Adolphson Mikael, and Ramseyer J. Mark. 2009. “The Competitive Enforcement of Property Rights in Medieval Japan: The Role of Temples and Monasteries.” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 71 (3): 660–68.
Alexeev Michael, Janeba Eckhard, and Osborne Stefan. 2004. “Taxation and Evasion in the Presence of Extortion by Organized Crime.” Journal of Comparative Economics 32 (3): 375–87.
American Public Media. 2008. “Transcript.” Gangster Confidential. American RadioWorks.
Anderson Terry L., and Hill Peter J.. 2004. The Not So Wild Wild West: Property Rights on the Frontier. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Bates Robert, Greif Avner, and Singh Smita. 2002. “Organizing Violence.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 46 (5): 599–628.
Bayer Patrick, Hjalmarsson Randi, and Posen David. 2009. “Building Criminal Capital Behind Bars: Peer Effects in Juvenile Corrections.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 124 (1): 105–47.
Bandiera Oriana. 2003. “Land Reform, the Market for Protection, and the Origins of the Sicilian Mafia: Theory and Evidence.” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 19 (1): 218–44.
Benson Bruce. 1989. “The Spontaneous Evolution of Commercial Law.” Southern Economics Journal 55 (3): 644–61.
Berman Eli. 2000. “Sect, Subsidy, and Sacrifice: An Economist's View of Ultra-Orthodox Jews.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 115 (3): 905–53.
Berman Eli. 2009. Radical, Religious, and Violent: The New Economics of Terrorism. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Berman Eli, and Laitin David. 2005. “Hard Targets: Theory and Evidence on Suicide Attacks.” NBER Working Paper No. W11740.
Berman Eli, and Laitin David. 2008. “Religion, Terrorism, and Public Goods: Testing the Club Model.” Journal of Public Economics 92: 1942–67.
Bernstein Lisa. 1992. “Opting out of the Legal System: Extralegal Contractual Relations in the Diamond Industry.” Journal of Legal Studies 21 (1): 115–57.
Blatchford Chris. 2008. The Black Hand. New York: Harper Collins.
Buchanan James M. 1973. “A Defense of Organized Crime?” In The Economics of Crime and Punishment, ed. Simon Rottenberg. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 119–32.
Bueno de Mesquita Ethan. 2005. “The Quality of Terror.” American Journal of Political Science 49 (3): 515–30.
Bueno de Mesquita Ethan, and Dickson Eric. 2007. “The Propaganda of the Deed: Terrorism, Counterterrorism, and Mobilization.” American Journal of Political Science 51 (2): 364–81.
Coyne Christopher J. 2007. After War: The Political Economy of Exporting Democracy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Cornes Richard, and Sandler Todd. 1996. The Theory of Externalities, Public Goods, and Club Goods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
D'Amico Daniel J. 2010. “The Prison in Economics: Private and Public Incarceration in Ancient Greece.” Public Choice 145 (3/4): 461–82.
Davidson R. Theodore. 1974. Chicano Prisoners: The Key to San Quentin. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.
Davis Darren W., and Silver Brian D.. 2004. “Civil Liberties v. Security: Public Opinion in the Context of the Terrorist Attacks on America.” American Journal of Political Science 48 (1): 28–46.
Demsetz Harold. 1972. “When Does the Rule of Liability Matter?” Journal of Legal Studies 1 (1): 13–28.
Dick Andrew R. 1995. “When Does Organized Crime Pay? A Transaction Cost Analysis.” International Review of Law and Economics 15: 25–45.
Ellickson Robert. 1991. Order without Law: How Neighbors Settle Disputes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2008. Freedom of Information and Privacy Acts Subject File: Nuestra Familia.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2009a. Freedom of Information and Privacy Acts Subject File: Mexican Mafia (File 1).
Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2009b. Freedom of Information and Privacy Acts Subject File: Mexican Mafia (File 2).
Fong Robert S., and Buentello Salvador. 1991. “The Detection of Prison Gang Development: An Empirical Assessment.” Federal Probation 55 (1): 66–69.
Fuentes Nina. 2006. The Rise and Fall of the Nuestra Familia. Jefferson, WI: Know Gangs.
Gambetta Diego. 1993. The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gambetta Diego. 2009. Codes of the Underworld: How Criminals Communicate. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Greif Avner. 1989. “Reputation and Coalitions in Medieval Trade: Evidence on the Maghribi Traders.” Journal of Economic History 49 (4): 857–82.
Greif Avner. 2006. Institutions and the Path to the Modern Economy: Lessons from Medieval Trade. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Grossman Herschel I. 1995. “Rival Kleptocrats: The Mafia versus the State.” In The Economics of Organised Crime, eds. Fiorentini Gianluca and Peltzman Sam. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 143–60.
Hagerdorn John H. 1998. “Gang Violence in the Postindustrial Era.” Crime and Justice 24: 365–419.
Hansmann Henry. 1988. “Ownership of the Firm.” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 4 (2): 267–304.
