Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 52
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Chinivasagam, H. N. Estella, W. Rodrigues, H. Mayer, D. G. Weyand, C. Tran, T. Onysk, A. and Diallo, I. 2016. On-farmCampylobacterandEscherichia coliin commercial broiler chickens: Re-used bedding does not influenceCampylobacteremergence and levels across sequential farming cycles. Poultry Science, Vol. 95, Issue. 5, p. 1105.

    Ezzat Abd El-Hack, Mohamed Alagawany, Mahmoud Ragab Farag, Mayada Tiwari, Ruchi Karthik, Kumaragurubaran Dhama, Kuldeep Zorriehzahra, Jalil and Adel, Milad 2016. Beneficial impacts of thymol essential oil on health and production of animals, fish and poultry: a review. Journal of Essential Oil Research, Vol. 28, Issue. 5, p. 365.

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S. Jiménez-Trigos, E. Marco-Jiménez, F. Catalá, P. Vega, S. and Marin, C. 2016. Campylobacterepidemiology from breeders to their progeny in Eastern Spain. Poultry Science, Vol. 95, Issue. 3, p. 676.

    Kassem, Issmat Kehinde, Olugbenga Helmy, Yosra Pina-Mimbela, Ruby Kumar, Anand Chandrashekhar, Kshipra and Rajashekara, Gireesh 2016. Foodborne Diseases.

    Mendonça, Eliane Pereira Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz and Monteiro, Guilherme Paz 2016. Campylobacter spp. and Related Organisms in Poultry.

    Ranjitkar, Samir and Engberg, Ricarda Margarete 2016. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on growth performance and intestinal colonization withCampylobacter jejuniof broilers. Avian Pathology, Vol. 45, Issue. 2, p. 253.

    Williams, Lisa K. Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz and Humphrey, Tom J. 2016. Campylobacter spp. and Related Organisms in Poultry.

    Cean, Ada Stef, Lavinia Simiz, Eliza Julean, Calin Dumitrescu, Gabi Vasile, Aida Pet, Elena Drinceanu, Dan and Corcionivoschi, Nicolae 2015. Effect of Human Isolated Probiotic Bacteria on PreventingCampylobacter jejuniColonization of Poultry. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, Vol. 12, Issue. 2, p. 122.

    Corcionivoschi, Nicolae Gundogdu, Ozan Moran, Lynn Kelly, Carmel Scates, Pam Stef, Lavinia Cean, Ada Wren, Brendan Dorrell, Nick and Madden, Robert H 2015. Virulence characteristics of hcp + Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from retail chicken. Gut Pathogens, Vol. 7, Issue. 1,

    Gourley, Christopher R. and Konkel, Michael E. 2015. Human Emerging and Re-emerging Infections.

    Hodgins, Douglas C Barjesteh, Neda St. Paul, Michael Ma, Zuchao Monteiro, Mario A and Sharif, Shayan 2015. Evaluation of a polysaccharide conjugate vaccine to reduce colonization by Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens. BMC Research Notes, Vol. 8, Issue. 1,

    Robyn, Joris Rasschaert, Geertrui Pasmans, Frank and Heyndrickx, Marc 2015. ThermotolerantCampylobacterduring Broiler Rearing: Risk Factors and Intervention. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Vol. 14, Issue. 2, p. 81.

    Sahin, Orhan Kassem, Issmat I. Shen, Zhangqi Lin, Jun Rajashekara, Gireesh and Zhang, Qijing 2015. Campylobacterin Poultry: Ecology and Potential Interventions. Avian Diseases, Vol. 59, Issue. 2, p. 185.

    Siddiqui, Fariha Masood Ibrahim, Muhammad Noureen, Nighat Noreen, Zobia Titball, Richard W. Champion, Olivia L. Wren, Brendan W. Studholme, David and Bokhari, Habib 2015. Draft Genome Sequence of the Enteropathogenic BacteriumCampylobacter jejuniStrain cj255. Genome Announcements, Vol. 3, Issue. 5, p. e01223-15.

    Steiner, Ted 2015. Food Microbiology.

    Jansen, W. Reich, F. and Klein, G. 2014. Large-scale feasibility of organic acids as a permanent preharvest intervention in drinking water of broilers and their effect on foodborneCampylobacterspp. before processing. Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 116, Issue. 6, p. 1676.

