11451147.Google Scholar
Smith, Maynard, John. (1982). Evolution and the Theory of Games. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Smith, Maynard, John. (1983). “Models of Evolution.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences 219.1216, pp. 315325.Google Scholar
Smith, Maynard, John. (1987). “How to Model Evolution.” In The Latest on the Best: Essays on Evolution and Optimality. Ed. by John, Dupré. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, pp. 119131.Google Scholar
Smith, Maynard, John and Eörs Szathmáry (1995). The Major Transitions in Evolution. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
McFall-Ngai, Margaret. (2014). “Divining the Essence of Symbiosis: Insights from the Squid-Vibrio Model.” PLOS Biology 12.2, e1001783.Google Scholar
McLoone, Brian. (2015). “Some Criticism of the Contextual Approach, and a Few Proposals.” Biological Theory 10.2, pp. 116124.Google Scholar
Mesoudi, Alex. (2011). Cultural Evolution: How Darwinian Theory Can Explain Human Culture and Synthesize the Social Sciences. Chicago; London: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Michod, Richard E. and Roze, Denis. (1999). “Cooperation and Conflict in the Evolution of Individuality, III. Transitions in the Unit of Fitness.” In Mathematical and Computational Biology: Computational Morphogenesis, Hierarchical Complexity, and Digital Evolution. Ed. by Nehaniv, Chrystopher L.. Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society, pp. 4792.Google Scholar
Michod, Richard E. and Nedelcu, Aurora M.. (2003). “On the Reorganization of Fitness during Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality.” Integrative and Comparative Biology 43.1, pp. 6473.Google Scholar
Michod, Richard E., Nedelcu, Aurora M., and Roze, Denis. (2003). “Cooperation and Conflict in the Evolution of Individuality: IV. Conflict Mediation and Evolvability in Volvox Carteri.” Biosystems 69.2, pp. 95114.Google Scholar
Millstein, Roberta L. (2009). “Populations as Individuals.” Biological Theory 4.3, pp. 267273.Google Scholar
Millstein, Roberta L. (2010). “The Concepts of Population and Metapopulation in Biology, Evolutionary and Ecology.” In Evolution Since Darwin: The First 150 Years. Ed. by Bell, Michael A. et al. Sinauer, pp. 6185.Google Scholar
Millstein, Roberta L. (2016). “Genetic Drift.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ed. by Zalta, Edward N.. Fall 2016.Google Scholar
Mitchell, Sandra D. (2002). “Integrative Pluralism.” Biology and Philosophy 17.1, pp. 5570.Google Scholar
Muller, Hermann Joseph (1966). “The Gene Material as the Initiator and the Organizing Basis of Life.” The American Naturalist 100.915, pp. 493517.Google Scholar
Nunney, Leonard (1985). “Group Selection, Altruism, and Structured-Deme Models.” American Naturalist 126, pp. 212230.Google Scholar
Okasha, Samir. (2006). Evolution and the Levels of Selection. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Okasha, Samir. (2011). “Reply to Sober and Waters.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 82.1, pp. 241248.Google Scholar
Okasha, Samir. (2016). “The Relation between Kin and Multilevel Selection: An Approach Using Causal Graphs.” The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67.2, pp. 435470.Google Scholar
Pence, Charles H. and Ramsey, Grant. (2013). “A New Foundation for the Propensity Interpretation of Fitness.” The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64.4, pp. 851881.Google Scholar
Plutynski, Anya. (2006). “What Was Fisher’s Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection and What Was It for?Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 37.1, pp. 5982.Google Scholar
Plutynski, Anya. (2007). “Drift: A Historical and Conceptual Overview.” Biological Theory 2, pp. 156167.Google Scholar
Pool, Robert. (2001). Fat : Fighting the Obesity Epidemic. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Price, George R. (1970). “Selection and Covariance.” Nature 227, pp. 520–21.Google Scholar
Price, George R. (1972). “Extension of Covariance Selection Mathematics.” Annals of Human Genetics 35, pp. 485490.Google Scholar
Queller, David C. (1992). “Quantitative Genetics, Inclusive Fitness, and Group Selection.” The American Naturalist 139.3, pp. 540558.Google Scholar
Rainey, Paul B. and Kerr, Benjamin. (2010). “Cheats as First Propagules: A New Hypothesis for the Evolution of Individuality during the Transition from Single Cells to Multicellularity.” BioEssays 32.10, pp. 872880.Google Scholar
Ramsey, Grant. (2006). “Block Fitness.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 37, pp. 484498.Google Scholar
Ramsey, Grant. (2013). “Driftability.” Synthese 190.17, pp. 39093928.Google Scholar
Rice, Sean H. (2004). Evolutionary Theory: Mathematical and Conceptual Foundations. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.Google Scholar
Richerson, Peter J. and Boyd, Robert. (2005). Not by Genes Alone: How Culture Transformed Human Evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Roff, Derek A. (2002). Life History Evolution. Vol. 7. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.Google Scholar
Sarkar, S. (1994). “The Selection of Alleles and the Additivity of Variance.” In PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994, pp. 312.Google Scholar
Simon, Burton, Fletcher, Jeffrey A., and Doebeli, Michael. (2013). “Towards a General Theory of Group Selection.” Evolution 67.6, pp. 15611572.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simpson, Carl. (2011). “How Many Levels Are There? How Insights from Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality Help Measure the Hierarchical Complexity of Life.” In The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. Ed. by Brett Calcott and K. Sterelny. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, pp. 199226.Google Scholar