Hill Peter B. 2006. The Japanese Mafia: Yakuza, Law and the State. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hirschman Albert O. 1970. Exit, Loyalty, and Voice: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hooghe Liesbet, and Marks Gary. 2003. “Unraveling the Central State, but How? Types of Multi-level Governance.” American Political Science Review 97 (2): 233–43.
Huddy Leonie, Feldman Stanley, Taber Charles, and Lahav Gallya. 2005. “Threat, Anxiety, and Support of Antiterrorism Policy.” American Journal of Political Science 49 (3): 593–608.
Hutson H. Range, Anglin Deirdre, Kyriacou Demetrios N., Hart Joel, and Spears Kevin. 1995. “The Epidemic of Gang-related Homicides in Los Angeles County from 1979 through 1994.” Journal of the American Medical Association 274 (13): 1031–36.
Iannaconne Laurence. 1992. “Sacrifice and Stigma: Reducing Free-riding in Cults, Communes, and Other Collectives.” Journal of Political Economy 100 (2): 271–91.
Irwin John. 1980. Prisons in Turmoil. Boston: Little, Brown.
Jankowski Martin. 1991. Islands in the Street: Gangs and American Urban Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Johnson Joe. 2011. “No Longer Calling the Shots.” Hanford Sentinel, 7 May.
Johnson v. California. 2005. 543 U.S. 499.
Kaminski Marek. 2004. Games Prisoners Play: The Tragicomic Worlds of Polish Prisons. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kleiman Mark. 2009. When Brute Force Fails: How to Have Less Crime and Less Punishment. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Landa Janet T. 1981. “A Theory of the Ethnically Homogeneous Middleman Group: An Institutional Alternative to Contract Law.” Journal of Legal Studies 10 (2): 349–62.
Langan Patrick A., and Levin David J.. 2002. “Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1994.” Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.
Leeson Peter. 2007a. “An-arrgh-chy: The Law and Economics of Pirate Organization.” Journal of Political Economy 115 (6): 1049–94.
Leeson Peter. 2007b. “Trading with Bandits.” Journal of Law and Economics 50 (2): 471–503.
Leeson Peter. 2008. “Social Distance and Self-enforcing Exchange.” Journal of Legal Studies 37 (1): 161–88.
Leeson Peter. 2009. “The Laws of Lawlessness.” Journal of Legal Studies 38 (2): 471–503.
Leeson Peter, and Rogers Douglass. N.d. “Organizing Crime.” Supreme Court Economic Review. Forthcoming.
Leeson Peter, and Skarbek David. 2010. “Criminal Constitutions.” Global Crime 11 (3): 279–98.
Leeson Peter, and Williamson Claudia. 2009. “Anarchy and Development: An Application of the Theory of Second Best.” Law and Development Review 2 (1): 76–96.
Lessing Benjamin. 2010. “The Danger of Dungeons: Gangs and Armed Groups in Prison.” In Small Arms Survey 2010, ed. Berman Eric G.. New York: Cambridge University Press, 157–83.
Levitt Steven D., and Venkatesh Sudhir A.. 2000. “An Economic Analysis of a Drug-selling Gang's Finances.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 115 (3): 755–89.
Los Angeles Police Department. 2006. Citywide Gang Crime Summary, July.
McGuire Martin C., and Olson Mancur. 1996. “The Economics of Autocracy and Majority Rule: The Invisible Hand and the Use of Force.” Journal of Economic Literature 34 (1): 72–96.
Melde Chris, Taylor Terrance J., and Esbensen Finn-Aage. 2009. “‘I Got Your Back’: An Examination of the Protective Function of Gang Membership in Adolescence.” Criminology 47 (2): 565–94.
Mendoza Ramon A. 2005. Mexican Mafia: From Altar Boy to Hitman. Corona, CA: Ken Whitley.
Milhaupt Curtis J., and West Mark D.. 2000. “The Dark Side of Private Ordering: An Institutional and Empirical Analysis of Organized Crime.” University of Chicago Law Review 67 (1): 41–98.
Miron Jeffrey A. 1999. “Violence and U.S. Prohibitions of Drugs and Alcohol.” American Law and Economics Review 1 (1): 7–114.
Morrill Robert. 2005. The Mexican Mafia: The Story. Denver, CO.: Security Threat Intelligence Network Group.
Morales Gabriel C. 2008. La Familia—The Family: Prison Gangs in America. San Antonio, TX: Mungia.
Munger Michael. 2006. “Preference Modification vs. Incentive Manipulation as Tools of Terrorist Recruitment: The Role of Culture.” Public Choice 128: 131–46.
North Douglass. 1987. “Institutions, Transaction Costs, and Economic Growth.” Economic Inquiry 25 (3): 419–28.
North Douglass C., Wallis John J., and Weingast Barry R.. 2009. Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Olson David, Dooley Brendan, and Kane Candice. 2004. “Research Bulletin: The Relationship between Gang Membership and Inmate Recidivism.” Criminal Justice Information Authority 2 (12): 1–12.
Olson Mancur. 1971. The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Olson Mancur. 1993. “Dictatorship, Democracy, and Development.” American Political Science Review 87 (3): 567–76.
