Aizenberg, D., Zemishlany, Z., Dorfman, E. P.
et al (1995) Sexual dysfunction in male schizophrenic patients. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 56, 137–141.
Aizenberg, D., Modai, I., Landa, A.
et al (2001) Comparison of sexual dysfunction in male schizophrenic patients maintained on treatment with classical antipsychotics versus clozapine. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62, 541–544.
Akhtar, S., Crocker, E., Dickey, N.
et al (1977) Overt sexual behaviours among psychiatric inpatients. Diseases of the Nervous System, 38, 359–361.
American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM–IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Angst, J. (1998) Sexual problems in healthy and depressed patients. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 13 (suppl. 6), S1–S3.
Arato, M., Erdos, A. & Polgar, M. (1979) Endocrinological changes in patients with sexual dysfunction under long-term neuroleptic treatment. Pharmakopsychiatrie Neuropsychopharmakologie, 12, 426–431.
Baldwin, D. S. (2001) Depression and sexual dysfunction. British Medical Bulletin, 57, 81–99.
Baldwin, D. S. & Birtwistle, J. (1997) Schizophrenia, antipsychotic drugs and sexual function. Primary Care Psychiatry, 3, 115–123.
Baldwin, D. S., Thomas, S. C. & Birtwistle, J. (1997) Effects of antidepressant drugs on sexual function. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 1, 47–58.
Benatov, R., Reznik, I. & Zemishlany, Z. (1999) Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) treatment of sexual dysfunction in a schizophrenic patient. European Psychiatry, 14, 353–355.
Bhugra, D. & De Silva, P. (1993) Sexual dysfunction across cultures. International Review of Psychiatry, 5, 243–252.
Bhui, K., Puffet, A. & Herriot, P. (1995) A survey of sexual problems amongst psychiatric inpatients. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 30, 73–77.
Bobes, J., Rejas, J., Garcia, M.
et al (2001) Frequency and Management of Sexual Dysfunction with Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenic Patients: Results from the EIRE Study. New Orleans, LA: American Psychiatric Association.
Bodkin, J. A., Lasser, R. A., Wines, J. D.
et al (1997) Combining serotonin reuptake inhibitors and bupropion in partial responders to antidepressant monotherapy. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 58, 137–145.
Boyarsky, B. K., Haque, W., Rouleau, M. R.
et al (1999) Sexual functioning in depressed outpatients taking mirtazapine. Depression and Anxiety, 9, 175–179.
Casper, R. C., Redmond, E., Katz, M. M.
et al (1985) Somatic symptoms in primary affective disorders: presence and relationship to the classification of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 1098–1104.
Compton, M. T., Saldivia, A. & Berry, S. A. (2000) Recurrent priapism during treatment with clozapine and olanzapine. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 659.
Coulouvrat, C. & Dondey-Nouvel, L. (1999) Safety of amisulpride (Solian): a review of 11 clinical studies. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 14, 209–218.
Croft, H., Settle, E. Jr., Houser, T.
et al (1999) A placebo-controlled comparison of the antidepressant efficacy and effects on sexual functioning of sustained-release bupropion and sertraline. Clinical Therapeutics, 21, 643–658.
Deirmenjian, J. H., Erhart, S. M., Wirshing, D. A.
et al (1998) Olanzapine-induced reversible priapism: a case report. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 18, 351–353.
Dickson, R. A. & Glazer, W. M. (1999) Neuroleptic-induced hyperprolactinaemia. Schizophrenia Research, 35, S75–S86.
Dunn, K. M., Croft, P. R. & Hackett, G. I. (1998) Sexual problems: a study of the prevalence and need for health care in the general population. Family Practice, 15, 519–524.
Emes, C. E. & Milson, R. C. (1994) Risperidone-induced priapism. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 315–316.
Erlenmayer-Kimmling, L., Nicol, S., Rainer, J. D.
et al (1969) Changes in fertility rates of schizophrenic patients in New York State. American Journal of Psychiatry, 125, 88–99.
Ernst, C., Foldenyi, M. & Angst, J. (1993) The Zurich Study: XXI. Sexual dysfunctions and disturbances in young adults. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 243, 179–188.
Fava, M., Rankin, M. A., Alpert, J. E.
et al (1998) An open trial of sildenafil in antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 67, 328–331.
Feiger, A., Kiev, A., Shrivastava, R. K.
et al (1996) Nefazodone versus sertraline in outpatients with major depression: focus on efficacy, tolerability and effects on sexual function and satisfaction. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 57 (suppl. 2), S53–S62.
Gelenberg, A. J., Laukes, C., McGahuey, C.
et al (1998) Mirtazapine substitution in SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction (abstract). Biological Psychiatry, 43, 104S.
Ghadirian, A. M., Chouinard, G. & Annable, L. (1982) Sexual dysfunction and plasma prolactin levels in neuroleptictreated schizophrenic outpatients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 170, 463–467.
Hellewell, J. S. E. (1998) Antipsychotic tolerability: the attitudes and perceptions of medical professionals, patients and caregivers towards the side effects of antipsychotic therapy (abstract). European Neuropsychopharmacology, 8, S248.
Kang, B.-J., Lee, S.-J., Kim, M.-D.
et al (2002) A placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 17, 279–284.
Keitner, G. I. & Selub, S. (1993) Spontaneous ejaculations and neuroleptics. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 3, 34–36.
Kennedy, S. H., McCann, S. M., Masellis, M.
et al (2002) Combining bupropion SR with venlafaxine, paroxetine or fluoxetine: a preliminary report on pharmacokinetic, therapeutic and sexual dysfunction effects. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 63, 181–186.
Koutouvidis, N., Pratikakis, M. & Fotiadou, A. (1999) The use of mirtazapine in a group of 11 patients following poor compliance to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment due to sexual dysfunction. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 14, 253–255.
Laumann, E. O., Park, A. & Rosen, R. C. (1999) Sexual dysfunction in the United States: prevalence and predictors. JAMA, 281, 537–544.
Lyketsos, G. C., Sakka, P. & Mailis, A. (1983) The sexual adjustment of chronic schizophrenics: a preliminary study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 376–382.
Mathew, R. J. & Weinman, M. L. (1982) Sexual dysfunctions in depression. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 11, 323–325.
Michelson, D., Bancroft, J., Targum, S.
et al (2000) Female sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressant administration: a randomized, placebo-controlled study of pharmacologic intervention. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 239–243.
Mitchell, J. & Popkin, M. (1983) The pathophysiology of sexual dysfunction associated with antipsychotic drug therapy in males: A review. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 12, 173–183.
Modell, J. G., Katholi, C. R., Modell, J. D.
et al (1997) Comparative sexual side effects of bupropion, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 61, 476–487.
Monteiro, W. O., Noshirvani, H. F., Marks, I. M.
et al (1987) Anorgasmia from clomipramine in obsessive–compulsive disorder: a controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 107–112.
Montejo-González, A. L., Liorca, G., Izquierdo, J. A.
et al (1997) SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction: fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline and fluvoxamine in a prospective, multicenter, and descriptive clinical study of 344 patients. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 23, 176–194.
Nathan, S. G. (1986) The epidemiology of the DSM–III psychosexual dysfunctions. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 12, 267–281.
Nemeroff, C. B., Ninan, P. T., Ballenger, J.
et al (1995) Double-blind multicenter comparison of fluvoxamine versus sertraline in the treatment of depressed outpatients. Depression, 3, 163–169.
Norden, M. J. (1994) Buspirone treatment of sexual dysfunction associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Depression, 2, 109–112.
Patel, A. G., Mukherji, K. & Lee, A. (1996) Priapism associated with psychotropic drugs. British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 55, 315–319.
Patterson, W. M. (1993) Fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 54, 71.
Petty, R. G. (1999) Prolactin and antipsychotic medications: mechanism of action. Schizophrenia Research, 35 (suppl.), S67–S73.
Peuskens, J., Sienaert, P. & De Heft, M. (1998) Sexual dysfunction: the unspoken side effect of antipsychotics. European Psychiatry, 13 (suppl. 1), 23S–30S.
Pinderhughes, C. A., Grace, E. B. & Reyna, L. J. (1972) Psychiatric disorders and sexual functioning. American Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 1276–1283.
Price, D. (1999) Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in patients with common concomitant conditions (Sildenafil Study Group). International Journal of Clinical Practice, 102, 21–23.
Raboch, J. (1986) Sexual development and life of psychiatric female patients. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 15, 341–353.
Ramirez, G., Butcher, D. E., Newton, J. L.
et al (1985) Bromocriptine and the hypothalamic hypophyseal function in patients with chronic renal failure on chronic haemodialysis. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 6, 111–118.
Rosen, S. I. & Hanno, P. M. (1992) Clozapine-induced priapism. Journal of Urology, 148, 876–877.
Rothschild, A. J. (1995) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced sexual dysfunction: efficacy of a drug holiday. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 514–516.
Rozan, G., Tuchin, T. & Kurland, M. (1971) Some implications of sexual activity for mental illness. Mental Hygiene, 55, 318–323.
Schreiner-Engel, P. & Schiavi, R. C. (1986) Lifetime psychopathology in individuals with low sexual desire. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 646–651.
Segraves, R. T. (1989) Effects of psychotropic drugs on human erection and ejaculation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 275–284.
Seidman, S. N., Roose, S. P., Menza, M. A.
et al (2001) Treatment of erectile dysfunction in men with depressive symptoms: results of a placebo-controlled trial with sildenafil citrate. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1623–1630.
Smith, S., O'Keane, V. & Murray, R. (2002) Sexual dysfunction in patients taking conventional antipsychotic medication. British Journal of Psychiatry, 181, 49–55.
Songer, D. A. & Barclay, J. C. (2001) Olanzapine-induced priapism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 2087–2088.
Teusch, L., Scherbaum, N., Bohme, H.
et al (1995) Different patterns of sexual dysfunctions associated with psychiatric disorders and psychopharmacological treatment. Results of an investigation by semistructured interview of schizophrenic and neurotic patients and methadone-substituted opiate addicts. Pharmacopsychiatry, 28, 84–92.
Tran, P. V., Hamilton, S. H., Kuntz, A. J.
et al (1997) Double-blind comparison of olanzapine versus risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 17, 407–418.
Wallace, M. (2001) Real progress – The patient's perspective. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 16 (suppl. 1), S21–S24.
World Health Organization (1992) International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD–10) Geneva: WHO.
Zajecka, J., Fawcett, J., Schaff, M.
et al (1991) The role of serotonin in sexual dysfunction: fluoxetine-associated orgasm dysfunction. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 52, 66–68.