Skillings, Derek. (2016). “Holobionts and the Ecology of Organisms: MultiSpecies Communities or Integrated Individuals?” Biology & Philosophy 31.6, pp. 875892.Google Scholar
Snijders, Tom A. B. and Roel J. Bosker. (1999). Multilevel Analysis: An Introduction to Basic and Advanced Multilevel Modeling. London: Sage.Google Scholar
Sober, Elliott. (1984). The Nature of Selection. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.Google Scholar
Sober, Elliott. (1990). “The Poverty of Pluralism: A Reply to Sterelny and Kitcher.” The Journal of Philosophy 87.3, pp. 151158.Google Scholar
Sober, Elliott and Wilson, David Sloan. (1994). “A Critical Review of Philosophical Work on the Units of Selection Problem.” Philosophy of Science 61.4, pp. 534555.Google Scholar
Sober, Elliott and Wilson, David Sloan. (1998). Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Stearns, Stephen C. (1992). The Evolution of Life Histories. Vol. 249. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Stegenga, Jacob. (2016). “Population Pluralism and Natural Selection.” The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67.1, pp. 129.Google Scholar
Sterelny, Kim and Kitcher, Philip. (1988). “The Return of the Gene.” The Journal of Philosophy 85.7, pp. 339361.Google Scholar
Stevens, Lori, Goodnight, Charles J., and Kalisz, Susan. (1995). “Multilevel Selection in Natural Populations of Impatiens Capensis.” American Naturalist 145.4, pp. 513526.Google Scholar
Szathmáry, Eörs and Smith, John Maynard. (1993). “The Origin of Genetic Systems.” Abstracta Botanica 17.1-2, pp. 197206.Google Scholar
Tabery, James. (2014). Beyond Versus: The Struggle to Define the Interaction of Nature and Nurture. Cambridge, MA, and London, UK: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.Google Scholar
Tsuji, Kazuki. (1995). “Reproductive Conflicts and Levels of Selection in the Ant Pristomyrmex Pungens: Contextual Analysis and Partitioning of Covariance.” The American Naturalist 146.4, pp. 586607.Google Scholar
Jordi, van Gestel and Tarnita, Corina E.. (2017). “On the Origin of Biological Construction, with a Focus on Multicellularity.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114.42 pp. 11018–11026.Google Scholar
Van Valen, Leigh M. (1976). “Energy and Evolution.” Evolutionary Theory 1.1, pp. l79229.Google Scholar
Wade, Michael J. (1985). “Soft Selection, Hard Selection, Kin Selection, and Group Selection.” The American Naturalist 125.1, pp. 6173.Google Scholar
Wade, Michael J. (2016). Adaptation in Metapopulations: How Interaction Changes Evolution. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Wade, Michael J. and Griesemer, James R.. (1998). “Populational Heritability: Empirical Studies of Evolution in Metapopulations.” The American Naturalist 151.2, pp. 135147.Google Scholar
Walker, Sara Imari, Paul, C. W. Davies, and George, F. R. Ellis, eds. (2017). From Matter to Life: Information and Causality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Walsh, Bruce and Lynch, Michael. (2018). Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Waters, Christopher M. and Bassler, Bonnie L.. (2005). “Quorum Sensing: Cell-to-Cell Communication in Bacteria.” Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology 21.1, pp. 319346.Google Scholar
Waters, C. Kenneth. (2011). “Okasha’s Unintended Argument for Toolbox Theorizing.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 82.1, pp. 232240.Google Scholar
West, Stuart A., Griffin, Ashleigh S., and Gardner, Andy. (2007). “Social Semantics: Altruism, Cooperation, Mutualism, Strong Reciprocity and Group Selection.” Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20.2, pp. 415432.Google Scholar
Williams, George C. (1966). Adaptation and Natural Selection: A Critique of Some Current Evolutionary Thought. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Wilson, David S. (1975). “A Theory of Group Selection.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 72.1, pp. 143146.Google Scholar
Wilson, David S. (1987). “Altruism in Mendelian Populations Derived from Sibling Groups: The Haystack Model Revisited.” Evolution 41.5, pp. 10591070.Google Scholar
Wilson, David S. and Wilson, Edward O.. (2007). “Rethinking the Theoretical Foundation of Sociobiology.” The Quarterly Review of Biology 82.4, pp. 327348.Google Scholar
Wimsatt, William C. (1980). “Reductionistic Research Strategies and Their Biases in the Units of Selection Controversy.” Scientific Discovery: Case Studies. Ed. by Nickles, Thomas. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 60. Springer Netherlands, pp. 213259.Google Scholar
Wimsatt, William C. (1981). “The Units of Selection and the Structure of the Multi-Level Genome.” PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980, pp.122183.Google Scholar
Wimsatt, William C. (1986). “Forms of Aggregativity.” Human Nature and Natural Knowledge. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 259291.Google Scholar
Wimsatt, William C. (2000). “Emergence as Non-Aggregativity and the Biases of Reductionisms.” Foundations of Science 5.3, pp. 269297.Google Scholar
Wimsatt, William C. (2007). Re-Engineering Philosophy for Limited Beings: Piecewise Approximations to Reality. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Wolf, Jason B., Brodie, Edmund D., and Wade, Michael John. (2000). Epistasis and the Evolutionary Process. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Save element to Kindle

To save this element to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Facts, Conventions, and the Levels of Selection
Available formats
×

Save element to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Facts, Conventions, and the Levels of Selection
Available formats
×

Save element to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Facts, Conventions, and the Levels of Selection
Available formats
×