Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-dknvm Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-24T03:56:51.032Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Candidate Genes and Political Behavior

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 February 2012

EVAN CHARNEY*
Affiliation:
Duke University
WILLIAM ENGLISH*
Affiliation:
Harvard University
*
Evan Charney is Associate Professor of the Practice of Public Policy and Political Science, Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University, 250 Rubenstein Hall, 302 Towerview Drive, Duke Box 90311, Durham, NC 27708 (echar@duke.edu).
William English is Lab Fellow, Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics, Harvard University, 124 Mount Auburn Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (wenglish@ethics.harvard.edu).

Abstract

Political scientists are making increasing use of the methodologies of behavior genetics in an attempt to uncover whether or not political behavior is heritable, as well as the specific genotypes that might act as predisposing factors for—or predictors of—political “phenotypes.” Noteworthy among the latter are a series of candidate gene association studies in which researchers claim to have discovered one or two common genetic variants that predict such behaviors as voting and political orientation. We critically examine the candidate gene association study methodology by considering, as a representative example, the recent study by Fowler and Dawes according to which “two genes predict voter turnout.” In addition to demonstrating, on the basis of the data set employed by Fowler and Dawes, that two genes do not predict voter turnout, we consider a number of difficulties, both methodological and genetic, that beset the use of gene association studies, both candidate and genome-wide, in the social and behavioral sciences.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © American Political Science Association 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

Alford, John R., Funk, Carolyn L., and Hibbing, John R.. 2005. “Are Political Orientations Genetically Transmitted?American Political Science Review 99 (2): 153–67.Google Scholar
Alia-Klein, Nelly, Kriplani, Aarti, Pradhan, Kith, Yeming Ma, Jim, Logan, Jean, Williams, Benjamin, Craig, Ian W. et al. 2008. “The MAO-A Genotype Does Not Modulate Resting Brain Metabolism in Adults.” Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 164 (1): 7376.Google Scholar
Alkan, Can, Coe, Bradley P., and Eichler, Evan E.. 2011. “Genome Structural Variation Discovery and Genotyping.” Nature Reviews Genetics 12 (5): 363–76.Google Scholar
Ansolabehere, Stephen, and Hersh, Eitan. 2008. “Vote Validation in the 2006 CCES.” Harvard University. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
Balciuniene, Jorune, Syvänen, Anne-Christine, McLeod, Howard L., Pettersson, Ulf, and Jazin, Elena E.. 2001. “The Geographic Distribution of Monoamine Oxidase Haplotypes Supports a Bottleneck during the Dispersion of Modern Humans from Africa.” Journal of Molecular Evolution 52 (2): 157–63.Google Scholar
Beaver, K. M., and Belsky, J.. N.d. “Gene-Environment Interaction and the Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting: Testing the Differential-Susceptibility Hypothesis.” Psychiatric Quarterly. Forthcoming.Google Scholar
Beaver, K. M., Mancini, C., DeLisi, M., and Vaughn, M.G.. 2011. “Resiliency to Victimization: The Role of Genetic Factors.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26 (5): 874–98.Google Scholar
Beaver, K. M., Delisi, M., Vaughn, M.G., and Wright, J.P.. 2010. “Association between the A1 Allele of the DRD2 Gene and Reduced Verbal Abilities in Adolescence and Early Adulthood.” Journal of Neural Transmission 117 (7): 827–30.Google Scholar
Beaver, K. M., Wright, J.P., DeLisi, M., Daigle, L.E., Swatt, M.L., and Gibson, C.L.. 2007a. “Evidence of a Gene × Environment Interaction in the Creation of Victimization.” International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 51 (6): 620–45.Google Scholar
Beaver, K. M., Wright, J.P., DeLisi, M., Walsh, A., Vaughn, M. G., Boisvert, D., and Vaske, J.. 2007b. “A Gene × Gene Interaction between DRD2 and DRD4 Is Associated with Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Behavior in Males.” Behavior and Brain Functions 3: 30.Google Scholar
Bell, Edward, Schermer, Julie Aitken, and Vernon, Philip A.. 2009. “The Origins of Political Attitudes and Behaviours: An Analysis Using Twins.” Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue Canadienne de Science Politique 42 (4): 855–79.Google Scholar
Berggren, Ulf, Fahlke, Claudia, Aronsson, Erik, Karanti, Aikaterini, Eriksson, Matts, Blennow, Kaj, Thelle, Dag, Zetterberg, Henrick, and Balldin, Jan. 2006. “The Taqi DRD2 A1 Allele Is Associated with Alcohol-dependence Although Its Effect Size Is Small.” Alcohol and Alcoholism 41 (5): 479–85.Google Scholar
Beutler, E. 2001. “Discrepancies between Genotype and Phenotype in Hematology: An Important Frontier.” Blood 98 (9): 25972602.Google Scholar
Bickeböller, Heike, Bailey, Julia N., Papanicolaou, George J., Rosenberger, Albert, and Viel, Kevin R.. 2005. “Dissection of Heterogeneous Phenotypes for Quantitative Trait Mapping.” Genetic Epidemiology 29 (S1): S4147.Google Scholar
Bobadilla, Joseph L., Macek, Milan Jr, Fine, Jason P., and Farrell, Philip M.. 2002. “Cystic Fibrosis: A Worldwide Analysis of CFTR Mutations-correlation with Incidence Data and Application to Screening.” Human Mutation 19 (6): 575606.Google Scholar
Bogardus, Clifton. 2009. “Missing Heritability and GWAS Utility.” Obesity 17 (2): 209–10.Google Scholar
Boklage, Charles E. 2009. “Traces of Embryogenesis Are the Same in Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins: Not Compatible with Double Ovulation.” Human Reproduction 24 (6): 1255–66.Google Scholar
Bourgain, Catherine, Abney, Mark, Schneider, Dan, Ober, Carole, and McPeek, Mary Sara. 2004. “Testing for Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in Samples with Related Individuals.” Genetics 168 (4): 2349–61.Google Scholar
Browning, Sharon R., Briley, J. David, Briley, Linda P., Chandra, Gyan, Charnecki, Jonathan H., Ehm, Margaret G., Johansson, Kelley A. et al. 2005. “Case-control Single-marker and Haplotypic Association Analysis of Pedigree Data.” Genetic Epidemiology 28 (2): 110–22.Google Scholar
Bruder, C.E.G. 2008. “Phenotypically Concordant and Discordant Monozygotic Twins Display Different DNA Copy-Number-Variation Profiles.” American Journal of Human Genetics 82: 19.Google Scholar
Cao, Y., Lu, H.M., and Liang, J.. 2010. “Probability Landscape of Heritable and Robust Epigenetic State of Lysogeny in Phage Lambda.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 107 (43): 18445–50.Google Scholar
Cardon, L.R., and Palmer, L.J.. 2003. “Population Stratification and Spurious Allelic Association.” Lancet 361: 598604.Google Scholar
Carrel, Laura, and Willard, Huntington F.. 2005. “X-inactivation Profile Reveals Extensive Variability in X-linked Gene Expression in Females.” Nature 434 (7031): 400–04.Google Scholar
Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T.E., Taylor, A., Craig, I.W., Harrington, H., McClay, Joseph et al. 2003. “Influence of Life Stress on Depression: Moderation by a Polymorphism in the 5-HTT Gene.” Science 301 (5631): 386–89.Google Scholar
Cassel, Carol A. 2003. “Overreporting and Electoral Participation Research.” American Politics Research 31 (1): 8192.Google Scholar
Cassel, Carol A. 2004. “Voting Records and Validated Voting Studies.” Public Opinion Quarterly 68 (1): 102–08.Google Scholar
Cavalli-Sforza, L.L. 1994. The History and Geography of Human genes. Edited by Menozzi, P. and Piazza, A.. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Cesarini, David, Dawes, Christopher T., Fowler, James H., Johannesson, Magnus, Lichtenstein, Paul, and Wallace, Björn. 2008. “Heritability of Cooperative Behavior in the Trust Game.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (10): 3721–26.Google Scholar
Chanock, Stephen J., Manolio, Teri, Boehnke, Michael, Boerwinkle, Eric, Hunter, David J., Thomas, Gilles, Hirschhorn, Joel N. et al. 2007. “Replicating Genotype-Phenotype Associations.” Nature 447 (7145): 655–60.Google Scholar
Childs, E., Hohoff, C., Deckert, J., Xu, K., Badner, J., and de Wit, H.. 2008. “Association between ADORA2A and DRD2 Polymorphisms and Caffeine-induced Anxiety.” Neuropsychopharmacology 33 (12): 27912800.Google Scholar
Chipman, P., Jorm, A.F., Prior, M., Sanson, A., Smart, D., Tan, X., and Easteal, S.. 2007. “No Interaction between the Serotonin Transporter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and Childhood Adversity or Recent Stressful Life Events on Symptoms of Depression: Results from Two Community Surveys.” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics 144B (4): 561–65.Google Scholar
Cirulli, Elizabeth T., and Goldstein, David B.. 2007. “In Vitro Assays Fail to Predict In Vivo Effects of Regulatory Polymorphisms.” Human Molecular Genetics 16 (16): 1931–39.Google Scholar
Clay Montier, Laura L., Deng, Janice J., and Bai, Yidong. 2009. “Number Matters: Control of Mammalian Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number.” Journal of Genetics and Genomics 36 (3): 125–31.Google Scholar
Comings, D.E. 1998. “Why Different Rules Are Required for Polygenic Inheritance: Lessons from Studies of the DRD2 Gene.” Alcohol 16 (1): 6170.Google Scholar
Comings, D.E., Muhleman, D., and Gysin, R.. 1996. “Dopamine D2 Receptor (DRD2) Gene and Susceptibility to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Study and Replication.” Biological Psychiatry 40 (5): 368–72.Google Scholar
