Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Generic grammars for design domains

  • José Beirão (a1) and José P. Duarte (a2)
Abstract

Shape grammars have been developed to codify a specific type of artifact – Queen Anne houses, Buffalo bungalows – or the style of a particular designer – Andrea Palladio, Frank Lloyd Wright, or Álvaro Siza Vieira. However, these specific grammars fail to encode recurrent design moves or features that are above the particularities of a specific design style or the idiosyncrasies of a specific designer and, therefore, are common to a larger category of designs and maybe reutilized and incorporated in the definition of new, specific design languages. To overcome these limitations, the notion of generic grammars for defining design domains is introduced. Its application to the urban design domain is illustrated by showing a generic grammar implementation resulting in a City Information Modeling platform composed of a parametric design interface connected to a geographic database.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: José P Duarte, SCDC, Stuckeman School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Penn State University, 150 Stuckeman Family Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA. E-mail: jxp400@psu.edu
References
Hide All
Alexander, C, Ishikawa, S and Silverstein, M (1977) A Pattern Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Beirão, JN (2012) City Maker: designing grammars for urban design, PhD Dissertation, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
Beirão, JN and Duarte, JP (2009) Urban design with patterns and shape rules. In Stolk, EH and Brömmelstroet, M (eds). Model Town: Using Urban Simulation in New Town Planning. Almere, The Netherlands: New Town Institute, pp. 148165.
Beirão, JN, Duarte, JP and Stouffs, R (2010) Creating generic grammars from specific grammars: towards flexible urban design. Nexus Network Journal 13(1), 73111.
Beirão, JN, Duarte, JP, Stouffs, R and Bekkering, H (2012) Designing with urban induction patterns: a methodological approach. Environment and Planning B 39, 665682.
Benrós, D, Duarte, JP and Hanna, S (2014) The inference of generic housing rules: a methodology to explain and recreate Palladian Villas, Prairie Houses and Malagueira Houses. In Gero, J and Hanna, S (eds). Design Computing and Cognition DCC'14. The Netherlands: Springer, pp. 439458.
Berghauser-Pont, B and Haupt, P (2010) Spacematrix: Space, Density and Urban Form. Rotterdam: NAI Publishers.
Caldas, L and Norford, L (2002) A design optimization tool based on a genetic algorithm. Automation in Construction 11(2), 173184.
Castro e Costa, E and Duarte, JP (2013) Mass customization of ceramic tableware through digital technology. In Bártolo, MH, Bártolo, P, Alves, N, Mateus, N, Almeida, H, Lemos, A, Craveiro, F, Reis, C, Reis, I, Durão, L, Ferreira, T, Duarte, JP, Roseta, F, Castro e Costa, E, Quaresma, F and Neves, JP (eds). Green Design, Materials, and Manufacturing Processes. The Netherlands: CRC Press/Balkema, pp. 467471.
Coelho, C, Costa, J, Leite, J, Silva, J, Trindade, L, Pereira, P, Proença, S, Fernandes, S and Monteys, X (2013) Cadernos de Morfologia Urbana: Os Elementos Urbanos. Lisboa: ed. Argumentum.
Duarte, JP (2005) A discursive grammar for customizing mass housing: the case of Siza's houses at Malagueira. Automation in Construction, 14(2), 265275.
Duarte, JP and Beirão, JN (2012) Towards a methodology for flexible urban design: designing with urban patterns and shape grammars. Environment and Planning B 38(5), 879902.
Duarte, JP, Beirão, JN, Montenegro, N and Gil, J (2012) City induction: formulating, generating, and evaluating urban plans. In Müller Arisona, S, Wonka, P, Aschwanden, G, Halatsch, J (eds). Digital Urban Modeling and Simulation. Communications in Computer and Information Science (CCIS), vol. 242. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 79104.
Fleisher, A (1992) Grammatical architecture? Environment and Planning B 19(2), 221226.
Gamma, E, Helm, R, Johnson, R and Vlissides, J (1995) Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Garcia, S and Barros, M (2015) A grammar-based system for chair design: from generic to specific shape grammars. In Martens, B, Wurzer, G, Grasl, T, Lorenz, WE and Schaffranek, R (eds). Real Time - Proceedings of the 33rd ECAADe Conference - Volume 1, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 16–18 September 2015, pp. 427436. CUMINCAD. http://papers.cumincad.org/cgi-bin/works/paper/ecaade2015_233
Gips, J (1999) Computer implementation of shape grammars. Proc. Workshop on Shape Computation, Cambridge, MA, June.
Gips, J and Stiny, G (1980) Production systems and grammars: a uniform characterization. Environment and Planning B 7(4), 399408.
Gruber, T (1993) A translation approach to portable ontology specifications. Knowledge Acquisition 5(2), 199220.
Hillier, B and Hanson, J (1984) The Social Logic of Space. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hillier, W, Hanson, J and Peponis, J (1987) Syntactic analysis of settlements. Architecture and Behaviour 3(3), 217231.
Knight, T (1992) Designing with grammars. In Schmitt, G (ed.). CAAD Futures ’91, Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures – Education, Research, Applications. Braunschweig and Wiesnaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, pp. 1934.
Koning, H and Eizenberg, J (1981) The language of the prairie: Frank Lloyd Wright's prairie houses. Environment and Planning B 8, 295323.
Lehnerer, A (2009) Grand Urban Rules. Rotterdam: OIO.
Marshall, S (2005) Streets & Patterns. London and New York: Spon Press.
Marshall, S (2011) Urban Coding and Planning. Introduction. Oxfordshire, UK: Routledge.
Mendes, L, Beirão, J, Duarte, J and Celani, G (2013) A Bottom-Up Social Housing System Described with Shape Grammars. Proc. eCAADe 2013 Conf., Delft, The Netherlands, September 18–20.
Montenegro, N, Gomes, J, Urbano, P and Duarte, J (2011) 4CitySemantics: GIS-Semantic Tool for Urban Intervention Areas. Proc. 7VCT Conf., October 11–13.
Muratori, S (1967) Civiltà e territorio. Roma: Centro studi di storia urbanistica.
Post, E (1943) Formal reductions of the general combinatorial decision problem. American Journal of Mathematics 65(2), 197215.
Schön, D (1983) The Reflective Practitioner: How Designers Think in Action. New York: Basic Books.
Shea, K and Cagan, J (1997) Innovative dome design: applying geodesic patterns with shape annealing. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering, Design and Manufacturing, 11(5), 379394.
Stiny, G (1980) Introduction to shape and shape grammars. Environment and Planning B 7(3), 343351.
Stiny, G (1981) A note on the description of designs. Environment and Planning B, 8(3), 257267.
Stiny, G and Gips, J (1972) Shape grammars and the generative specification of painting and sculpture. Proc. Int. Conf. Information Processing 71. Amsterdam: NorthHolland.
Stiny, G and Mitchell, W (1978) The Palladian grammar. Environment and Planning B 5(1), 518.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

AI EDAM
  • ISSN: 0890-0604
  • EISSN: 1469-1760
  • URL: /core/journals/ai-edam
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 37 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 113 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 9th May 2018 - 15th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.