    Paul, N. C. Al-Adwani, S. Crespo, R. and Shah, D. H. 2014. Evaluation of passive immunotherapeutic efficacy of hyperimmunized egg yolk powder against intestinal colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens. Poultry Science, Vol. 93, Issue. 11, p. 2779.

    Garcia, Ana Madsen, Anders and Vigre, Håkan 2013. Integration of Epidemiological Evidence in a Decision Support Model for the Control of Campylobacter in Poultry Production. Agriculture, Vol. 3, Issue. 3, p. 516.

    Kurekci, Cemil Padmanabha, Jagadish Bishop-Hurley, Sharon L. Hassan, Errol Al Jassim, Rafat A.M. and McSweeney, Christopher S. 2013. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and five terpenoid compounds against Campylobacter jejuni in pure and mixed culture experiments. International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 166, Issue. 3, p. 450.

    Owens, Jane Barton, Mary D. and Heuzenroeder, Michael W. 2013. The isolation and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages from free range and indoor poultry. Veterinary Microbiology, Vol. 162, Issue. 1, p. 144.


Campylobacter colonization in poultry: sources of infection and modes of transmission

  • Orhan Sahin (a1) (a2), Teresa Y. Morishita (a2) and Qijing Zhang (a1) (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 March 2007

Since its recognition as a human pathogen in the early 1970s, Campylobacter jejuni has now emerged as the leading bacterial cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in developed countries. Poultry, particularly chickens, account for the majority of human infections caused by Campylobacter. Reduction or elimination of this pathogen in the poultry reservoir is an essential step in minimizing the public health problem; however, farm-based intervention measures are still not available because of the lack of understanding of the ecological aspects of C. jejuni on poultry farms. Although Campylobacter is highly prevalent in poultry production systems, how poultry flocks become infected with this organism is still unknown. Many investigations indicate that horizontal transmission from environmental sources is the primary route of flock infections by Campylobacter. However, some recent studies also suggest the possibility of vertical transmission from breeder to progeny flocks. The transmission of the organism is not well understood, but it is likely to be through both vertical and horizontal transmission and may be affected by the immune status of the poultry host and the environmental conditions in the production system. Intervention strategies for Campylobacter infection in poultry should consider the complex nature of its transmission and may require the use of multiple approaches that target different segments of the poultry production system.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, 1680 Madison Avenue, Wooster, OH 44691, USA E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

M Achen , TY Morishita and EC Ley (1998). Shedding and colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in broilers from day-of-hatch to slaughter age. Avian Diseases 42: 732737.

SF Altekruse , NJ Stern , PI Fields and DL Swerdlow (1999). Campylobacter jejuni—an emerging foodborne pathogen. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5: 2835.

A Annan-Prah and M Janc (1988). The mode of spread of Campylobacter jejuni/coli to broiler flocks. Journal of Veterinary Medicine B 35: 1118.

F Aydin , HI Atabay and M Akan (2001). The isolation and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni from domestic geese (Anser anser). Journal of Applied Microbiology 90: 637642.

RC Baker , MD Paredes and RA Qureshi (1987). Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in eggs and poultry meat in New York State. Poultry Science 66: 17661770.

E Berndtson , ML Danielsson-Tham and A Engvall (1994). Experimental colonization of mice with Campylobacter jejuni. Veterinary Microbiology 41: 183188.

E Berndtson , ML Danielsson-Tham and A Engvall (1996). Campylobacter incidence on a chicken farm and the spread of Campylobacter during the slaughter process. International Journal of Food Microbiology 32: 3547.

E Berndtson , U Emanuelson , A Engvall and ML Danielsson-Tham (1996). A 1-year epidemiological study of Campylobacter in 18 Swedish chicken farms. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 26: 167185.

MJ Blaser (1997). Epidemiologic and clinical features of Campylobacter jejuni infections. Journal of Infectious Diseases 176 (Suppl.2), S103S105.

T Broman , S Bergstrom , SL On , H Palmgren , DJ McCafferty , M Sellin and B Olsen (2000). Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni from macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) in the subantarctic region. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66: 449452.

