Adams, S. L. & Waskel, S. A. (1991) Late onset of alcoholism among older Midwestern men in treatment. Psychological Reports, 68, 432.
Adams, W. L., Barry, K. L. & Fleming, M. F. (1996) Screening for problem drinking in older primary care patients. JAMA, 276, 1964–1967.
American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM–IV). Washington, DC: APA.
Atkinson, R. M. (1984) Substance use and abuse in late life. In Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Old Age (ed. Atkinson, R. M.) pp. 1–21. Washington, DC. American Psychiatric Press.
Atkinson, R. M. (1995) Treatment programmes for aging alcoholics. In Alcohol and Aging (eds Beresford, T. & Gomberg, E.) pp. 186–210. New York: Oxford University Press.
Atkinson, R. M., Tolson, R. L. & Turner, J. A. (1990) Late versus early onset problem drinking in older men. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 14, 574–579.
Atkinson, R. M., Tolson, R. L. & Turner, J. A. (1993) Factors affecting treatment compliance of older male problem drinkers.
Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 54, 102–106.
Babor, T. F., de La Fuenta, J. R., Saunders, J.
et al (1992) AUDIT. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test: Guidelines for Its Use in Primary Health Care. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Blazer, D. & Williams, C. D. (1980) Epidemiology of dysphoria and depression in an elderly population. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 439–444.
Blow, F. (1991) Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test – Geriatric Version (MAST–G). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Alcohol Research Center.
Blow, F. C. & Barry, K. L. (2000) Older patients with at risk and problem drinking patterns. New developments in brief interventions. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 13, 115–123.
Blow, F. C., Cook, C. A., Booth, B. M.
et al (1992) Age-related psychiatric comorbidities and level of functioning in alcoholic veterans seeking outpatient treatment. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 43, 990–995.
Blow, F. C., Walton, M. A., Chermack, S. T.
et al (2000) Older adult treatment outcomes following elder-specific inpatient alcoholism treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 19, 67–75.
Brandt, J., Butters, N., Ryan, C.
et al (1983) Cognitive loss and recovery in long term alcohol abusers. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 435–442.
Brennan, P. L. & Moos, R. H. (1996) Late life drinking behaviour. Alcohol Health and Research World, 20, 197–205.
Brennan, P. L., Schutte, K. K. & Moos, R. H. (1999) Reciprocal relations between stressors and drinking behaviour: a three wave panel study of late middle aged and older women and men. Addiction, 94, 737–749.
Brower, K. J., Mudd, S., Blow, F. C.
et al (1994) Severity and treatment of alcohol withdrawal in elderly versus younger patients. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 18, 196–201.
Cermak, S. T., Blow, F. C., Hill, E. M.
et al (1996) The relationship between alcohol symptoms and consumption among older drinkers. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 20, 1153–1158.
Cochrane, R. & Bal, S. (1990) Drinking habits of Sikh, Hindu, Muslim and white men in the West Midlands: a community survey. British Journal of Addiction, 85, 759–769.
Conwell, Y. (1994) Suicide in elderly patients. In Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression in Late Life: Results of the NIH Consensus Development Conference (eds Schneider, L. S., Reynolds, C. F. III, Lebowitz, B. D.
et al), pp. 397–418. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Cook, B. L., Winokur, G., Garvey, M. J.
et al (1991) Depression and previous alcoholism in the elderly. British Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 72–75.
Cooper, H., Arber, S., Fee, L.
et al (1999) The Influence of Social Capital and Social Support on Health: A Review and Analysis of British Data. London: Health Education Authority.
Curtis, J. R., Geller, G., Stokes, E. J.
et al (1989) Characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of alcoholism in elderly patients. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 37, 310–316.
Deblinger, L. (2000) Alcohol problems in the elderly. Patient Care, 34, 70.
Department of Health (1995) Sensible Drinking. The Report of an Inter-Departmental Working Group. London: Department of Health.
Derry, A. D. (2000) Substance use in older adults: a review of current assessment, treatment and service provision. Journal of Substance Use, 5, 252–262.
Dufour, M. & Fuller, R. K. (1995) Alcohol in the elderly. Annual Review of Medicine, 46, 123–132.
Dunlop, J. (1990) Peer groups support seniors fighting alcohol and drugs. Aging, 361, 28–32.
Dunne, F. J. (1994) Misuse of alcohol or drugs by elderly people may need special management. BMJ, 308, 608–609.
Ewing, J. A. (1984) Detecting alcoholism: the CAGE questionnaire. JAMA, 252, 1905–1907.
Falaschetti, E., Malbut, K. & Primatesta, P. (2002) The general health of older people and their use of health services. In Health Survey for England 2000 (eds Prior, G. & Primatesta, P.) London: TSO (The Stationery Office).
Feuerlein, W. & Reiser, E. (1986) Parameters affecting the course and results of delirium tremens treatment. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, 329, 120–123.
Finlayson, R. E., Hurt, R. D., Davis, L. J.
et al (1988) Alcoholism in elderly persons: a study of the psychiatric and psychosocial features of 216 in-patients. Mayo Clinic Proceeedings, 63, 761–768.
Fleming, R. E., Barry, K. L., Manwell, L. B.
et al (1997) Brief physician advice for problem alcohol drinkers. A randomised controlled trial in community based primary care practices. JAMA, 277, 1039–1045.
Fleming, M. F., Manwell, L. B., Barry, K. L.
et al (1999) Brief physician advice for alcohol problems in older adults. A randomised community based trial. Journal of Family Practice, 48, 378–384.
Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. & McHugh, P. R. (1975) ‘Minimental state’. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189–198.
George, L. K., Landerman, D. G., Blazer, D. G.
et al (1991) Cognitive impairment. In Psychiatric Disorders in America: The Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (eds Robins, L. N. & Reiger, D. M.) pp. 291–327. New York: Free Press.
Goodman, C. & Ward, M. (1995) Alcohol Problems in Old Age. Kenley: Wynne Howard Publishing.
Grant, I., Adams, K. & Reed, R. (1984) Aging, abstinence and medical risk factors in the prediction of neuropsychologic deficit among long term alcoholics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 710–718.
Gulino, C. & Kadin, M. (1986) Aging and reactive alcoholism. Geriatric Nursing, 7, 148–151.
Heller, D. A. & McClearn, G. E. (1995) Alcohol, aging and genetics. In Alcohol and Aging (eds Beresford, T. P. & Gomberg, E.) pp. 99–114. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hurt, R. D., Finlayson, R. E., Morse, R. M.
et al (1988) Alcoholism in elderly persons: medical aspects and prognosis of 216 in-patients. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 63, 753–760.
Kelling, K. (1991) Older Homeless People in London. London: Age Concern Greater London (cited in Ward, M. (1997) Older People and Alcohol. London: Health Education Authority).
Koenig, H. G. & Blazer, D. G. (1996) Depression. In Encyclopaedia of Gerontology: Age, Aging, and the Aged (vol. 1) (ed. Birren, J. E.) pp. 415–428. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Krach, P. (1998) Myths and facts about alcohol abuse in the elderly. Nursing, February, 25.
Lader, D. & Meltzer, H. (2001) Drinking: Adults' Behaviour and Knowledge in 2000. London: Office for National Statistics.
Liskow, B. I., Rinck, C., Campbell, J.
et al (1989) Alcohol withdrawal in the elderly. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 50, 414–421.
Mann, K., Lehert, P. & Morgan, M. Y. (2004) The efficacy of Acamprosate in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependent individuals: results of a meta-analysis. Alcohol, 28, 51–63.
McInnes, I. & Powell, J. (1994) Drug and alcohol referrals: are substance abuse diagnoses and referrals being missed. BMJ, 308, 444–446.
Menninger, J. A. (2002) Assessment and treatment of alcoholism and substance related disorders in the elderly. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 66, 166–184.
Miller, W. R. & Rollnick, S. (1991) Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People to Change Addictive Behaviour. New York: Guilford Press.
Naik, P. & Jones, R. G. (1994) Alcohol histories taken from elderly people on admission. BMJ, 308, 248.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (1995) The Physicians' Guide to Helping Patients with Alcohol Problems. Rockville, MD: NIAAA.
Norton, E. D. (1998) Counseling substance abusing older adults. Educational Gerontology, 24, 373–390.
O'Connell, H., Chin, A.-V., Cunningham, C.
et al (2003) Alcohol use disorders in elderly people – redefining an age old problem in old age. BMJ, 327, 664–667.
Office for National Statistics (2001) Results from the 2000 General Household Survey. London: TSO (The Stationery Office).
Oslin, D. W., Pettinati, H. & Volpicelli, J. R. (2002). Alcoholism treatment adherence. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 10, 740–747.
Reid, M. C. & Anderson, P. A. (1997) Geriatric substance use disorders. Medical Clinics of North America, 81, 999–1016.
Saunders, P. A., Copeland, J. R., Dewey, M. E.
et al (1991) Heavy drinking as a risk factor for depression and dementia in elderly men. Findings from the Liverpool longitudinal community study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 213–216.
Schonfeld, L. & Dupree, L. W. (1995) Treatment approaches for older problem drinkers. International Journal of Addictions, 30, 1819–1842.
Schonfeld, L., Dupree, L. W., Dickson-Euhrmann, E.
et al (2000) Cognitive–behavioural treatment of older veterans with substance abuse problems. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 13, 124–129.
Schutte, K. K., Brennan, L. & Moos, R. H. (1994) Remission of late-life drinking problems: a 4-year follow up. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 18, 835–844.
Smith, J. W. (1995) Medical manifestations of alcoholism in the elderly. International Journal of Addictions, 30, 1749–1798.
Speer, D. C. & Bates, K. (1992) Comorbid mental and substance disorders among older psychiatric patients. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 40, 886–890.
Tabloski, P. A. & Maranjian Church, O. (1999) Insomnia, alcohol and drug use in community-residing elderly persons. Journal of Substance Use, 4, 147–154.
Thomas, V. S. & Rockwood, K. J. (2001) Alcohol abuse, cognitive impairment and mortality among older people. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 49, 415–420.
Vaillant, G. E. (2003) A 60-year follow-up of alcoholic men. Addiction, 98, 1043–1051.
Watson, Y. I., Arfken, C. L. & Birge, S. L. (1993) Clock completion. An objective screening test for dementia. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 41, 1235–1240.
Willenbring, M. (1990) Evaluating alcohol use in elders. Aging, 361, 22–27.
Woodhouse, P., Keatinge, W. R. & Coleshaw, S. R. (1987) Factors associated with hypothermia in patients admitted to a group of inner city hospitals. Lancet, 2, 1201–1205.
World Health Organization (1992) The ICD–10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. Geneva: WHO.
Wright, F. & Whyley, C. (1994) Accident Prevention and Risk-taking by Elderly People: The Need for Advice. London: Age Concern Institute of Gerontology.