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MMPI-2 clusters of alcohol-dependent patients and the relation to Cloninger’s temperament-character inventory

  • Jos I. M. Egger (a1) (a2), Marian Gringhuis (a2), Marinus A. Breteler (a2), Hubert R. A. De Mey (a2), Ellen Wingbermühle (a1), Jan J. L. Derksen (a2) and Sander Hilberink (a2)...



Psychometric research in the field of alcohol dependence has concentrated on identifying certain (personality) characteristics (i.e. typologies). This paper is aimed to identify such typologies and studies the relation of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and Cloninger’s temperament-character inventory (TCI).


To find MMPI-2 scales associated with maximization of group differences between 222 DSM-IV alcohol dependent inpatients and a control group of 222 normal subjects, discriminant analysis was used. In addition, a cluster analysis was performed with these scales, and the MMPI-2 mean scale values of the resulting patient clusters were examined for their TCI-correlates.


The discriminant analyses showed several MMPI-2 scales that could clearly distinguish between alcohol-dependent patients and the normal controls. Cluster analysis resulted in semantically different MMPI-2 profiles implying qualitatively different groups of patients. When related to TCI scales, these differences revealed harm avoidance, self-directedness, and persistence, amongst others, as important elements in the description of the clusters.


Evidence for the validity of MMPI-2 constructs as well as those of the TCI in the assessment of alcohol-dependent patients was provided.


Corresponding author

Dr Jos I. M. Egger, Department of Clinical Psychology and Personality, Radboud University, PO Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Tel: +31 243 612 668; Fax: +31 478 630 797; E-mail:


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