Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-gblv7 Total loading time: 0.372 Render date: 2022-05-22T14:32:11.699Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

Unequal Participation: Democracy's Unresolved Dilemma Presidential Address, American Political Science Association, 1996

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 August 2014

Arend Lijphart*
Affiliation:
University of California, San Diego

Abstract

Low voter turnout is a serious democratic problem for five reasons: (1) It means unequal turnout that is systematically biased against less well-to-do citizens. (2) Unequal turnout spells unequal political influence. (3) U.S. voter turnout is especially low, but, measured as percent of voting-age population, it is also relatively low in most other countries. (4) Turnout in midterm, regional, local, and supranational elections—less salient but by no means unimportant elections—tends to be especially poor. (5) Turnout appears to be declining everywhere. The problem of inequality can be solved by institutional mechanisms that maximize turnout. One option is the combination of voter-friendly registration rules, proportional representation, infrequent elections, weekend voting, and holding less salient elections concurrently with the most important national elections. The other option, which can maximize turnout by itself, is compulsory voting. Its advantages far outweigh the normative and practical objections to it.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © American Political Science Association 1997

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abraham, Henry J. 1955. Compulsory Voting. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Press.Google Scholar
Abramson, Paul R. 1995. “Political Participation.” In The Encyclopedia of Democracy, ed. Lipset, Seymour Martin. 4 vols. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly.Google Scholar
Ackaert, Johan, and De Winter, Lieven. 1993. “De afwezigen hebben andermaal ongelijk: De stemverzaking in Vlaanderen op 24 november 1991.” In Kiezen is verliezen: Onderzoek naar de politieke opvattingen van Vlamingen, ed. Swyngedouw, Marc, Billiet, Jaak, Carton, Ann, and Beerten, Roeland. Leuven: Acco.Google Scholar
Ackaert, Johan, and De Winter, Lieven. 1996. “Electoral Absenteeism and Potential Absenteeism in Belgium.” Presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco.Google Scholar
Adviescommissie Opkomstplicht. 1967. Rapport van de adviescommissie opkomstplicht. The Hague: Staatsuitgeverij.Google Scholar
Aldrich, John H. 1993. “Rational Choice and Turnout.” American Journal of Political Science 37 (02):246–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Almond, Gabriel A., and Verba, Sidney. 1963. The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amy, Douglas J. 1993. Real Choices/New Voices: The Case for Proportional Representation Elections in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Andersen, Jörgen Goul. 1984. “Decline of Class Voting or Change in Class Voting? Social Classes and Party Choice in Denmark in the 1970s.” European Journal of Political Research 12 (09):243–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andeweg, Rudy B., and Irwin, Galen A.. 1993. Dutch Government and Politics. New York: St. Martin's Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ansolabehere, Stephen, and Iyengar, Shanto. 1995. Going Negative: How Attack Ads Shrink and Polarize the Electorate. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Arendt, Hannah. 1958. The Human Condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Arneson, Ben A. 1925. “Non-Voting in a Typical Ohio Community.” American Political Science Review 19 (11):816–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baloyra, Enrique A., and Martz, John D.. 1979. Political Attitudes in Venezuela: Societal Cleavages and Political Opinion. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
Barber, Benjamin R. 1984. Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Barker, Ernest. 1958. The Politics of Aristotle. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Bennett, Stephen Earl, and Resnick, David. 1990. “The Implications of Nonvoting for Democracy in the United States.” American Journal of Political Science 34 (08):771802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berelson, Bernard, and Steiner, Gary A.. 1964. Human Behavior: An Inventory of Scientific Findings. New York: Harcourt, Brace.Google Scholar
Blais, André, Blake, Donald, and Dion, Stéphane. 1996. “Do Parties Make a Difference? A Reappraisal.” American Journal of Political Science 40 (05):514–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blais, André, and Carty, R. K.. 1990. “Does Proportional Representation Foster Voter Turnout?European Journal of Political Research 18 (03):167–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borg, Sami. 1995. “Electoral Participation.” In The Impact of Values, ed. van Deth, Jan W. and Scarbrough, Elinor. Vol. 4 of Beliefs in Government. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Botella, Joan. 1994. “Local Government in Catalonia: The Making of a Local Elite, 1979–1991.” In Local Elections in Europe, ed. Nieto, Lourdes López. Barcelona: ICPS.Google Scholar