JA Byrd , DE Corrier , ME Hume , RH Bailey , LH Stanker and BM Hargis (1998). Effect of feed withdrawal on Campylobacter in the crops of market-age broiler chickens. Avian Diseases 42: 802806.

JA Byrd , DE Corrier , ME Hume , RH Bailey , LH Stanker and BM Hargis (1998). Incidence of Campylobacter in crops of preharvest market-age broiler chickens. Poultry Science 77: 13031305.

A Camarda , DG Newell , R Nasti and G Di Modugnoa (2000). Genotyping Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from the gut and oviduct of laying hens. Avian Diseases 44: 907912.

HC Chen and NJ Stern (2001). Competitive exclusion of heterologous Campylobacter spp. in chicks. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67: 848851.

T Chuma , T Yamada , K Yano , K Okamoto and H Yugi (1994). A survey of Campylobacter jejuni in broilers from assignment to slaughter using DNA-DNA hybridization. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 56: 697700.

T Chuma , K Makino , K Okamoto and H Yugi (1997). Analysis of distribution of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in broilers by using restriction fragment length polymorphism of flagellin gene. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 59: 10111015.

T Chuma , K Yano , H Omori , K Okamoto and H Yugi (1997). Direct detection of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken cecal contents by PCR. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 59: 8587.

T Chuma , S Hashimoto and K Okamoto (2000). Detection of thermophilic Campylobacter from sparrows by multiplex PCR: the role of sparrows as a source of contamination of broilers with Campylobacter. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 62: 12911295.

JE Corry and HI Atabay (2001). Poultry as a source of Campylobacter and related organisms. Journal of Applied Microbiology 90: 96S114S.

SE Craven , NJ Stern , E Line , JS Bailey , NA Cox and P Fedorka-Cray (2000). Determination of the incidence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium perfringens in wild birds near broiler chicken houses by sampling intestinal droppings. Avian Diseases 44: 715720.

SJ Evans and AR Sayers (2000). A longitudinal study of Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks in Great Britain. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 46: 209223.

DM Fallacara , CM Monahan , TY Morishita and RF Wack (2001). Fecal shedding and antimicrobial susceptibility of selected bacterial pathogens and a survey of intestinal parasites in free-living waterfowl. Avian Diseases 45: 128135.

JC Gibbens , SJ Pascoe , SJ Evans , RH Davies and AR Sayers (2001). A trial of biosecurity as a means to control Campylobacter infection of broiler chickens. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 48: 8599.

E Gregory , H Barnhart , DW Dreesen , NJ Stern and JL Corn (1997). Epidemiological study of Campylobacter spp. in broilers: source, time of colonization, and prevalence. Avian Diseases 41: 890898.

OE Heuer , K Pedersen , JS Andersen and M Madsen (2001). Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks. Letters in Applied Microbiology 33: 269274.

KL Hiett , NA Cox and NJ Stern (2002). Direct polymerase chain reaction detection of Campylobacter spp. in poultry hatchery samples. Avian Diseases 46: 219223.

TJ Humphrey , DG Lanning and GC Mead (1989). Inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni in vitro by broiler chicken caecal contents. Veterinary Record 125: 272273.

WF Jacobs-Reitsma (1995). Campylobacter bacteria in breeder flocks. Avian Diseases 39: 355359.

WF Jacobs-Reitsma (1997). Aspects of epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry. Veterinary Quarterly 19: 113117.

WF Jacobs-Reitsma , NM Bolder and RW Mulder (1994). Cecal carriage of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Dutch broiler flocks at slaughter: a one-year study. Poultry Science 73: 12601266.

JS Jeffrey , ER Atwill and A Hunter (2001). Prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella at a squab (young pigeon) processing plant. Poultry Science 80: 151155.

K Jones (2001). Campylobacters in water, sewage and the environment. Journal of Applied Microbiology 90: 68S79S.

K Jones , S Howard and JS Wallace (1999). Intermittent shedding of thermophilic campylobacters by sheep at pasture. Journal of Applied Microbiology 86: 531536.

K Kaino , H Hayashidani , K Kaneko and M Ogawa (1988). Intestinal colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science 50: 489494.

C Kaneuchi , M Ashihara , K Saito and T Itoh (1989). Serogrouping of thermophilic Campylobacter from gulls by slide agglutination based on heat-labile antigenic factors. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science 51: 431433.

V King , A Bavetsia and N Bumstead (1993). Effect of host lineage on the virulence of Campylobacter jejuni/coli in the chick embryo model. FEMS Microbiology Letters 106: 271274.

T Kinjo , M Morishige , N Minamoto and H Fukushi (1983). Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in feral pigeons. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science 45: 833835.

V Korolik , MR Alderton , SC Smith , J Chang and PJ Coloe (1998). Isolation and molecular analysis of colonising and non-colonising strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli following experimental infection of young chickens. Veterinary Microbiology 60: 239249.

EC Ley , TY Morishita , T Brisker and BS Harr (2001). Prevalence of Salmonella, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli on ostrich carcasses and the susceptibility of ostrich-origin E. coli isolates to various antibiotics. Avian Diseases 45: 696700.

S Maruyama and Y Katsube (1990). Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from the eggs and organs in experimentally infected laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science 52: 671674.

S Maruyama , Y Morita and Y Katsube (1995). Invasion and viability of Campylobacter jejuni in experimentally contaminated Japanese quails' eggs. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 57: 587590.

RJ Meinersmann , NJ Stern and LC Blankenship (1990). Antigenic differences in congenic chicken-colonizing and noncolonizing strains of Campylobacter jejuni. Current Microbiology 21: 1721.

MS Montrose , SM Shane and KS Harrington (1985). Role of litter in the transmission of Campylobacter jejuni. Avian Diseases 29: 392399.

TY Morishita , PP Aye , BS Harr , CW Cobb and JR Clifford (1997). Evaluation of an avian-specific probiotic to reduce the colonization and shedding of Campylobacter jejuni in broilers. Avian Diseases 41: 850855.

EG Nesbit , P Gibbs , DW Dreesen and MD Lee (2001). Epidemiologic features of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from poultry broiler houses and surrounding environments as determined by use of molecular strain typing. American Journal of Veterinary Research 62: 190194.

RE Pacha , GW Clark , EA Williams and AM Carter (1988). Migratory birds of central Washington as reservoirs of Campylobacter jejuni. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 34: 8082.

J Parkhill , BW Wren , K Mungall , JM Ketley , C Churcher , D Basham , T Chillingworth , RM Davies , T Feltwell , S Holroyd , K Jagels , AV Karlyshev , S Moule , MJ Pallen , CW Penn , MA Quail , MA Rajandream , KM Rutherford , AH van Vliet , S Whitehead and BG Barrell (2000). The genome sequence of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni reveals hypervariable sequences. Nature 403: 665668.

L Petersen and A Wedderkopp (2001). Evidence that certain clones of Campylobacter jejuni persist during successive broiler flock rotations. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67: 27392745.

L Petersen , EM Nielsen , J Engberg , SL On and HH Dietz (2001). Comparison of genotypes and serotypes of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from Danish wild mammals and birds and from broiler flocks and humans. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67: 31153121.

L Petersen , EM Nielsen and SL On (2001). Serotype and genotype diversity and hatchery transmission of Campylobacter jejuni in commercial poultry flocks. Veterinary Microbiology 82: 141154.

K Rivoal , M Denis , G Salvat , P Colin and G Ermel (1999). Molecular characterization of the diversity of Campylobacter spp. isolates collected from a poultry slaughterhouse: analysis of cross-contamination. Letters in Applied Microbiology 29: 370374.

RG Russell , M O'Donnoghue , DC Blake Jr, J Zulty and LJ DeTolla (1993). Early colonic damage and invasion of Campylobacter jejuni in experimentally challenged infant Macaca mulatta. Journal of Infectious Diseases 168: 210215.

O Sahin , Q Zhang , JC Meitzler , BS Harr , TY Morishita and R Mohan (2001). Prevalence, antigenic specificity, and bactericidal activity of poultry anti-Campylobacter maternal antibodies. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67: 39513957.

SM Shane (1992). The significance of C. jejuni infection in poultry: a review. Avian Pathology 21: 189213.

SM Shane , MS Montrose and KS Harrington (1985). Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni by the housefly (Musca domestica). Avian Diseases 29: 384391.

SM Shane , DH Gifford and K Yogasundram (1986). Campylobacter jejuni contamination of eggs. Veterinary Research Communications 10: 487492.

JE Shreeve , M Toszeghy , M Pattison and DG Newell (2000). Sequential spread of Campylobacter infection in a multipen broiler house. Avian Diseases 44: 983988.

NH Solomon and DM Hoover (1999). Campylobacter jejuni: a bacterial paradox. Journal of Food Safety 19: 121136.

K Stanley , R Cunningham and K Jones (1998). Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from groundwater. Journal of Applied Microbiology 85: 187191.

K Stanley , JS Wallace , JE Currie , PJ Diggle and K Jones (1998). The seasonal variation of thermophilic campylobacters in beef cattle, dairy cattle and calves. Journal of Applied Microbiology 85: 472480.

NJ Stern , JS Bailey , LC Blankenship , NA Cox and F McHan (1988). Colonization characteristics of Campylobacter jejuni in chick ceca. Avian Diseases 32: 330334.

NJ Stern , RJ Meinersmann , NA Cox , JS Bailey and LC Blankenship (1990). Influence of host lineage on cecal colonization by Campylobacter jejuni in chickens. Avian Diseases 34: 602606.

NJ Stern , MR Clavero , JS Bailey , NA Cox and MC Robach (1995). Campylobacter spp. in broilers on the farm and after transport. Poultry Science 74: 937941.

NJ Stern , MA Myszewski , HM Barnhart and DW Dreesen (1997). Flagellin A gene restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolates from broiler production sources. Avian Diseases 41: 899905.

E Studer , J Luthy and P Hubner (1999). Study of the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in sand samples from four Swiss chicken farms. Research in Microbiology 150: 213219.

AW van de Giessen , JJ Tilburg , WS Ritmeester and PJ Van der (1998). Reduction of Campylobacter infections in broiler flocks by application of hygiene measures. Epidemiology and Infection 121: 5766.

JS Wallace , KN Stanley and K Jones (1998). The colonization of turkeys by thermophilic campylobacters. Journal of Applied Microbiology 85: 224230.

TM Wassenaar and MJ Blaser (1999). Pathophysiology of Campylobacter jejuni infections of humans. Microbes and Infection 1: 10231033.

TM Wassenaar and DG Newell (2000). Genotyping of Campylobacter spp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66: 19.

TM Wassenaar , BA van der Zeijst , R Ayling and DG Newell (1993). Colonization of chicks by motility mutants of Campylobacter jejuni demonstrates the importance of flagellin A expression. Journal of General Microbiology 139: 11711175.

A Wedderkopp , E Rattenborg and M Madsen (2000). National surveillance of Campylobacter in broilers at slaughter in Denmark in 1998. Avian Diseases 44: 993999.

A Wedderkopp , KO Gradel , JC Jorgensen and M Madsen (2001). Pre-harvest surveillance of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Danish broiler flocks: a 2-year study. International Journal of Food Microbiology 68: 5359.

WL Willis , C Murray and C Talbott (2000). Effect of delayed placement on the incidence of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens. Poultry Science 79: 13921395.

K Yogasundram , SM Shane and KS Harrington (1989). Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in selected domestic and wild birds in Louisiana. Avian Diseases 33: 664667.

CR Young , RL Ziprin , ME Hume and LH Stanker (1999). Dose response and organ invasion of day-of-hatch Leghorn chicks by different isolates of Campylobacter jejuni. Avian Diseases 43: 763767.

XY Zhu , T Zhong , Y Pandya and RD Joerger (2002). 16S rRNA-based analysis of microbiota from the cecum of broiler chickens. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68: 124137.

RL Ziprin , CR Young , JA Byrd , LH Stanker , ME Hume , SA Gray , BJ Kim and ME Konkel (2001). Role of Campylobacter jejuni potential virulence genes in cecal colonization. Avian Diseases 45: 549557.

RL Ziprin , CR Young , LH Stanker , ME Hume and ME Konkel (1999). The absence of cecal colonization of chicks by a mutant of Campylobacter jejuni not expressing bacterial fibronectin-binding protein. Avian Diseases 43: 586589.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Animal Health Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 1466-2523
  • EISSN: 1475-2654
  • URL: /core/journals/animal-health-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *