Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Use of Photogrammetry for Non-Disturbance Underwater Survey: An Analysis of In Situ Stone Anchors

  • Carrie Fulton (a1), Andrew Viduka (a2), Andrew Hutchison (a3), Joshua Hollick (a4), Andrew Woods (a5), David Sewell (a6) and Sturt Manning (a7)...

Stone anchors comprise a significant portion of observable underwater cultural heritage in the Mediterranean and provide evidence for trade networks as early as the Bronze Age. Full documentation of these anchors, however, often requires their removal from their underwater environment, especially to calculate mass. We offer a methodology for using photogrammetry to record stone anchors still in situ and calculate their approximate mass. We compare measurements derived using measuring tapes with those derived using two different software programs for photogrammetric analysis, PhotoModeler Scanner (Eos Systems, Inc.) and PhotoScan Pro (Agisoft). First, we analyze stone anchors that had previously been removed from the underwater environment to establish a reference methodology. Next, we implement this methodology in an underwater survey off the southern coastline of Cyprus. Linear measurements for both programs correlate closely with those attained via measuring tape. The resulting estimates of volume of anchors in situ and on land are slightly greater using the photogrammetric methodology than the reference volumes obtained using a water displacement methodology. Overall, as an analytical tool, this methodology generates detailed surface information in minimal time underwater and preserves data for future analysis without necessitating the removal of the anchor from its underwater environment.

Anclas de piedra forman una parte importante del patrimonio cultural subacuático observable en el Mediterráneo y proporcionan evidencia de las redes comerciales ya en la Edad del Bronce. La documentación completa de estas anclas, sin embargo, a menudo requiere la eliminación de su entorno bajo el agua, sobre todo para adquirir masa. Ofrecemos una metodología para el uso de la fotogrametría para grabar anclas de piedra todavía in situ y calcular su masa aproximada. Comparamos las mediciones obtenidas usando cintas de medición con los que se derivan utilizando dos programas de software diferentes para el análisis fotogramétrico, PhotoModeler escáner (Eos Systems, Inc.) y PhotoScan Pro (Agisoft). En primer lugar, se analizan las anclas de piedra que han sido previamente retirados del medio ambiente bajo el agua para establecer una metodología de referencia. A continuación, ponemos en práctica esta metodología en una encuesta bajo el agua frente a la costa sur de Chipre. Mediciones lineales para ambos programas se correlacionan estrechamente con los obtenidos a través de una cinta de medir. Los volúmenes resultantes de anclajes in situ y en la tierra son ligeramente mayor utilizando la metodología fotogramétrico que los volúmenes de referencia obtenidos utilizando una metodología de desplazamiento de agua. En general, como una herramienta analítica, esta metodología genera información detallada superficie en un tiempo mínimo bajo el agua y conserva los datos para el análisis futuro sin necesidad de la eliminación del anclaje de su entorno bajo el agua.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Robert Ballard , Fredrik Hiebert , Dwight Coleman , Cheryl Ward , Jennifer Smith , Kathryn Willis , Brendan Foley , Katherine Croff , Candace Major , and Francesco Torre 2001. Deepwater Archaeology of the Black Sea: The 2000 Season at Sinop, Turkey. American Journal of Archaeology 105:607623.

Luigi Barazzetti , Luigia Binda , Marco Scaioni , and Paolo Taranto 2011. Photogrammetric Survey of Complex Geometries with Low-Cost Software: Application to the “G1” Temple in Myson, Vietnam. Journal of Cultural Heritage 12:253262.

M. Brutto , and Paola Meli 2012. Computer Vision Tools for 3D Modelling in Archaeology. International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era 1:16.

Stella Demesticha , Dimitrios Skarlatos , and Andonis Neophytou 2014. The 4th-Century B.C. Shipwreck at Mazotos, Cyprus: New Techniques and Methodologies in the 3D Mapping of Shipwreck Excavations. Journal of Field Archaeology 39:134150.

Jeroen Reu De , Gertjan Plets , Geert Verhoeven , Philippe De Smedt , Machteld Bats , Bart Cherretté , Wouter De Maeyer , Jasper Deconynck , Davy Herremans , Pieter Laloo , Marc Van Meirvenne , and Wim De Clercq 2013. Towards a Three-dimensional Cost-Effective Registration of the Archaeological Heritage. Journal of Archaeological Science 40:11081121.

Brendan Foley , Katerina Dellaporta , Dimitris Sakellariou , Brian Bingham , Richard Camilli , Ryan Eustice , and Dionysis Evagelistis 2009. The 2005 Chios Ancient Shipwreck Survey: New Methods for Underwater Archaeology. Hesperia 78:269305.

Honor Frost 1963. From Rope to Chain: On the Development of Anchors in the Mediterranean. The Mariner’s Mirror 49: 120.

Jeremy Green , and Matthew Gainsford 2003. Evaluation of Underwater Surveying Techniques. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 32:252261.

Jeremy Green , Sheila Matthews , and Tufan Turanli 2002. Underwater Archaeological Surveying using PhotoModeler, VirtualMapper: Different Applications for Different Problems. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 31:283292.

Anestis Koutsoudis , Blaž Vidmar , George Ioannakis , Fotis Arnautoglou , George Pavlidis , and Christodoulos Chamzas 2014. Multi-Image 3D Reconstruction Data Evaluation. Journal of Cultural Heritage 15:7379.

Tom Kwasnitschka , Thor H. Hansteen , Colin W. Devey , and Steffen Kutterolf 2013. Doing Fieldwork on the Seafloor: Photogrammetric Techniques to Yield 3D Visual Models from ROV Video. Computers & Geosciences 52:218226.

Thomas Luhmann , Stuart Robson , Stephen Kyle , and Jan Boehm 2013. Close-Range Photogrammetry and 3D Imaging. 2nd ed. De Gruyter, Berlin.

John McCarthy , and Jonathan Benjamin 2014. Multi-Image Photogrammetry for Underwater Archaeological Site Recording: An Accessible, Diver-Based Approach. Journal of Maritime Archaeology 9:95114.

Sturt W. Manning , David Sewell , and Ellen Herscher 2002. Late Cypriot I A Maritime Trade in Action: Underwater Survey at Maroni Tsaroukkas and the Contemporary East Mediterranean Trading System. The Annual of the British School at Athens 97:97162.

Massimo Martorelli , Claudio Pensa , and Domenico Speranza 2014. Digital Photogrammetry for Documentation of Maritime Heritage. Journal of Maritime Archaeology 9:8193.

Joseph A. H. Oates 1998. Lime and Limestone: Chemistry and Technology, Production and Uses. Wiley-VCH, New York.

Brandon Olson , Ryan A. Placchetti , Jamie Quartermaine , and Ann E. Killebrew 2013. The Tel Akko Total Archaeology Project (Akko, Israel): Assessing the Suitability of Multi-scale 3D Field Recording in Archaeology. Journal of Field Archaeology 38:244262.

Marc Pollefeys , Luc Van Gool , Maarten Vergauwen , Kurt Cornelis , Frank Verbiest , and Jan Tops 2003. 3D Recording for Archaeological Fieldwork. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 23:2027.

Fabio Remondino , Maria Grazia Spera , Erica Nocerino , Fabio Menna , and Francesco Nex 2014. State of the Art in High Density Image Matching. The Photogrammetric Record 29: 144166.

Joseph Shaw 1995. Two Three-Holed Stone Anchors from Kommos, Crete: Their Context, Type and Origin. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 24:279291.

Dimitrios Skarlatos , Stella Demesticha , and Stavroula Kiparissi 2012. An ‘Open’ Method for 3D Modelling and Mapping in Underwater Archaeological Sites. International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era 1:124.

Tejerina Antón , Daniel , Joaquín Bolufer i Marqués , Marco Aurelio Esquembre Bebia , and José Ramón Ortega Pérez 2012. Documentación 3D de pinturas rupestres con Photomodeler Scanner: los motivos esquemáticos de la Cueva del Barranc del Migdia (Xàbia, Alicante). Virtual Archaeology Review 3:6467.

Gili Telem , and Sagi Filin 2010. Photogrammetric Modeling of Underwater Environments. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 65:433444.

János Attila Tóth 2002. Composite Stone Anchors in the Ancient Mediterranean. Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 53:85118.

Geert Verhoeven 2011. Taking Computer Vision Aloft – Archaeological Three-Dimensional Reconstructions from Aerial Photographs with PhotoScan. Archaeological Prospection 18:6773.

Elena Zapassky , Israel Finkelstein , and Itzhak Beneson 2009. Computing Abilities in Antiquity: The Royal Judahite Storage Jars as a Case-study. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 16:5167.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Advances in Archaeological Practice
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 2326-3768
  • URL: /core/journals/advances-in-archaeological-practice
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 22 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 132 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 16th January 2017 - 16th August 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.