Boyd, Richard W. 1981. “Decline of U.S. Voter Turnout: Structural Explanations.” American Politics Quarterly 9 (04):133–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boyd, Richard W. 1986. “Election Calendars and Voter Turnout.” American Politics Quarterly 14 (01-April):89104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boyd, Richard W. 1989. “The Effects of Primaries and Statewide Races on Voter Turnout.” Journal of Politics 51 (08):730–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burnham, Walter Dean. 1965. “The Changing Shape of the American Political Universe.” American Political Science Review 59 (03): 728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burnham, Walter Dean. 1980. “The Appearance and Disappearance of the American Voter.” In Electoral Participation: A Comparative Analysis, ed. Rose, Richard. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Burnham, Walter Dean. 1987. “The Turnout Problem.” In Elections American Style, ed. Reichley, A. James. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
Calvert, Jerry W., and Gilchrist, Jack. 1993. “Suppose They Held an Election and Almost Everybody Came!PS: Political Science & Politics 26 (12):695700.Google Scholar
Castles, Francis G., ed. 1982. The Impact of Parties: Politics and Policies in Democratic Capitalist States. London: Sage.Google Scholar
Castles, Frank, and McKinlay, Robert D.. 1979. “Does Politics Matter: An Analysis of the Public Welfare Commitment in Advanced Democratic States.” European Journal of Political Research 7 (06):169–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Corbetta, Piergiorgio, and Parisi, Arturo M. L.. 1995. “Electoral Abstentionism in Italy.” In Electoral Abstention in Europe, ed. Font, Joan and Virós, Rosa. Barcelona: ICPS.Google Scholar
Crewe, Ivor. 1981. “Electoral Participation.” In Democracy at the Polls: A Comparative Study of Competitive National Elections, ed. Butler, David, Penniman, Howard R., and Ranney, Austin. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.Google Scholar
Daalder, Hans. 1975. “Extreme Proportional Representation: The Dutch Experience.” In Adversary Politics and Electoral Reform, ed. Finer, S. E.. London: Anthony Wigram.Google Scholar
Dahl, Robert A. 1970. After the Revolution? Authority in a Good Society. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Dahl, Robert A. 1989. Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Dalton, Russell B. 1996. Citizen Politics: Public Opinion and Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies. 2nd ed. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.Google Scholar
Darcy, R., and Schneider, Anne. 1989. “Confusing Ballots, Roll-Off, and the Black Vote.” Western Political Quarterly 42 (09):347–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Darcy, R., and Vanderleeuw, James. 1993. The Impact of Ballot Format on Voter Rolloff. Stillwater: Department of Political Science, Oklahoma State University.Google Scholar
Denters, S. A. H. 1995. “Voter Turnout in Dutch Elections.” In Electoral Abstention in Europe, ed. Font, Joan and Virós, Rosa. Barcelona: ICPS.Google Scholar
Denver, David. 1995. “Non-Voting in Britain.” In Electoral Abstention in Europe, ed. Font, Joan and Virós, Rosa. Barcelona: ICPS.Google Scholar
De Winter, Lieven, and Ackaert, Johan. 1994. “Abstentionnisme électoral et vote blanc ou nul: Le ‘non-vote’ en Wallonie.” In Élections la fêlure? Enquête sur le comportement électoral des Wallons et des Francophones, ed. Frognier, André-Paul and Vaerenbergh, Anne-Marie Aish-Van. Brussels: De Boeck.Google Scholar
Dogan, Mattei. 1995. “Erosion of Class Voting and of the Religious Vote in Western Europe.” International Social Science Journal 146 (12):525–38.Google Scholar
Erikson, Robert S. 1995. “State Turnout and Presidential Voting: A Closer Look.” American Politics Quarterly 23 (10):387–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farago, Peter. 1995. “Wahlforschung in der Schweiz: Der Neubeginn.” Swiss Political Science Review 1 (Winter):121–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farago, Peter. 1996. Wahlen 95: Zusammensetzung und politische Orientierungen der Wählerschaft an den eidgenössischen Wahlen 1995. Bern: Selects.Google Scholar
Feeley, Malcolm M. 1974. “A Solution to the ‘Voting Dilemma‘ in Modern Democratic Theory.” Ethics 84 (04):235–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernández Baeza, Mario. N.d. “El voto obligatorio en América Latina.” In Tratado de derecho electoral comparado de América Latina, ed. Nohlen, Dieter. José, San, Costa Rica: Institute Interamericano de Derechos Humanos. Forthcoming.Google Scholar
Fishkin, James S. 1991. Democracy and Deliberation: New Directions for Democratic Reform. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Fishkin, James S. 1995. The Voice of the People: Public Opinion and Democracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Flickinger, Richard S., and Studlar, Donley T.. 1992. “The Disappearing Voters? Exploring Declining Turnout in Western European Elections.” West European Politics 15 (04):116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fornos, Carolina A. 1996. “Explaining Voter Turnout in Latin America.” Master's thesis, Louisiana State University.Google Scholar
Font, Joan, and Virós, Rosa. 1995. “Catalan Electoral Abstention: A Critical Review.” In Electoral Abstention in Europe, ed. Font, Joan and Virós, Rosa. Barcelona: ICPS.Google Scholar
Franklin, Mark N. 1992. “The Decline of Cleavage Politics.” In Electoral Change: Responses to Evolving Social and Attitudinal Structures in Western Countries, ed. Franklin, Mark N., Mackie, Thomas T., and Valen, Henry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Franklin, Mark N. 1996. “Electoral Participation.” In Comparing Democracies: Elections and Voting in Global Perspective, ed. LeDuc, Laurence, Niemi, Richard G., and Norris, Pippa. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Franklin, Mark N., van derEijk, Cees, and Oppenhuis, Erik. 1996. “The Institutional Context: Turnout.” In Choosing Europe? The European Electorate and National Politics in the Face of Union, ed. van der Eijk, Cees and Franklin, Mark N.. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Gant, Michael M., and Lyons, William. 1993. “Democratic Theory, Nonvoting, and Public Policy: The 1972–1988 Presidential Elections.” American Politics Quarterly 21 (04):185204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldsmith, Michael, and Newton, Ken. 1986. “Local Government Abroad.” In The Conduct of Local Authority Business, ed. Committee of Inquiry into the Conduct of Local Authority Business. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.Google Scholar
Gosnell, Harold F. 1927. Getting Out the Vote: An Experiment in the Stimulation of Voting. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Gosnell, Harold F. 1930. Why Europe Votes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Greenberg, Edward S. 1986. Workplace Democracy: The Political Effects of Participation. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Greenberg, Edward S., Grunberg, Leon, and Daniel, Kelley. 1996. “Industrial Work and Political Participation: Beyond ‘Simple Spillover.’Political Research Quarterly 49 (06):305–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hasen, Richard L. 1996. “Voting Without Law?University of Pennsylvania Law Review 144 (05):2135–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hibbs, Douglas A. Jr. 1977. “Political Parties and Macroeconomic Policy.” American Political Science Review 71 (12):1467–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hicks, Alexander M., and Swank, Duane H.. 1992. “Politics, Institutions, and Welfare Spending in Industrialized Democracies, 1960–82.” American Political Science Review 86 (09):658–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hill, Kim Quaile, and Leighley, Jan E.. 1992. “The Policy Consequences of Class Bias in State Electorates.” American Journal of Political Science 36 (05):351–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hirczy, Wolfgang. 1994. “The Impact of Mandatory Voting Laws on Turnout: A Quasi-Experimental Approach.” Electoral Studies 13 (03):6476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hirczy, Wolfgang. 1995. “Explaining Near-Universal Turnout: The Case of Malta.” European Journal of Political Research 27 (02):255–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hirschman, Albert O. 1970. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Hoffmann-Martinot, Vincent. 1994. “Voter Turnout in French Municipal Elections.” In Local Elections in Europe, ed. Nieto, Lourdes López. Barcelona: ICPS.Google Scholar
Hout, Michael, Brooks, Clem, and Manza, Jeff. 1995. “The Democratic Class Struggle in the United States, 1948–1992.” American Sociological Review 60 (12): 805–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Inglehart, Ronald. 1990. Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Irwin, Galen A. 1974. “Compulsory Voting Legislation: Impact on Voter Turnout in the Netherlands.” Comparative Political Studies 7 (10):292315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackman, Robert W. 1987. “Political Institutions and Voter Turnout in the Industrial Democracies.” American Political Science Review 81 (06):405–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackman, Robert W., and Miller, Ross A.. 1995. “Voter Turnout in the Industrial Democracies During the 1980s.” Comparative Political Studies 27 (01):467–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Justel, Manuel. 1995. “Electoral Abstention in Spain: Characteristics and Factors.” In Electoral Abstention in Europe, ed. Font, Joan and Virós, Rosa. Barcelona: ICPS.Google Scholar
Kaase, Max. 1996. “The Impact of Sociopolitical Change in Western Europe on Transatlantic Relations.” In Estranged Friends? The Transatlantic Consequences of Societal Change, ed. Kaase, Max and Kohut, Andrew. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press.Google Scholar
Kaase, Max, Newton, Kenneth, and Scarbrough, Elinor. 1996. “A Look at the Beliefs in Government Study.” PS: Political Science & Politics 29 (06):226–28.Google Scholar
Kennedy, J. Ray. 1996. “Canadian Province Sees Four in October: Referendums in Quebec.” Elections Today 5 (01):1819.Google Scholar
Key, V. O. Jr. 1949. Southern Politics in State and Nation. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
King, Anthony. 1981. “What Do Elections Decide?” In Democracy at the Polls: A Comparative Study of Competitive National Elections, ed. Butler, David, Penniman, Howard R., and Ranney, Austin. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.Google Scholar
Klingemann, Hans-Dieter, Hofferbert, Richard I., and Budge, Ian. 1994. Parties, Policies, and Democracy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
Lafferty, William M. 1989. “Work as a Source of Political Learning Among Wage-Laborers and Lower-Level Employees.” In Political Learning in Adulthood: A Sourcebook of Theory and Research, ed. Sigel, Roberta S.. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Leighley, Jan E. 1995. “Attitudes, Opportunities and Incentives: A Field Essay on Political Participation.” Political Research Quarterly 48 (03):181209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lijphart, Arend. 1994. “Democracies: Forms, Performance, and Constitutional Engineering.” European Journal of Political Research 25 (01):117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Linder, Wolf. 1994. Swiss Democracy: Possible Solutions to Conflict in Multicultural Societies. New York: St. Martin's Press.Google Scholar
Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1960. Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1981. Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics. Expanded ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Lombardo, Salvatore. 1996. “Mandatory Voting and Voter Participation in Italy.” Presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco.Google Scholar
López Nieto, Lourdes. 1994. “Local Elections in the Spanish Political System: 1979–1991.” In Local Elections in Europe, ed. Nieto, Lourdes López. Barcelona: ICPS.Google Scholar
Mackerras, Malcolm, and McAllister, Ian. 1996. “Compulsory Voting, Party Stability and Electoral Bias in Australia.” Presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco.Google Scholar
Manza, Jeff, Hout, Michael, and Brooks, Clem. 1995. “Class Voting in Capitalist Democracies Since World War II: Dealignment, Realignment, or Trendless Fluctuation?” In Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 21, ed. Hagan, John and Cook, Karen S.. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.Google Scholar
Marsh, Alan, and Kaase, Max. 1979. “Background of Political Action.” In Political Action: Mass Participation in Five Western Democracies, ed. Barnes, Samuel H. and Kaase, Max. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
McAllister, Ian. 1986. “Compulsory Voting, Turnout and Party Advantage in Australia.” Politics 21 (05):8993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McAllister, Ian, and Mughan, Anthony. 1986. “Differential Turnout and Party Advantage in British General Elections, 1964–83.” Electoral Studies 5 (08):143–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mebane, Walter R. Jr. 1994. “Fiscal Constraints and Electoral Manipulation in American Social Welfare.” American Political Science Review 88 (03):7794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mill, John Stuart. [1861] 1958. Considerations on Representative Government. New York: Liberal Arts Press.Google Scholar
Miller, William L. 1994. “Local Elections in Britain.” In Local Elections in Europe, ed. Nieto, Lourdes López. Barcelona: ICPS.Google Scholar
Vega, Molina, Enrique, José. 1991. El sistema electoral venezolano y sus consecuencias políticas. San José, Costa Rica: IIDH/CAPEL.Google Scholar
Vega, Molina, Enrique, José. 1995. “Los venezolanos abandonan el hábito de votar: La abstentión en las elecciones de 1993.” Boletín Electoral Latinoamericano 13 (01–June):159–79.Google Scholar
Morris Jones, W. H. 1954. “In Defense of Apathy: Some Doubts on the Duty to Vote.” Political Studies 2 (1):2537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mottier, Véronique. 1993. “La structuration sociale de la participation aux votations fédérates.” In Citoyenneté et démocratie directe: Compétence, participation et décision des citoyens et citoyennes suisses, ed. Kriesi, Hanspeter. Zurich: Seismo.Google Scholar
Nagel, Jack H. 1988. “Voter Turnout in New Zealand General Elections, 1928–1988.” Political Science 40 (12):1638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Niedermayer, Oskar. 1990. “Turnout in the European Elections.” Electoral Studies 9 (03):4550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nieuwbeerta, Paul. 1995. The Democratic Class Struggle in Twenty Countries, 1945–1990. Amsterdam: Thesis Publishers.Google Scholar
Nohlen, Dieter, ed. 1993. Enciclopedia electoral latinoamericana y del Caribe. San José, Costa Rica: Instituto Interamericano de Derechos Humanos.Google Scholar
Ochoa, Enrique C. 1987. “The Rapid Expansion of Voter Participation in Latin America: Presidential Elections, 1845–1986. In vol. 25 of Statistical Abstract of Latin America, ed. Wilkie, James W. and Lorey, David. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center Publications, University of California.Google Scholar
Oliver, J. Eric. 1996. “The Effects of Eligibility Restrictions and Party Activity on Absentee Voting and Overall Turnout.” American Journal of Political Science 40 (05):498513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oppenhuis, Erik Vincent. 1995. Voting Behavior in Europe: A Comparative Analysis of Electoral Participation and Party Choice. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.Google Scholar
Pacek, Alexander, and Radcliff, Benjamin. 1995. “Turnout and the Vote for Left-of-Centre Parties: A Cross-National Analysis.” British Journal of Political Science 25 (01):137–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pateman, Carole. 1970. Participation and Democratic Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peterson, Steven A. 1992. “Workplace Politicization and Its Political Spillovers: A Research Note.” Economic and Industrial Democracy 13 (11):511–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petrocik, John R. 1987. “Voter Turnout and Electoral Preference: The Anomalous Reagan Elections.” In Elections in America, ed. Schlozman, Kay Lehman. Boston: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
Piven, Frances Fox, and Cloward, Richard A.. 1988a. Why Americans Don't Vote. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
Piven, Frances Fox, and Cloward, Richard A.. 1988b. “National Voter Registration Reform: How It Might Be Won.” PS: Political Science & Politics 21 (Fall):868–75.Google Scholar
Popkin, Samuel L. 1991. The Reasoning Voter: Communication and Persuasion in Presidential Campaigns. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Powell, G. Bingham Jr. 1980. “Voting Turnout in Thirty Democracies: Partisan, Legal, and Socio-Economic Influences.” In Electoral Participation: A Comparative Analysis, ed. Rose, Richard. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Powell, G. Bingham Jr. 1982. Contemporary Democracies: Participation, Stability, and Violence. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Powell, G. Bingham Jr. 1986. “American Voter Turnout in Comparative Perspective.” American Political Science Review 80 (03):1743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Power, Timothy J., and Roberts, J. Timmons. 1995. “Compulsory Voting, Invalid Ballots, and Abstention in Brazil.” Political Research Quarterly 48 (12):795826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Puplick, Chris. 1995. “The Case for Compulsory Voting.” Elections Today 5 (10):35.Google Scholar
Radcliff, Benjamin. 1994. “Turnout and the Democratic Vote.” American Politics Quarterly 22 (07):259–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Radcliff, Benjamin. 1995. “Turnout and the Vote Revisited: A reply to Erikson.” American Politics Quarterly 23 (10):397403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rallings, Colin, and Thrasher, Michael. 1990. “Turnout in English Local Elections: An Aggregate Analysis with Electoral and Contextual Data.” Electoral Studies 9 (06):7990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reif, Karlheinz, and Schmitt, Hermann. 1980. “Nine Second-Order National Elections: A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of European Election Results.” European Journal of Political Research 8 (03):344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riggs, Fred W. 1988. “The Survival of Presidentialism in America: Para-Constitutional Practices.” International Political Science Review 9 (10):247–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenstone, Steven J., and Hansen, John Mark. 1993. Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Särlvik, Bo, and Crewe, Ivor. 1983. Decade of Dealignment: The Conservative Victory of 1979 and Electoral Trends in the 1970s. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Schultze, Rainer-Olaf. 1995. “Voting and Non-Voting in German Elections.” In Electoral Abstention in Europe, ed. Font, Joan and Virós, Rosa. Barcelona: ICPS.Google Scholar
Schweizer, Steven L. 1995. “Participation, Workplace Democracy, and the Problem of Representative Government.” Polity 27 (Spring):359–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seligson, Mitchell A., Conroy, Annabelle, Macías, Ricardo Córdova, Pérez, Orlando J., and Stein, Andrew J.. 1995. “Who Votes in Central America? A Comparative Analysis.” In Elections and Democracy in Central America, Revisited, ed. Seligson, Mitchell A. and Booth, John A.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Shaffer, Stephen D. 1982. “Policy Differences Between Voters and Non-Voters in American Elections.” Western Political Quarterly 35 (12):496510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sidjanski, Dusan. 1983. “Turnout, Stability, and the Left-Right Dimension.” In Switzerland at the Polls: The National Elections of 1979, ed. Penniman, Howard R.. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.Google Scholar
Smeets, Ingrid. 1995. “Facing Another Gap: An Exploration of the Discrepancies Between Voting Turnout in Survey Research and Official Statistics.” Acta Politica 30 (07):307–34.Google Scholar
Smith, Julie. 1995. “The 1994 European Elections: Twelve Into One Won't Go.” West European Politics 18 (07):199217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sobel, Richard. 1993. “From Occupational Involvement to Political Participation: An Exploratory Analysis.” Political Behavior 15 (12):339–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Staveley, E. S. 1972. Greek and Roman Voting and Elections. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Steinberg, Jacques. 1996. “Vote Changes New York School Board Little.” New York Times (National Edition, 06 12):B8.Google Scholar
Studlar, Donley T., and Welch, Susan. 1986. “The Policy Opinions of British Nonvoters: A Research Note.” European Journal of Political Research 14 (1–2):139–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Teixeira, Ruy A. 1992. The Disappearing American Voter. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
Tingsten, Herbert. 1937. Political Behavior: Studies in Election Statistics. London: P. S. King & Son.Google Scholar
Topf, Richard. 1995. “Electoral Participation.” In Citizens and the State, ed. Klingemann, Hans-Dieter and Fuchs, Dieter. Vol. 1 of Beliefs in Government. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Tufte, Edward R. 1978. Political Control of the Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Urwin, Derek W. 1974. “Germany: Continuity and Change in Electoral Politics.” In Electoral Behavior: A Comparative Handbook, ed. Rose, Richard. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
van der Eijk, Cees, Franklin, Mark N., and Marsh, Michael. 1996. “What Voters Teach Us About Europe-Wide Elections: What Europe-Wide Elections Teach Us About Voters.” Electoral Studies 15 (05):149–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verba, Sidney. 1996. “The Citizen as Respondent: Sample Surveys and American Democracy.” American Political Science Review 90 (03):17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verba, Sidney, Nie, Norman H., and Kim, Jae-On. 1978. Participation and Political Equality: A Seven-Nation Comparison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Verba, Sidney, Schlozman, Kay Lehman, and Brady, Henry E.. 1995. Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Verplanke, C. J. 1965. “De opkomstplicht.” Anti-Revolutionaire Staatkunde 35 (03):7598.Google Scholar
Wattenberg, Martin P. 1991. The Rise of Candidate-Centered Politics: Presidential Elections of the 1980s. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wertheimer, Alan. 1975. “In Defense of Compulsory Voting.” In Participation in Politics, ed. Pennock, J. Roland and Chapman, John W.. New York: Lieber-Atherton.Google Scholar
Widfeldt, Anders. 1996. “The Swedish European Election of 1995.” Electoral Studies 15 (02):116–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolfinger, Raymond E. 1994. “The Rational Citizen Faces Election Day or What Rational Choice Theorists Don't Tell You About American Elections.” In Elections at Home and Abroad: Essays in Honor of Warren E. Miller, ed. Jennings, M. Kent and Mann, Thomas E.. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Wolfinger, Raymond E., Glass, David P., and Squire, Peverill. 1990. “Predictors of Electoral Turnout: An International Comparison.” Policy Studies Review 9 (Spring):551–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolfinger, Raymond E., and Rosenstone, Steven J.. 1980. Who Votes? New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
765
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Unequal Participation: Democracy's Unresolved Dilemma Presidential Address, American Political Science Association, 1996
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Unequal Participation: Democracy's Unresolved Dilemma Presidential Address, American Political Science Association, 1996
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Unequal Participation: Democracy's Unresolved Dilemma Presidential Address, American Political Science Association, 1996
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *