Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-4hcbs Total loading time: 0.268 Render date: 2021-12-05T21:19:18.875Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Elite Competition, Religiosity, and Anti-Americanism in the Islamic World

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 May 2012

LISA BLAYDES*
Affiliation:
Stanford University
DREW A. LINZER*
Affiliation:
Emory University
*
Lisa Blaydes is Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Stanford University, Encina Hall West, Suite 100, Stanford, CA 94305 (blaydes@stanford.edu).
Drew A. Linzer is Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Emory University, 102 Tarbutton Hall, 1555 Dickey Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322 (dlinzer@emory.edu).

Abstract

The battle for public opinion in the Islamic world is an ongoing priority for U.S. diplomacy. The current debate over why many Muslims hold anti-American views revolves around whether they dislike fundamental aspects of American culture and government, or what Americans do in international affairs. We argue, instead, that Muslim anti-Americanism is predominantly a domestic, elite-led phenomenon that intensifies when there is greater competition between Islamist and secular-nationalist political factions within a country. Although more observant Muslims tend to be more anti-American, paradoxically the most anti-American countries are those in which Muslim populations are less religious overall, and thus more divided on the religious–secular issue dimension. We provide case study evidence consistent with this explanation, as well as a multilevel statistical analysis of public opinion data from nearly 13,000 Muslim respondents in 21 countries.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © American Political Science Association 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abdallah, Abdel Mahdi. 2003. “Causes of Anti-Americanism in the Arab World: A Socio-Political Perspective.Middle East Review of International Affairs 7 (4): 6273.Google Scholar
Ajami, Fouad. 1992. The Arab Predicament: Arab Political Thought and Practice since 1967. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Ajami, Fouad. 2001. “What the Muslim World is Watching.” New York Times Magazine, November 18.Google Scholar
Ajami, Fouad. 2003. “The Falseness of Anti-Americanism.” Foreign Policy (September/October): 52–61.Google Scholar
Akyol, Mustafa. 2008. “The Kemalist Crusade against ‘Imperialism’ (aka the EU).” Turkish Daily News, May 10.Google Scholar
Ansolabehere, Stephen, Rodden, Jonathan, and Snyder, James M.. 2008. “The Strength of Issues: Using Multiple Measures to Gauge Preference Stability, Ideological Constraint, and Issue Voting.American Political Science Review 102 (2): 215–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Banks, Arthur S., Muller, Thomas C., and Overstreet, William R., eds. 2007. Political Handbook of the World. Washington, DC: CQ Press.Google Scholar
Boukhars, Anouar. 2011. Politics in Morocco: Executive Monarchy and Enlightened Authoritarianism. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Bowen, John R. 2007. “Anti-Americanism as Schemas and Diacritics in France and Indonesia.” In Anti-Americanisms in World Politics, eds. Katzenstein, Peter and Keohane, Robert. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 227–50.Google Scholar
Browers, Michaelle. 2009. Political Ideology in the Arab World: Accommodation and Transformation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cagaptay, Soner. 2004. “Where Goes the U.S.-Turkish Relationship?Middle East Quarterly 11 (4): 4352.Google Scholar
Cagaptay, Soner. 2008. “The Most Anti-American Nation.” Newsweek, November 15.Google Scholar
Charney, Craig. 2005. “Morocco: The Price of Anti-Americanism.” Salon.com, January 7.Google Scholar
Chiozza, Giacomo. 2007. “Disaggregating Anti-Americanism: An Analysis of Individual Attitudes toward the United States”. In Anti-Americanisms in World Politics, eds. Katzenstein, Peter and Keohane, Robert. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 93126.Google Scholar
Chiozza, Giacomo. 2009. Anti-Americanism and the American World Order. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Clark, Andrew F. 1999. “Imperialism, Independence, and Islam in Senegal and Mali.” Africa Today 46 (3/4): 149–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cole, Juan. 2006. “Anti-Americanism: It's the Policies.American Historical Review Forum 111 (4): 1120–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Criss, Nur Bilge. 2002. “A Short History of Anti-Americanism and Terrorism: The Turkish Case.Journal of American History 89 (2): 472–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Damore, David F. 2004. “The Dynamics of Issue Ownership in Presidential Campaigns.Political Research Quarterly 57 (3): 391–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Damore, David F. 2005. “Issue Convergence in Presidential Campaigns.Political Behavior 27 (1): 7197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dieye, Abdoulaye. 2009. Secularism in Senegal: Withstanding the Challenge of Local Realities. Evanston, IL: Institute for the Study of Islamic Thought in Africa, Buffett Center, Northwestern University.Google Scholar