Conrad, Donald F., Dalila, Pinto, Redon, Richard, Feuk, Lars, Gokcumen, Omer, Zhang, Yujun, Aerts, Jan et al. 2010. “Origins and Functional Impact of Copy Number Variation in the Human Genome.” Nature 464 (7289): 704–12.Google Scholar
Cotton, R.G.H., and Horaitis, O.. 2002. “The HUGO Mutation Database Initiative.” Pharmacogenomics Journal 2 (1): 1619.Google Scholar
Coufal, Nicole G., Garcia-Perez, Jose L., Peng, Grace E., Yeo, Gene W., Mu, Yangling, Lovci, Michael T., Morrell, Maria, O'Shea, Sue, Moran, John V., and Gage, Fred H.. 2009. “L1 Retrotransposition in Human Neural Progenitor Cells.” Nature 460 (7259): 1127–31.Google Scholar
Daw, J., and Guo, G.. 2011. “The Influence of Three Genes on Whether Adolescents Use Contraception, USA 1994-2002.” Population Studies 65 (3): 253–71.Google Scholar
Dawes, Christopher T., and Fowler, James H.. 2009. “Partisanship, Voting, and the Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene.” Journal of Politics 71 (3): 1157–71.Google Scholar
Dawkins, Richard. 2006. The Selfish Gene. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Dear, Paul H. 2009. “Copy-number Variation: The End of the Human Genome?Trends in Biotechnology 27 (8): 448–54.Google Scholar
De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel, and Fowler, James H.. 2010. “The MAOA Gene Predicts Credit Card Debt.” Social Science Research Network. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1457224 (accessed November 10, 2011).Google Scholar
Deckert, J., Catalano, M., Syagailo, Y.V., Bosi, M., Okladnova, O., DiBella, D., Nöthen, M.M. et al. 1999. “Excess of High Activity Monoamine Oxidase A Gene Promoter Alleles in Female Patients with Panic Disorder.” Human Molecular Genetics 8 (4): 621–24.Google Scholar
DeLisi, Matt, Beaver, Kevin M., Vaughn, Michael G., and Wright, John Paul. 2009. “All in the Family.” Criminal Justice and Behavior 36 (11): 1187–97.Google Scholar
Dick, D.M., Riley, B., and Kendler, K.S.. 2010. “Nature and Nurture in Neuropsychiatric Genetics: Where Do We Stand?Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 12 (1): 723.Google Scholar
Dipple, Katrina M., Phelan, James K., and McCabe, Edward R.B.. 2001. “Consequences of Complexity within Biological Networks: Robustness and Health, or Vulnerability and Disease.” Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 74 (1/2): 4550.Google Scholar
Doll, B.B., Hutchison, K.E., and Frank, M.J.. 2011. “Dopaminergic Genes Predict Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Confirmation Bias.” Journal of Neuroscience 31 (16): 6188–98.Google Scholar
Eaves, Lindon, and Hatemi, Peter. 2008. “Transmission of Attitudes toward Abortion and Gay Rights: Effects of Genes, Social Learning, and Mate Selection.” Behavior Genetics 38 (3): 247–56.Google Scholar
Edwards, Alexis, Rollmann, Stephanie M., Morgan, Theodore J., and Mackay, Trudy F.C.. 2006. “Quantitative Genomics of Aggressive Behavior in Drosophila Melanogaster.” PLoS Genetics 2 (9): e154.Google Scholar
Edwards, Alexis, Ayroles, Julien, Stone, Eric, Carbone, Mary, Lyman, Richard, and Mackay, Trudy. 2009a. “A Transcriptional Network Associated with Natural Variation in Drosophila Aggressive Behavior.” Genome Biology 10 (7): R76: 111.Google Scholar
Edwards, Alexis, , Liesbeth Zwarts, Yamamoto, Akihiko, , Patrick Callaerts, and Mackay, Trudy. 2009b. “Mutations in Many Genes Affect Aggressive Behavior in Drosophila Melanogaster.” BMC Biology 7 (1): 29.Google Scholar
Emanuele, E., Brondino, N., Pesent, S., Re, S., and Geroldi, D.. 2007. “Genetic Loading on Human Loving Styles.” Neuroendocrinology Letters 28 (6): 815–21.Google Scholar
Esau, Luke, Kaur, Mandeep, Adonis, Lucinda, and Arieff, Zainunisha. 2008. “The 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism in South African Healthy Populations: A Global Comparison.” Journal of Neural Transmission 115 (5): 755–60.Google Scholar
File, Thom, and Crissey, Sarah. 2010. “Voting and Registration in the Election of November 2008: Population Characteristics.” Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. www.census.gov/prod/2010pubs/p20-562.pdf (Accessed November 10, 2011).Google Scholar
Flint, J., and Munafo, M.R.. 2007. “The Endophenotype Concept in Psychiatric Genetics.” Psychological Medicine 37: 163–80.Google Scholar
Fowler, James H., Baker, Laura A., and Dawes, Christopher T.. 2008. “Genetic Variation in Political Participation.” American Political Science Review 102 (2): 233–48.Google Scholar
Fowler, James H., and Dawes, Christopher T.. 2008. “Two Genes Predict Voter Turnout.” Journal of Politics 70 (3): 579–94.Google Scholar
Fowler, James H., Settle, J.E., and Christakis, N.A.. 2011. “Correlated Genotypes in Friendship Networks.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 108 (5): 1993–97.Google Scholar
Fowler, Joanna S., Alia-Klein, Nelly, Kriplani, Aarti, Logan, Jean, Williams, Benjamin, Zhu, Wei, Craig, Ian W. et al. 2007. “Evidence That Brain MAO A Activity Does Not Correspond to MAO A Genotype in Healthy Male Subjects.” Biological Psychiatry 62 (4): 355–58.Google Scholar
Fraga, M.F., Ballesta, E., Paz, M.F., Ropero, S., and Setien, F.. 2005. “Epigenetic Differences Arise during the Lifetime of Monozygotic Twins.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102: 10604-09.Google Scholar
Franke, Barbara, Neale, Benjamin, and Faraone, Stephen. 2009. “Genome-wide Association Studies in ADHD.” Human Genetics 126 (1): 1350.Google Scholar
Frazzetto, Giovanni, Giorgio, Di Lorenzo, Carola, Valeria, Proietti, Luca, Sokolowska, Ewa, Siracusano, Alberto, Gross, Cornelius, and Troisi, Alfonso. 2007. “Early Trauma and Increased Risk for Physical Aggression during Adulthood: The Moderating Role of MAOA Genotype.” PLoS ONE 2 (5): e486.Google Scholar
Gottesman, I., and Shields, J.. 1973. “Genetic Theorizing and Schizophrenia.” British Journal of Psychiatry 122 (566): 1530.Google Scholar
Gressler, Sabine, and Haslberger, Alexander G., eds. 2010. Epigenetics and Human Health: Linking Hereditary, Environmental, and Nutritional Aspects. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH.Google Scholar
Grevle, L., Guzey, C., Hadidi, H., Brennersted, R., Idle, J.R., and Aasly, J.. 2000. “Allelic Association between the DRD2 TaqI A Polymorphism and Parkinson's Disease.” Movement Disorders 15 (6): 1070–74.Google Scholar
Guo, G., and Tillman, K.H.. 2009. “Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms, Dopamine D2 and D4 Receptors, Family Socioeconomic Status and Social Support in Adolescence and Young Adulthood.” Psychiatric Genetics 19 (1): 1426.Google Scholar
Guo, G., Roettger, M.E., and Shih, J.C.. 2007a. “Contributions of the DAT1 and DRD2 Genes to Serious and Violent Delinquency among Adolescents and Young Adults.” Human Genetics 121 (1): 125–36.Google Scholar
Guo, Guang, Wilhelmsen, Kirk, and Hamilton, Nathan. 2007b. “Gene–lifecourse Interaction for Alcohol Consumption in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Five Monoamine Genes.” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics 144B (4): 417–23.Google Scholar
Guo, G., and Tong, Y.. 2006. “Age at First Sexual Intercourse, Genes, and Social Context: Evidence from Twins and the Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene.” Demography 43 (4): 747–69.Google Scholar
Halpern, Carolyn, Kaestle, Christine, Guo, Guang, and Hallfors, Denise. 2007. “Gene-environment Contributions to Young Adult Sexual Partnering.” Archives of Sexual Behavior 36 (4): 543—54.Google Scholar
Haque, F. Nipa, Gottesman, Irving I., and Wong, Albert H.C.. 2009. “Not Really Identical: Epigenetic Differences in Monozygotic Twins and Implications for Twin Studies in Psychiatry.” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics 151C (2): 136–41.Google Scholar
Hatemi, Peter K., Alford, John R., Hibbing, John R., Martin, Nicholas G., and Eaves, Lindon J.. 2009. “Is There a ‘Party’ in Your Genes?Political Research Quarterly 62 (3): 584600.Google Scholar
Hatemi, Peter K., Medland, Sarah, Morley, Katherine, Heath, Andrew, and Martin, Nicholas. 2007. “The Genetics of Voting: An Australian Twin Study.” Behavior Genetics 37 (3): 435–48.Google Scholar
Heils, A., Teufel, A., Petri, S., Stober, G., Riederer, P., Bengel, D., and Lesch, K.P.. 1996. “Allelic Variation of Human Serotonin Transporter Gene Expression.” Journal of Neurochemistry 66: 2621–24.Google Scholar
Huizinga, David, Haberstick, Brett C., Smolen, Andrew, Menard, Scott, Young, Susan E., Corley, Robin P., Stallings, Michael C., Grotpeter, Jennifer, and Hewitt, John K.. 2006. “Childhood Maltreatment, Subsequent Antisocial Behavior, and the Role of Monoamine Oxidase A Genotype.” Biological Psychiatry 60 (7): 677–83.Google Scholar
Hunley, Keith L., Healy, Meghan E., and Long, Jeffrey C.. 2009. “The Global Pattern of Gene Identity Variation Reveals a History of Long-range Migrations, Bottlenecks, and Local Mate Exchange: Implications for Biological Race.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 139 (1): 3546.Google Scholar
Jacob, Christian P., Muller, Johannes, Schmidt, Michael, Hohenberger, Katrin, Gutknecht, Lise, Reif, Andreas, Schmidtke, Armin, Mössner, Rainard, and Peter Lesch, Klaus. 2005. “Cluster B Personality Disorders Are Associated with Allelic Variation of Monoamine Oxidase A Activity.” Neuropsychopharmacology 30 (9): 1711–18.Google Scholar
Jensen, O.N. 2004. “Modification-specific Proteomics: Characterization of Post-translational Modifications by Mass Spectrometry.” Current Opinions in Chemical Biology 8 (1): 3341.Google Scholar
Jirtle, Randy L., and Skinner, Michael K.. 2007. “Environmental Epigenomics and Disease Susceptibility.” Nature Reviews Genetics 8 (4): 253–62.Google Scholar
Jonassaint, C.R, Ashely-Koch, A., Whitfield, K., and Williams, R.B.. 2008. “The Serotonin Transporter Gene Moderates Environmental Stress Effects on Self-esteem.” Presented at the American Psychosomatic Society. Baltimore. http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/pubs/61863 (accessed November 10, 2011).Google Scholar
Kim-Cohen, J., Caspi, A., Taylor, A., Williams, B., Newcombe, R., Craig, I.W., and Moffitt, T.E.. 2006. “MAOA, Maltreatment, and Gene-environment Interaction Predicting Children's Mental Health: New Evidence and a Meta-analysis.” Molecular Psychiatry 11 (10): 903–13.Google Scholar
Klein, T.A., Neumann, J., Reuter, M., Hennig, J., von Cramon, D.Y., and Ullsperger, M.. 2007. “Genetically Determined Differences in Learning from Errors.” Science 318 (5856): 1642–45.Google Scholar
Kraft, P. 2008. “Curses-Winner's and Otherwise-in Genetic Epidemiology.” Epidemiology 19: 649–51.Google Scholar
Lango Allen, Hana, Estrada, Karol, Lettre, Guillaume, Berndt, Sonja I., Weedon, Michael N., Rivadeneira, Fernando, Willer, Cristen J. et al. 2010. “Hundreds of Variants Clustered in Genomic Loci and Biological Pathways Affect Human Height.” Nature 467 (7317): 832–38.Google Scholar
Larsen, Klaus, Holm Petersen, Jørgen, Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben, and Endahl, Lars. 2000. “Interpreting Parameters in the Logistic Regression Model with Random Effects.” Biometrics 56 (3): 909–14.Google Scholar
Lesch, Klaus-Peter, Dietmar, Bengel, Heils, Armin, Sabol, Sue Z., Greenberg, Benjamin D., Petri, Susanne, Benjamin, J., Müller, C.R., Hamer, D.H., Murphy, Dennis L.. 1996. “Association of Anxiety-related Traits with a Polymorphism in the Serotonin Transporter Gene Regulatory Region.” Science 274 (5292): 1527–31.Google Scholar
Lee, C.C., Chou, I.C., Tsai, C.H., Wang, T.R., Li, T.C., and Tsai, F.J.. 2005. “Dopamine Receptor D2 Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated in Taiwanese Children with Tourette Syndrome.” Pediatric Neurology 33 (4): 272–76.Google Scholar
Lewontin, Richard C. 2000. The Triple Helix: Gene, Organism, and Environment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Lopez-Rodriguez, R., Roman, M., Novalbos, J., Pelegrina, M.L., Ochoa, D., and Abad-Santos, F.. 2011. “DRD2 Taq1A Polymorphism Modulates Prolactin Secretion Induced by Atypical Antipsychotics in Healthy Volunteers.” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 31 (5): 555–62.Google Scholar
Lotrich, Francis E., Pollock, Bruce G., and Ferrell, Robert E.. 2003. “Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism in African Americans: Allele Frequencies and Implications for Treatment.” American Journal of PharmacoGenomics 3 (2): 145–47.Google Scholar
Machin, Geoffrey. 2009. “Non-identical Monozygotic Twins, Intermediate Twin Types, Zygosity Testing, and the Non-random Nature of Monozygotic Twinning: A Review.” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics 151C (2): 110–27.Google Scholar
Manolio, Teri A., Collins, Francis S., Cox, Nancy J., Goldstein, David B., Hindorff, Lucia A., Hunter, David J., McCarthy, Mark I. et al. 2009. “Finding the Missing Heritability of Complex Diseases.” Nature 461 (7265): 747–53.Google Scholar
Marchetto, Maria C.N., Gage, Fred H., and Muotri, Alysson R.. 2010. “Retrotransposition and Neuronal Diversity.” In Perspectives of Stem Cells: From Tools for Studying Mechanisms of Neuronal Differentiation towards Therapy, ed. H. Ulrich. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer, 87–96.Google Scholar
MarchiniJ., L.R. Cardon J., L.R. Cardon, Phillips, M.S., and Donnelly, P.. 2004. “The Effects of Human Population Structure on Large Genetic Association Studies.” Nature Genetics 36: 512–17.Google Scholar
Martin, Sandra L. 2009. “Developmental Biology: Jumping-gene Roulette.” Nature 460 (7259): 1087–88.Google Scholar
McCabe, Linda L., and McCabe, Edward R.B.. 2006. “Complexity in Genetic Diseases: How Patients Inform the Science by Ignoring the Dogma.” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 140A (2): 160–61.Google Scholar
McClellan, Jon, and King, Mary-Claire. 2010. “Genetic Heterogeneity in Human Disease.” Cell 141 (2): 210–17.Google Scholar
McClernon, F. Joseph, Fuemmeler, Bernard F., Kollins, Scott H., Kail, Melanie E., and Ashley-Koch, Allison E.. 2008. “Interactions between Genotype and Retrospective ADHD Symptoms Predict Lifetime Smoking Risk in a Sample of Young Adults.” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 10 (1): 117–27.Google Scholar
McCrae, Robert R., Scally, Matthew, Terracciano, Antonio, Abecasis, Gonçalo R., and Costa, Paul T. Jr. 2010. “An Alternative to the Search for Single Polymorphisms: Toward Molecular Personality Scales for the Five-factor Model.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 99 (6): 1014–24.Google Scholar
McDermott, Rose, Tingley, Dustin, Cowden, Jonathan, Frazzetto, Giovanni, and Johnson, Dominic D.P.. 2009. “Monoamine Oxidase A Gene (MAOA) Predicts Behavioral Aggression Following Provocation.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106 (7): 2118–23.Google Scholar
McIntosh, Hugh, Daniel, Hart, and Youniss, James. 2007. “The Influence of Family Political Discussion on Youth Civic Development: Which Parent Qualities Matter?PS: Political Science and Politics 40 (3): 495–99.Google Scholar
Mehler, Mark F. 2008. “Epigenetics and the Nervous System.” Annals of Neurology 64 (6): 602–17.Google Scholar
Mertins, V., Schote, A.B., Hoffeld, W., Griessmair, M., and Meyer, J.. 2011. “Genetic Susceptibility for Individual Cooperation Preferences: The Role of Monoamine Oxidase A Gene (MAOA) in the Voluntary Provision of Public Goods.” PLoS ONE 6 (6): 16.Google Scholar
Middeldorp, Christel, de Geus, Eco, Beem, A., Lakenberg, Nico, Hottenga, Jouke-Jan, Slagboom, P., and Boomsma, Dorret. 2007. “Family Based Association Analyses between the Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and Neuroticism, Anxiety and Depression.” Behavior Genetics 37 (2): 294301.Google Scholar
Migeon, Barbara R. 2007. Females Are Mosaics: X Inactivation and Sex Differences in Disease. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Morton, Newton E. 2005. “Linkage Disequilibrium Maps and Association Mapping.” Journal of Clinical Investigation 115 (6): 1425–30.Google Scholar
Nagel, R.L. 2005. “Epistasis and the Genetics of Human Diseases.” Comptes Rendus Biologies 328 (7): 606–15.Google Scholar
Naylor, L., Dean, B., Pereira, A., Mackinnon, A., Kouzmenko, A., and Copolov, D.. 1998. “No Association between the Serotonin Transporter-linked Promoter Region Polymorphism and Either Schizophrenia or Density of the Serotonin Transporter in Human Hippocampus.” Molecular Medicine 4 (10): 671–74.Google Scholar
Need, A.C., and Goldstein, D.B.. 2010. “Whole Genome Association Studies in Complex diseases: where do we stand?Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 12 (1): 3746.Google Scholar
Neuhaus, J.M., Hauck, W.W., and Kalbfleisch, J.D.. 1992. “The Effects of Mixture Distribution Misspecification When Fitting Mixed-effects Logistic Models.” Biometrika 79 (4): 755–62.Google Scholar
Newman, Dina L., Abney, Mark, Sara McPeek, Mary, Ober, Carole, and Cox, Nancy J.. 2001. “The Importance of Genealogy in Determining Genetic Associations with Complex Traits.” American Journal of Human Genetics 69 (5): 1146–48.Google Scholar
Nilsen, T.W., and Graveley, B.R.. 2010. “Expansion of the Eukaryotic Proteome by Alternative Splicing.” Nature 463 (7280): 457–63.Google Scholar
Nisoli, E., Brunani, A., Borgomainerio, E., Tonello, C., Dioni, L., Briscini, L., Redaelli, G., Molinari, E., Cavagnini, F., and Carruba, M.O.. 2007. “D2 Dopamine Receptor (DRD2) Gene Taq1A Polymorphism and the Eating-related Psychological Traits in Eating Disorders (Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia) and Obesity.” Eating and Weight Disorders 12 (2): 9196.Google Scholar
Noble, Denis. 2010. “Biophysics and Systems Biology.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 368 (1914): 1125–39.Google Scholar
Nordquist, Niklas, and Oreland, Lars. 2010. “Serotonin, Genetic Variability, Behaviour, and Psychiatric Disorders: A Review.” Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences 115 (1): 210.Google Scholar
Notini, A.J., Craig, J.M., and White, S.J.. 2008. “Copy Number Variation and Mosaicism.” Cytogenetic and Genome Research 123 (14): 270–77.Google Scholar
Nyman, Emma S., Loukola, Anu, Varilo, Teppo, Ekelund, Jesper, Veijola, Juha, Joukamaa, Matti, Taanila, Anja et al. 2009. “Impact of the Dopamine Receptor Gene Family on Temperament Traits in a Population-based Birth Cohort.” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics 150B (6): 854–65.Google Scholar
Ollikainen, Miina, Smith, Katherine R., Ji-Hoon Joo, Eric, Kiat Ng, Hong, Andronikos, Roberta, Novakovic, Boris, Abdul Aziz, Nur Khairunnisa et al. 2010. “DNA Methylation Analysis of Multiple Tissues from Newborn Twins Reveals Both Genetic and Intrauterine Components to Variation in the Human Neonatal Epigenome.” Human Molecular Genetics 19 (21): 4176–88.Google Scholar
Ooi, Lezanne, and Wood, Ian C.. 2008. “Regulation of Gene Expression in the Nervous System.” Biochemical Journal 414: 327–41.Google Scholar
Paclt, I., Drtilkova, I., Kopeckova, M., Theiner, P., Sery, O., and Cermakova, N.. 2010. “The Association between TaqI A Polymorphism of ANKK1 (DRD2) Gene and ADHD in Czech Boys Aged between 6 and 13 Years.” Neuroendocrinology Letters 31 (1): 131–36.Google Scholar
Pai, Chung-Yen, Chou, Su-Lien, and Fu-Yuan Huang, Frank. 2007. “Assessment of the Role of a Functional VNTR Polymorphism in MAOA Gene Promoter: A Preliminary Study.” Forensic Science Journal 6 (2): 3743.Google Scholar
Peltonen, Leena, and McKusick, Victor A.. 2001. “Dissecting Human Disease in the Postgenomic Era.” Science 291 (5507): 1224–29.Google Scholar
Pergament, E. 2005. “Postnatal Zygosity Determination.” In Multiple Pregnancy: Epidemiology, Gestation, and Perinatal Outcome, eds. Blickstein, I. and Keith, L.G.. London: Parthenon, 393402.Google Scholar
Petronis, Arturas. 2010. “Epigenetics as a Unifying Principle in the Aetiology of Complex Traits and Diseases.” Nature 465 (7299): 721–27.Google Scholar
Plomin, Robert. 1990. “The Role of Inheritance in Behavior.” Science 248 (4952): 183–88.Google Scholar
Plomin, Robert, and Davis, Oliver S.P.. 2009. “The Future of Genetics in Psychology and Psychiatry: Microarrays, Genome-wide Association, and Non-coding RNA.” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 50 (1/2): 6371.Google Scholar
Plutzer, Eric. 2002. “Becoming a Habitual Voter: Inertia, Resources, and Growth in Young Adulthood.” American Political Science Review 96 (1): 4156.Google Scholar
Power, Tom, Robert, Stewart, Ancelin, Marie-Laure, Jaussent, Isabelle, Malafosse, Alain, and Ritchie, Karen. 2010. “5-HTTLPR Genotype, Stressful Life Events, and Late-life Depression: No Evidence of Interaction in a French Population.” Neurobiology of Aging 31 (5): 886–87.Google Scholar
Prichard, Z., Mackinnon, A., Jorm, A.F., and Easteal, S.. 2008. “No Evidence for Interaction between MAOA and Childhood Adversity for Antisocial Behavior.” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B-Neuropsychiatric Genetics 147B (2): 228–32.Google Scholar
Redon, Richard, Ishikawa, Shumpei, Fitch, Karen R., Feuk, Lars, Perry, George H., Daniel Andrews, T., Fiegler, Heike et al. 2006. “Global Variation in Copy Number in the Human Genome.” Nature 444 (7118): 444–54.Google Scholar
Risch, N., Herrell, R., Lehner, T., Liang, K.Y., Eaves, L., Hoh, J., Griem, A., Kovacs, M., Ott, J., and Merikangas, K.R.. 2009. “Interaction between the Serotonin Transporter Gene (5-HTTLPR), Stressful Life Events, and Risk of Depression A Meta-analysis.” Journal of the American Medical Association 301 (23): 2462–71.Google Scholar
Sabol, S.Z., Hu, S., and Hamer, D.. 1998. “A Functional Polymorphism in the Monoamine Oxidase A Gene Promoter.” Human Genetics 103 (3): 273–79.Google Scholar
Schnable, P.S., Ware, D., Fulton, R.S., Stein, J.C., Wei, F., Pasternak, S., Liang, Chengzhi et al. 2009. “The B73 Maize Genome: Complexity, Diversity, and Dynamics.” Science 326 (5956): 1112–15.Google Scholar
Science Daily. 2008. Political Participation Is Partially Rooted in Genetic Inheritance. July 3. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/07/080701083517.htm (accessed November 10, 2011).Google Scholar
Settle, Jaime E., Dawes, Christopher T., Christakis, Nicholas A., and Fowler, James H.. 2010. “Friendships Moderate an Association between a Dopamine Gene Variant and Political Ideology.” Journal of Politics 72 (4): 1189–98.Google Scholar
Sgaramella, Vittorio, and Astolfi, Paola A.. 2010. “Somatic Genome Variations Interact with Environment, Genome and Epigenome in the Determination of the Phenotype: A Paradigm Shift in Genomics?DNA Repair 9 (4): 470–73.Google Scholar
Shahmoradgoli Najafabadi, M., Ohadi, M., Joghataie, M.T., Valaie, F., Riazalhosseini, Y., Mostafavi, H., Mohammadbeigi, Fariba, and Najmabadi, H.. 2005. “Association between the DRD2 A1 Allele and Opium Addiction in the Iranian Population.” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B-Neuropsychiatric Genetics 5 (1): 3941.Google Scholar
Shanahan, M.J., Erickson, L.D., Vaisey, S., and Smolen, A.. 2007. “Helping Relationships and Genetic Propensities: A Combinatoric Study of DRD2, Mentoring, and Educational Continuation.” Twin Research in Human Genetics 10 (2): 285–98.Google Scholar
Shanahan, M.J., Vaisey, S., Erickson, L.D., and Smolen, A.. 2008. “Environmental Contingencies and Genetic Propensities: Social Capital, Educational Continuation, and Dopamine Receptor Gene DRD2.” American Journal of Semiotics 114 (86): S26086.Google Scholar
Shioe, K., Ichimiya, T., Suhara, T., Takano, A., Sudo, Y., Yasuno, F., Hirano, Masami et al. 2003. “No Association between Genotype of the Promoter Region of Serotonin Transporter Gene and Serotonin Transporter Binding in Human Brain Measured by PET.” Synapse 48 (4): 184–88.Google Scholar
Skipper, Magdalena. 2008. “Human Genetics: Not-so-identical Twins.” Nature Reviews Genetics 9: 250–51.Google Scholar
Slatkin, Montgomery. 2009. “Epigenetic Inheritance and the Missing Heritability Problem.” Genetics 182 (3): 845–50.Google Scholar
Squassina, A., Manchia, M., Costa, M., Chillotti, C., Ardau, R., Del Zompo, M., and Severino, G.. 2011. “Age at Onset in Bipolar Disorder: Investigation of the Role of TaqIA Polymorphism of DRD2 Gene in a Sardinian Sample.” European Psychiatry 26 (3): 141–43.Google Scholar
Stephens, J. Claiborne, Schneider, Julie A., Tanguay, Debra A., Choi, Julie, Acharya, Tara, Stanley, Scott E., Jiang, Ruhong et al. 2001. “Haplotype Variation and Linkage Disequilibrium in 313 Human Genes.” Science 293 (5529): 489–93.Google Scholar
Stöber, Gerald, Syagailo, Yana V., Okladnova, Olga, Jungkunz, Gerd, Knapp, Michael, Beckmann, Helmut, and Lesch, Klaus-Peter. 1999. “Functional PAX-6 Gene-linked Polymorphic Region: Potential Association with Paranoid Schizophrenia.” Biological Psychiatry 45 (12): 1585–91.Google Scholar
Suda, A., Kawanishi, C., Kishida, I., Sato, R., Yamada, T., Nakagawa, M., Hasegawa, H., Kato, D., Furuno, T., and Hirayasu, Y.. 2009. “Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Suicide Attempt in the Japanese Population.” Neuropsychobiology 59 (2): 130–34.Google Scholar
Talmud, Philippa J., Hingorani, Aroon D., Cooper, Jackie A., Marmot, Michael G., Brunner, Eric J., Kumari, Meena, Kivimäki, Mika, and Humphries, Steve E. 2010. “Utility of Genetic and Non-genetic Risk Factors in Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes: Whitehall II Prospective Cohort Study.” British Medical Journal 340.Google Scholar
Tao, Y., Zheng, X., and Sun, Y.. 2007. “Effect of Feedback Regulation on Stochastic Gene Expression.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 247: 827–36.Google Scholar
Turkheimer, Eric. 2000. “Three Laws of Behavior Genetics and What They Mean.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 9 (5): 160–64.Google Scholar
Vaske, Jamie, Makarios, Matthew, Boisvert, Danielle, Beaver, Kevin M., and Paul Wright, John. 2009a. “The Interaction of DRD2 and Violent Victimization on Depression: An Analysis by Gender and Race.” Journal of Affective Disorders 112 (1): 120–25.Google Scholar
Vaske, Jamie, Newsome, J., Makarios, M., Wright, J. P., Boutwell, B. B., and Beaver, K. M.. 2009b. “Interaction of 5HTTLPR and Marijuana Use on Property Offending.” Biodemography and Social Biology 55 (1): 93102.Google Scholar
Vaughn, Michael G., Beaver, Kevin M., DeLisi, Matt, Perron, Brian E., and Schelbe, Lisa. 2009. “Gene-environment Interplay and the Importance of Self-control in Predicting Polydrug Use and Substance-related Problems.” Addictive Behaviors 34 (1): 112–16.Google Scholar
Wachtel, Stephen S. 1994. Molecular Genetics of Sex Determination. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Walter, N.T., Markett, S.A., Montag, C., and Reuter, M.. 2011. “A Genetic Contribution to Cooperation: Dopamine-relevant Genes Are Associated with Social Facilitation.” Social Neuroscience 6 (3): 289301.Google Scholar
Walters, Ryan D., Kugel, Jennifer F., and Goodrich, James A.. 2009. “Invaluable Junk: The Cellular Impact and Function of Alu and B2 RNAs.” IUBMB Life 61 (8): 831–37.Google Scholar
Weatherall, David J. 2000. “Science, Medicine, and the Future: Single Gene Disorders or Complex Traits: Lessons from the Thalassaemias and Other Monogenic Diseases.” British Medical Journal 321 (7269): 1117–20.Google Scholar
Whitelaw, N.C., and Whitelaw, E.. 2006. “How Lifetimes Shape Epigenotype within and across Generations.” Human Molecular Genetics 15: R131-37.Google Scholar
Willeit, M., Stastny, J., Pirker, W., Praschak-Rieder, N., Neumeister, A., Asenbaum, S., Tauser, J. et al. 2001. “No Evidence for In Vivo Regulation of Midbrain Serotonin Transporter Availability by Serotonin Transporter Promoter Gene Polymorphism.” Biological Psychiatry 50 (1): 812.Google Scholar
Williams, R.B., Marchuk, D.A., Gadde, K. M., Barefoot, J.C., Grichnik, K., Helms, M.J., Kuhn, C.M. et al. 2003. “Serotonin-related Gene Polymorphisms and Central Nervous System Serotonin Function.” Neuropsychopharmacology 28 (3): 533–41.Google Scholar
Wojczynski, Mary K., and Tiwari, Hemant K.. 2008. “Definition of Phenotype.” Advances in Genetics 60: 75105.Google Scholar
Xu, H., and Shete, S.. 2007. “Mixed-effects Logistic Approach for Association following Linkage Scan for Complex Disorders.” Annals of Human Genetics 71 (2): 230–37.Google Scholar
Young, Susan E., Smolen, Andrew, Hewitt, John K., Haberstick, Brett C., Stallings, Michael C., Corley, Robin P., and Crowley, Thomas J.. 2006. “Interaction between MAO-A Genotype and Maltreatment in the Risk for Conduct Disorder: Failure to Confirm in Adolescent Patients.” American Journal of Psychiatry 163 (6): 1019–25.Google Scholar
Zhu, Qin-shi, and Chen Shih, Jean. 1997. “An Extensive Repeat Structure Down-regulates Human Monoamine Oxidase A Promoter Activity Independent of an Initiator-Like Sequence.” Journal of Neurochemistry 69 (4): 1368–73.Google Scholar
Zuo, Yantao, Gilbert, David G., Rabinovich, Norka E., Riise, Hege, Needham, Rachel, and Huggenvik, Jodi I.. 2009. “DRD2-related TaqIA Polymorphism Modulates Motivation to Smoke.” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 11 (11): 1321–29.Google Scholar
Supplementary material: PDF

Charney supplementary material

Appendix.pdf

Download Charney supplementary material(PDF)
PDF 772 KB