Olson Mancur. 2000. Power and Prosperity: Outgrowing Communist and Capitalist Dictatorships. New York: Basic Books.
Ostrom Elinor. 1990. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ostrom Elinor, Walker James, and Gardner Roy. 1992. “Covenants With and Without a Sword: Self-governance Is Possible.” American Political Science Review 86 (2): 404–17.
Pape Robert A. 2003. “The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism.” American Political Science Review 97 (3): 343–61.
People v. Moreno. 2010. No. B215203. (Cal. Ct. App. 2nd Dist. Filed Aug. 19).
People v. Parraz. 2008. No. SCS187166, slip op. (Cal. Ct. App. 4th Dist. Filed Sept. 10).
People v. Torres. 2009. No. B204007. (Cal. Ct. App. 2nd Dist. Filed Jan. 8).
Benjamin Powell, and Stringham Edward. 2009. “Public Choice and the Economic Analysis of Anarchy: A Survey.” Public Choice 140 (3/4): 503–38.
Rafael Tony. 2007. The Mexican Mafia. New York: Encounter Books.
Schaeffer Emily C. 2008. “Remittances and Reputation in Hawala Money Transfer Systems: Self-enforcing Exchange on an International Scale.” Journal of Private Enterprise 24 (1): 95–117.
Schelling Thomas. 1971. “What Is the Business of Organized Crime?” Journal of Public Law 20 (1): 71–84.
Skaperdas Stergios. 2001. “The Political Economy of Organized Crime: Providing Protection When the State Does Not.” Economics of Governance 2 (3): 173–202.
Skaperdas Stergios, and Syropoulos Constantinos. 1995. “Gangs as Primitive States.” In The Economics of Organised Crime, eds. Fiorentini G. and Peltzman S.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 61–82.
Skarbek David B. 2010. “Putting the ‘Con’ into Constitutions: The Economics of Prison Gangs.” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 26 (2): 183–211.
Sobel Russell, and Osoba Brian. 2009. “Youth Gangs as Pseudo-governments: Implications for Violent Crime.” Southern Economics Journal 75 (4): 996–1018.
Stringham Edward (ed.). 2007. Anarchy and the Law: The Political Economy of Choice. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Sykes Gresham M.  2007. The Society of Captives: A Study of a Maximum Security Prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Tilly Charles. 1985. “War Making and State Making as Organized Crime.” In Bringing the State Back In, eds. Evans P., Rueschemeyer D., and Skocpol T.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Trulson Chad R., Marquart James W., Hemmens Craig, and Carroll Leo. 2008. “Racial Desegregation in Prisons.” The Prison Journal 88 (2): 270–99.
Tullock Gordon.  2005. The Social Dilemma. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund.
United States v. Aguirre et al. 1994. Indictment. Federal District Court, Central District of California, June.
United States v. Aguirre et al. 2009. Indictment. Federal District Court, Central District of California, June.
United States v. Alfaro et al. 2008. Indictment. Federal District Court, Central District of California, October
United States v. Barajas et al. 2008. Indictment. Federal District Court, Central District of California, June.
United States v. Barajas et al. 2009. Indictment. Federal District Court, Central District of California, October.
United States v. Cavazos et al. 2008. Indictment. Federal District Court, Central District of California, February.
United States v. Eastside Rivas. 2010. Criminal Complaint. Federal District Court, Central District of California.
United States v. Fernandez et al. 2004. 388 F. 3d 1199—Court of Appeals, 9th Circuit.
United States v. Flores et al. 2008. Indictment. Federal District Court, Central District of California, June.
United States v. Henley et al. 2008. Indictment. Federal District Court, Central District of California, June.
United States v. Hernandez et al. 2009. Indictment. Federal District Court, Central District of California, February.
United States v. Ojeda et al. 2010. Indictment. Federal District Court, Central District of California, Southern Division, September.
United States v. Pantoja et al. 2007. Indictment. Federal District Court, Central District of California, June.
United States v. Shryock et al. 2003. 342 F. 3d 948—Court of Appeals, 9th Circuit.
United States v. Sotelo et al. 2008. Indictment. Federal District Court, Central District of California, June.
United States v. Vasquez et al. 2007. Indictment. Federal District Court, Central District of California, February.
Varese Federico. 2005. The Russian Mafia: Private Protection in a New Market Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Varese Federico. 2006. “How Mafias Migrate: The Case of the `Ndrangheta in Northern Italy.” Law and Society Review 40 (2): 411–44.
Varese Federico. 2011. Mafias on the Move: How Organized Crime Conquers New Territories. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Weingast Barry R. 1995. “The Economic Role of Political Institutions: Market-preserving Federalism and Economic Development.” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 11 (1): 1–31.
Williamson Oliver E. 1985. The Economic Institutions of Capitalism. New York: Free Press.
Wintrobe Ronald. 1990. “The Tinpot and the Totalitarian: An Economic Theory of Dictatorship.” American Journal of Political Science 83 (3): 849–72.
Wintrobe Ronald. 1998. The Political Economy of Dictatorship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.