Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-prt4h Total loading time: 0.253 Render date: 2021-10-19T19:29:19.718Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Living arrangement and cognitive decline among older people in Europe

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 May 2016

STEFANO MAZZUCO
Affiliation:
Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Padova, Italy.
SILVIA MEGGIOLARO*
Affiliation:
Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Padova, Italy.
FAUSTA ONGARO
Affiliation:
Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Padova, Italy.
VERONICA TOFFOLUTTI
Affiliation:
Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, UK.
*
Address for correspondence: Silvia Meggiolaro, Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Padova, Via C. Battisti, 241/43, 35123, Padova, Italy E-mail: meg@stat.unipd.it

Abstract

Family resources may play an important role in the wellbeing of older people. In this paper, we examine the association between living arrangement and cognitive decline among people over 65 living in different European countries. The underlined hypothesis is that living with others (i.e. spouse or/and children) vis-à-vis living alone may have a positive role in maintaining cognitive functioning, but also that such beneficial influence varies according to the circumstances. To this end, we used data from the first two waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), which provides indicators of several cognitive functions: orientation, immediate recall, delayed recall, verbal fluency and numeracy. Net of both the potential biases due to the selective attrition and the re-test effects, the evidence shows that the association between living arrangement and cognitive decline depends on the geographical area and on the starting level of cognitive function.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Agrigoroaei, S. and Lachman, M. E. 2011. Cognitive functioning in midlife and old age: combined effects of psychosocial and behavioral factors. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 66B, S1, 130–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aichberger, M. C., Busch, M. A., Reischies, F. M., Ströhle, A., Heinz, A. and Rapp, M. A. 2010. Effect of physical inactivity on cognitive performance after 2.5 years of follow-up. Longitudinal results from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement (SHARE). GeroPsych: The Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geritric Psychiatry, 23, 1, 715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arpino, B. and Bordone, V. 2012. Does grandparenting pay off? The effect of childcare on grandparents’ cognitive functioning. European Demographic Research Papers 4, Vienna Institute of Demography of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna.Google Scholar
Avendano, M., Glymour, M., Banks, J. and Mackenbach, J. P. 2009. Health disadvantage in US adults aged 50 to 74 years: a comparison of the health of rich and poor Americans with that of Europeans. American Journal of Public Health, 99, 3, 540–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Belle, D. 1982. Lives in Stress: Women and Depression. Sage, Beverly Hills, California.Google Scholar
Bernstein, A., Penner, L. A., Clarke-Stewart, A. and Roy, E. J. 2006. Psychology. Sixth edition, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.Google Scholar
Blom, A. G. and Korbmacher, J. M. 2011. Measuring interviewer effects in SHARE Germany. SHARE Working Paper Series 03, Mannheim Research Institute for the Economics of Aging, Mannheim, Germany.Google Scholar
Bonsang, E., Adam, S. and Perelman, S. 2012. Does retirement affect cognitive functioning? Journal of Health Economics, 31, 3, 490501.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bordone, V. and Weber, D. 2012. Number of children and cognitive abilities in later life. Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, 10, 95126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Börsch-Supan, A., Brugiavini, A., Jürges, H., Mackenbach, J., Siegrist, J. and Weber, G. 2005. Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. Strauss, Morlenbach, Germany.Google Scholar
Börsch-Supan, A. and Jürges, H. 2005. The Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe – Methodology. Mannheim Research Institute for the Economics of Aging, Mannheim, Germany.Google Scholar
Buber, I. and Engelhardt, H. 2008. Children's impact on the mental health of their older mothers and fathers: findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. European Journal of Ageing, 5, 1, 3145.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cagney, K. A. and Lauderdale, D. S. 2002. Education, wealth, and cognitive function in later life. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 57B, 2, P163–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Casale-Martínez, R. I., Navarrete-Reyes, A. P. and Avila-Funes, J. A. 2012. Social determinants of frailty among Mexican community-dwelling elderly. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60, 4, 800–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Casey, B. and Yamada, A. 2002. Getting older, getting poorer? A study of the earnings, pensions, assets and living arrangements of older people in nine countries. OECD Working Paper 60, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris.Google Scholar
De Jong Gierveld, J., Dykstra, P. A. and Schenk, N. 2012. Living arrangements, intergenerational support types and older adult loneliness in Eastern and Western Europe. Demographic Research, 27, 7, 167200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Jong Gierveld, J. and Van Tilburg, T. 1999. Living arrangements of older adults in the Netherlands and Italy: coresidence values and behaviour and their consequences for loneliness. Journal of Cross-cultural Gerontology, 14, 1, 124.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deeg, D. J. H. 2005. The development of physical and mental health from late midlife to early old age. In Willis, S. L. and Martin, M. (eds), Middle Adulthood: A Lifespan Perspective. Sage, Thousand Oaks, California, 209–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dewey, M. E. and Prince, M. J. 2005. Cognitive function. In Börsch-Supan, A., Brugiavini, A., Jürges, H., Mackenbach, J., Siegrist, J. and Weber, G. (eds), Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe: First Results from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. Mannheim Research Institute for the Economics of Aging, Mannheim, Germany, 108–17.Google Scholar