Doran, Michael. 2002. “The Pragmatic Fanaticism of al Qaeda: An Anatomy of Extremism in Middle Eastern Politics.Political Science Quarterly 117 (2): 177–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Druckman, James N., and Lupia, Arthur. 2000. “Preference Formation.” Annual Review of Political Science 3: 124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Entelis, John. 1989. Culture and Counterculture in Moroccan Politics. Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
Esposito, John, and Mogahed, Dalia. 2008. Who Speaks for Islam? What a Billion Muslims Really Think. New York: Gallup Press.Google Scholar
Faath, Sigrid, and Mattes, Hanspeter. 2006. “Between Anti-Americanism, Criticism of America and Americanism.” In Anti-Americanism in the Islamic World, ed. Faath, Sigrid. London: Hurst and Company, 219–38.Google Scholar
Finke, Roger, and Stark, Rodney. 1988. “Religious Economies and Sacred Canopies: Religious Mobilization in American Cities, 1906.American Sociological Review 53 (1): 41–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fuller, Graham E. 2002. “The Future of Political Islam.Foreign Affairs 81 (2): 4860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gabel, Matthew, and Scheve, Kenneth. 2007. “Mixed Messages: Party Dissent and Mass Opinion on European Integration.European Union Politics 8 (1): 3759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gallup, Inc. 2008. Global Views of U.S. Leadership. http://www.gallup.com/poll/142631/Worldwide-Leadership-Approval.aspx (accessed March 7, 2012).Google Scholar
Gelman, Andrew, and Hill, Jennifer. 2007. Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Models. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Gentzkow, Matthew A., and Shapiro, Jesse M.. 2004. “Media, Education and Anti-Americanism in the Muslim World.Journal of Economic Perspectives 18 (3): 117–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gill, Anthony. 1998. Rendering unto Caesar: The Catholic Church and the State in Latin America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Guney, Aylin. 2008. “Anti-Americanism in Turkey: Past and Present.Middle Eastern Studies 44 (3): 471–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hale, William. 2002. “Democracy and the Party System.” In Turkish Transformation: New Century – New Challenges, ed. Beeley, Brian. Huntingdon, UK: Eothen Press, 165–97.Google Scholar
Hammond, Andrew. 2007. What the Arabs Think of America. Oxford: Greenwood World.Google Scholar
Haynes, Jeff. 1996. Religion and Politics in Africa. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
Hunter, Shireen. 1995. “The Rise of Islamist Movements and the Western Response: Clash of Civilizations or Clash of Interests?” In The Islamist Dilemma: The Political Role of Islamist Movements in the Contemporary Arab World, ed. Guazzone, Laura. London: Ithaca Press, 317–50.Google Scholar
Hunter, Shireen. 1998. The Future of Islam and the West: Clash of Civilizations or Peaceful Coexistence. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
Inglehart, Ronald, and Welzel, Christian. 2005. Modernization, Cultural Change, and Democracy: The Human Development Sequence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackman, Simon. 2000. “Estimation and Inference Are Missing Data Problems: Unifying Social Science Statistics via Bayesian Simulation.Political Analysis 8 (4): 307–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kalaycioglu, Ersin. 1999. “The Shaping of Party Preferences in Turkey: Coping with the Post-Cold War Era.” New Perspectives on Turkey 20: 4776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Katzenstein, Peter, and Keohane, Robert. 2007. “Varieties of Anti-Americanism: A Framework for Analysis.” In Anti-Americanisms in World Politics, eds. Katzenstein, Peter and Keohane, Robert. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 938.Google Scholar
Keohane, Robert, and Katzenstein, Peter. 2007. “The Political Consequences of Anti-Americanism.” In Anti-Americanisms in World Politics, eds. Katzenstein, Peter and Keohane, Robert. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 273305.Google Scholar
Kinder, Donald R. 1998. “Communication and Opinion.” Annual Review of Political Science 1: 167–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
King, Gary, Keohane, Robert O., and Verba, Sidney. 1994. Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Kizilbash, Hamid H. 1988. “Anti-Americanism in Pakistan.Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 497 (1): 5867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kohut, Andrew, and Stokes, Bruce. 2006. America against the World: How We Are Different and Why We Are Disliked. New York: Holt and Company.Google Scholar
Krastev, Ivan. 2004. “The Anti-American Century?Journal of Democracy 15 (2): 516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, Jeffrey, and Linzer, Drew. 2005. “Estimating Regression Models in which the Dependent Variable Is Based on Estimates.Political Analysis 13 (4): 345–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Linzer, Drew A., and Lewis, Jeffrey. 2011. “poLCA: An R Package for Polytomous Variable Latent Class Analysis.Journal of Statistical Software 42 (10): 129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loimeier, Roman. 1996. “The Secular State and Islam in Senegal.” In Questioning the Secular State: The Worldwide Resurgence of Religion in Politics, ed. Westerlund, David. London: C. Hurst and Co., 183–97.Google Scholar
Lunn, D. J., Thomas, A., Best, N., and Spiegelhalter, D.. 2000. “WinBUGS—A Bayesian Modelling Framework: Concepts, Structure, and Extensibility.” Statistics and Computing 10: 325–37. http://www.mrc-bsu.cam.ac.uk/bugs (accessed March 7, 2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lynch, Marc. 2007. “Anti-Americanism in the Arab World.” In Anti-Americanisms in World Politics, eds. Katzenstein, Peter and Keohane, Robert. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 196224.Google Scholar
Mahmood, Saba. 2004. Politics of Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Subject. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Makdisi, Ussama. 2002. “‘Anti-Americanism’ in the Arab World: An Interpretation of a Brief History.Journal of American History 89 (2): 538–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitchell, Timothy. 2004. “American Power and Anti-Americanism in the Middle East.” In Anti-Americanism, eds. Ross, Andrew and Ross, Kristin. New York: New York University Press, 87105.Google Scholar
Munson, Henry. 1993. Religion and Power in Morocco. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murphy, Carlyle. 2002. Passion for Islam: Shaping the Modern Middle East—The Egyptian Experience. New York: Scribner.Google Scholar
Naím, Moisés. 2003. “Missing Links: The Perils of Lite Anti-Americanism.” Foreign Policy 136: 95–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nisbet, Erik, and Myers, Teresa. 2011. “Anti-American Sentiment as a Media Effect? Arab Media, Political Identity, and Public Opinion in the Middle East.Communication Research 38 (5): 684709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nisbet, Erik, and Shanahan, James. 2008. “Anti-Americanism as a Communication Problem? Foreign Media and Public Opinion toward the United States in Europe and the Middle East.” American Journal of Media Psychology 1 (1/2): 735.Google Scholar
Nye, Joseph. 1990. Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Nye, Joseph. 2004. Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
O'Brien, Donal B. Cruise. 2003. Symbolic Confrontations: Muslims Imagining the State in Africa. New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Owen, John M. 2010. The Clash of Ideas in World Politics: Transnational Networks, States, and Regime Change, 1510–2010. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parker, Richard B. 1988. “Anti-American Attitudes in the Arab World.Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 497 (1): 4657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paz, Reuven. 2003. “Islamists and Anti-Americanism.Middle East Review of International Affairs 7 (4): 5361.Google Scholar
Petrocik, John. 1996. “Issue Ownership in Presidential Elections, with a 1980 Case Study.American Journal of Political Science 40 (3): 825–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pew Global Attitudes Project. 2007. “Global Unease with Major World Powers: Rising Environmental Concern in 47-Nation Survey.” http://pewglobal.org/reports/display.php?ReportID=256 (accessed March 7, 2012).Google Scholar
Pew Global Attitudes Project. 2009. “Confidence in Obama Lifts U.S. Image around the World: Most Muslim Publics Not So Easily Moved.” http://pewglobal.org/reports/display.php?ReportID=264 (accessed March 7, 2012).Google Scholar
Pew Research Center. 2009. “Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population.” http://pewforum.org/Muslim/Mapping-the-Global-Muslim-Population.aspx (accessed March 7, 2012).Google Scholar
Pfau, Michael, and Kenski, H. C.. 1990. Attack Politics: Strategy and Defense. New York: Prager.Google Scholar
Pollock, Robert. 2005. “The Sick Man of Europe—Again.” Wall Street Journal, February 16.Google Scholar
R Development Core Team. 2011. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. http://www.R-project.org (accessed March 7, 2012).Google Scholar
Reetz, Dietrich. 2006. “Pakistan.” In Anti-Americanism in the Islamic World, eds. Faath, Sigrid. London: Hurst, 182–96.Google Scholar
Roy, Olivier. 1994. The Failure of Political Islam. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Rubinstein, Alvin Z., and Smith, Donald E.. 1988. “Anti-Americanism in the Third World.Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 497 (1): 3545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sater, James. 2010. Morocco: Challenges to Tradition and Modernity. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Schatz, Edward. 2008. “Anti-Americanism and America's Role in Central Asia.” National Council for Eurasian and East European Research. University of Toronto. Working paper.Google Scholar
Shahin, Emad Eldin. 1994. “Secularism and Nationalism: The Political Discourse of ‘Abd al-Salam Yassin.” In Islamism and Secularism in North Africa, ed. Ruedy, John. New York: St. Martin's Press, 167–86.Google Scholar
Shore, Zachary. 2005. “Can the West Win Muslim Hearts and Minds?Orbis 49 (3): 475–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Somer, Murat. 2007. “Moderate Islam and Secularist Opposition in Turkey: Implications for the World, Muslims and Secular Democracy.Third World Quarterly 28 (7): 1271–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spiliotes, Constantine J., and Vavreck, Lynn. 2002. “Campaign Advertising: Partisan Convergence and Divergence?Journal of Politics 64: 249–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stark, Rodney, and McCann, James. 1993. “Market Forces and Catholic Commitment: Exporing the New Paradigm.Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 32 (2): 111–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sturtz, Sibylle, Ligges, Uwe, and Gelman, Andrew. 2005. “R2WinBUGS: A Package for Running WinBUGS from R.Journal of Statistical Software 12 (3): 116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sutton, Philip, and Vertigans, Stephen. 2005. Resurgent Islam: A Sociological Approach. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
Taspinar, Omer. 2005. The Anatomy of Anti-Americanism in Turkey. Working Paper. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
Tessler, Mark. 2003. “Arab and Muslim Political Attitudes: Stereotypes and Evidence from Survey Research.” International Studies Perspectives 4: 175–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thornton, Thomas Perry. 1988. “Preface.Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 497 (1): 919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Villalón, Leonardo. 1995. Islamic Society and State Power in Senegal: Disciples and Citizens in Fatick. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waterbury, John. 1970. The Commander of the Faithful: The Moroccan Political Elite — A Study in Segmented Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Western, Bruce. 1998. “Causal Heterogeneity in Comparative Research: A Bayesian Hierarchical Modelling Approach.American Journal of Political Science 42 (4): 1233–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wickham, Carrie Rosefsky. 2002. Mobilizing Islam: Religion, Activism, and Political Change in Egypt. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
World Bank. 2008. World Development Indicators. Geneva: World Bank.Google Scholar
Zaller, John. 1992. The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zaman, Amberin. 2007. “Secular Turks Stage Mass Anti-Government Rally.” Voice of America, May 13.Google Scholar
Zeghal, Malika. 2008. Islamism in Morocco: Religion, Authoritarianism and Electoral Politics. Princeton: Markus Wiener.Google Scholar
Supplementary material: PDF

Blaydes and Linzer supplementary material

Appendix

Download Blaydes and Linzer supplementary material(PDF)
PDF 88 KB
59
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Elite Competition, Religiosity, and Anti-Americanism in the Islamic World
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Elite Competition, Religiosity, and Anti-Americanism in the Islamic World
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Elite Competition, Religiosity, and Anti-Americanism in the Islamic World
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *