Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Considering multiscale scenes to elucidate problems encumbering three-dimensional intellection and navigation

  • Michael Glueck (a1) and Azam Khan (a1)

Virtual three-dimensional (3-D) environments have become pervasive tools in a number of professional and recreational tasks. However, interacting with these environments can be challenging for users, especially as these environments increase in complexity and scale. In this paper, we argue that the design of 3-D interaction techniques is an ill-defined problem. This claim is elucidated through the context of data-rich and geometrically complex multiscale virtual 3-D environments, where unexpected factors can encumber intellection and navigation. We develop an abstract model to guide our discussion, which illustrates the cyclic relationship of understanding and navigating; a relationship that supports the iterative refinement of a consistent mental representation of the virtual environment. Finally, we highlight strategies to support the design of interactions in multiscale virtual environments, and propose general categories of research focus.

Corresponding author
Reprint requests to: Michael Glueck, Autodesk Research, 210 King Street East, Toronto, ON M5A1J7, Canada. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

G.P. Bingham , & M. Lind (2008). Large continuous perspective transformations are necessary and sufficient for accurate perception of metric shape. Perception & Psychophysics 70, 524540.

F.P. Brooks (1988). Grasping reality through illusion—interactive graphics serving science. Proc. SIGCHI Conf. Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ‘88 ( J.J. O'Hare , Ed.), pp. 111. New York: ACM.

N. Burtnyk , A. Khan , G. Fitzmaurice , & G. Kurtenbach (2006). ShowMotion: camera motion based 3D design review. Proc. 2006 Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, I3D ‘06, pp. 167174. New York: ACM.

I. Carlbom , & J. Paciorek (1978). Planar geometric projections and viewing transformations. ACM Computer Survey 10(4), 465502.

M. Christie , P. Olivier , & J.-M. Normand (2008). Camera control in computer graphics. Computer Graphics Forum 27, 21972218.

F. Durand (2002). An invitation to discuss computer depiction. Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering, NPAR ‘02, pp. 111124. New York: ACM.

D.W. Eby , & M.L. Braunstein (1995). The perceptual flattening of three-dimensional scenes enclosed by a frame. Perception 24(9), 981993.

N. Elmqvist , & P. Tsigas (2008). A taxonomy of 3D occlusion management for visualization. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 14(5), 10951109.

G. Fitzmaurice , J. Matejka , I. Mordatch , A. Khan , & G. Kurtenbach (2008). Safe 3D navigation. Proc. 2008 Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, I3D ‘08, pp. 715. New York: ACM.

M. Glueck , K. Crane , S. Anderson , A. Rutnik , & A. Khan (2009). Multiscale 3D reference visualization. Proc. 2009 Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, I3D ‘09, pp. 225232. New York: ACM.

M. Hachet , F. Decle , S. Knödel , & P. Guitton (2009). Navidget for 3D interaction: camera positioning and further uses. International Journal of Human–Computer Studies 67(3), 225236.

K.P. Herndon , A. van Dam , & M. Gleicher (1994). The challenges of 3D interaction: a CHI ‘94 workshop. SIGCHI Bulletin 26(4), 3643.

S. Jul (2003). “This is a lot easier!”: constrained movement speeds navigation. Proc. CHI ‘03 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ‘03, pp. 776777. New York: ACM.

I. Juricevic , & J.M. Kennedy (2006). Looking at perspective pictures from too far, too close, and just right. Journal of Experimental Psychology 135(3), 448461.

A. Khan , I. Mordatch , G. Fitzmaurice , J. Matejka , & G. Kurtenbach (2008). ViewCube: a 3D orientation indicator and controller. Proc. 2008 Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, I3D ‘08, pp. 1725. New York: ACM.

R. Kopper , T. Ni , D.A. Bowman , & M. Pinho (2006). Design and evaluation of navigation techniques for multiscale virtual environments. Proc. IEEE Conf. Virtual Reality, VR, pp. 175182. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.

S. Lee , E. Eisemann , & H. Seidel (2010). Real-time lens blur effects and focus control. Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 2010 Papers, SIGGRAPH ‘10 ( H. Hoppe , Ed.), pp. 17. New York: ACM.

J. McCrae , M. Glueck , T. Grossman , A. Khan , & K. Singh (2010). Exploring the design space of multiscale 3D orientation. Proc. Int. Conf. Advanced Visual interfaces, AVI ‘10 ( G. Santucci , Ed.), pp. 8188. New York: ACM.

J. McCrae , I. Mordatch , M. Glueck , & A. Khan (2009). Multiscale 3D navigation. Proc. 2009 Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, I3D ‘09, pp. 717. New York: ACM.

F.E. Mintz , J.G. Trafton , E. Marsh , & D. Perzanowski (2004). Proc. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Perception and Performance, Vol. 48, pp. 19331937.

T. Oskam , R.W. Sumner , N. Thuerey , & M. Gross (2009). Visibility transition planning for dynamic camera control. Proc. 2009 ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symp. Computer Animation, SCA ‘09 ( D. Fellner , & S. Spencer , Eds.), pp. 5565. New York: ACM.

M.D. Plumlee , & C. Ware (2006). Zooming versus multiple window interfaces: cognitive costs of visual comparisons. ACM Transactions on Computer–Human Interaction 13(2), 179209.

M. Potmesil , & I. Chakravarty (1981). A lens and aperture camera model for synthetic image generation. Proc. 8th Annual Conf. Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, SIGGRAPH ‘81, pp. 297305. New York: ACM.

B. Salomon , M. Garber , M.C. Lin , & D. Manocha (2003). Interactive navigation in complex environments using path planning. Proc. 2003 Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics, I3D ‘03, pp. 4150. New York: ACM.

D.S. Tan , D. Gergle , P. Scupelli , & R. Pausch (2006). Physically large displays improve performance on spatial tasks. ACM Transactions on Computer–Human Interaction 13(1), 7199.

M. Tory , A.E. Kirkpatrick , M.S. Atkins , & T. Moller (2006). Visualization task performance with 2D, 3D, and combination displays. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 12(1), 213.

L. Wanger (1992). The effect of shadow quality on the perception of spatial relationships in computer generated imagery. Proc. 1992 Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics, I3D ‘92, pp. 3942. New York: ACM.

D. Weiskopf , K. Engel , & T. Ertl (2003). Interactive clipping techniques for texture-based volume visualization and volume shading. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 9, 298312.

Z. Yang , & D. Purves (2003). A statistical explanation of visual space. Nature Neuroscience 6, 632640.

X. Zhang (2005). Space-scale animation: enhancing cross-scale understanding of multiscale structures in multiple views. Proc. Coordinated and Multiple Views in Exploratory Visualization, CMV, pp. 109120. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0890-0604
  • EISSN: 1469-1760
  • URL: /core/journals/ai-edam
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 10 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 110 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.