Emery, C. F., Schein, R. L., Hauck, E. R. and MacIntyre, N. R. 1998. Psychological and cognitive outcomes of a randomized trial of exercise among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Health Psychology, 17, 3, 232–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Engelhardt, H., Buber, I., Skirbekk, V. and Prskawetz, A. 2010. Social involvement, behavioural risks and cognitive functioning among older people. Ageing & Society, 30, 5, 779809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferrer, E., Salthouse, T. A., Stewart, W. F. and Schwartz, B. S. 2004. Modeling age and retest processes in longitudinal studies of cognitive abilities. Psychology and Aging, 19, 2, 243–59.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Finch, C. E. 2009. The neurobiology of middle-age has arrived. Neurobiology of Aging, 30, 4, 515–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fischer, C. S. 1982. To Dwell Among Friends: Personal Networks in Town and City. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
Fratiglioni, L., Paillard-Borg, S. and Winblad, B. 2004. An active and socially integrated lifestyle in late life might protect against dementia. Lancet Neurology, 3, 6, 343–53.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fuscaldo, M. 2012. Physical limitations, depressive symptoms and cognitive problems: exploring the complex structure of un-health among older people in Italy. CAPP Paper 98.Google Scholar
Gaymu, J., Delbès, C., Springer, S., Binet, A., Dèsesquelles, A., Kalogirou, S. and Ziegler, U. 2006. Determinants of the living arrangements old older people in Europe. European Journal of Population, 22, 3, 241–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gerstel, N. and Gallagher, S. K. 1993. Kin keeping and distress: gender, recipients of care, and work–family conflict. Journal of Marriage and Family, 55, 3, 598607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glymour, M. M., Weuve, J., Berkman, L. F., Kawachi, I. and Robins, J. M. 2005. When is baseline adjustment useful in analyses of change? An example with education and cognitive change. American Journal of Epidemiology, 162, 3, 267–78.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hays, J. C. 2002. Living arrangements and health status in later life: a review of recent literature. Public Health Nursing, 19, 2, 136–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Håkansson, K., Rovio, S., Helkala, E. L., Vilska, A. R., Winblad, B., Soininen, H., Nissinen, A., Mohammed, A. H. and Kivipelto, M. 2009. Association between mid-life marital status and cognitive function in later life: population based cohort study. British Medical Journal, 339, b2462, 2462–70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hughes, M. E. and Waite, L. J. 2002. Health in household context: living arrangements and health in late middle-age. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 43, 1, 121.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keilman, N. and Christiansen, S. 2010. Norwegian elderly less likely to live alone in the future. European Journal of Population, 26, 1, 4772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keilman, N. and Christiansen, S. 2013. Probabilistic household forecasts based on register data – the case of Denmark and Finland. Demographic Research, 28, 43, 1263–302.Google Scholar
Kharicha, K., Iliffe, S., Harari, D., Swift, C., Gillmann, G. and Stuck, A. 2007. Health risk appraisal in older people: are older people living alone an ‘at-risk’ group? British Journal of General Practice, 57, 537, 271–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Mazzonna, F. and Peracchi, F. 2012. Ageing, cognitive abilities and retirement. European Economic Review, 56, 4, 691710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Merrill, D. A. and Small, G. W. 2011. Prevention in psychiatry: effects of healthy lifestyle on cognition. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 34, 1, 249–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Michael, Y. L., Berkman, L. F., Colditz, G. A. and Kawachi, I. 2001. Living arrangements, social integration, and change in functional health status. American Journal of Epidemiology, 153, 2, 123–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mousavi-Nasab, S. M. H., Kormi-Nouri, R., Sundström, A. and Nilsson, L. G. 2012. The effects of marital status on episodic and semantic memory in healthy middle-aged and old individuals. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 53, 1, 18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Prince, M. J., Reischies, F., Beekman, A. T., Fuhrer, R., Jonker, C. and Kivela, S. L. 1999. Development of the EURO-D scale – a European Union initiative to compare symptoms of depression in 14 European centres. British Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 4, 330–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosenbaum, P. T. and Rubin, D. B. 1983. The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrika, 70, 1, 4155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salthouse, T. A. 1985. A Theory of Cognitive Aging. North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
Salthouse, T. A. 2009. When does age-related cognitive decline begin? Neurobiology of Aging, 30, 4, 507–14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division 2005. Living Arrangements of Older Persons Around the World. United Nations, New York.Google Scholar
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division 2009. World Population Ageing. United Nations, New York.Google Scholar
van Campen, C. 2011. Frail Older Persons in the Netherlands. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research, The Hague.Google Scholar
Van Gelder, B. M., Tijhuis, M., Kalmijn, S., Giampaoli, S., Nissinen, A. and Kromhout, D. 2006. Marital status and living situation during a 5-year period are associated with a subsequent 10-year cognitive decline in older men: the FINE study. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 61B, 4, 213–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verhaegen, P. and Salthouse, T. A. 1997. Meta-analyses of age-cognition relations in adulthood: estimates of linear and nonlinear age effects and structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 3, 231–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waite, L. J. 2009. Marital history and well-being in later life. In Uhlenberg, P. (ed.), International Handbook of Population Aging. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 691704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Living arrangement and cognitive decline among older people in Europe
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Living arrangement and cognitive decline among older people in Europe
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Living arrangement and cognitive decline among older people in Europe
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *