Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Carloni, Elisa Petruzzelli, Annalisa Amagliani, Giulia Brandi, Giorgio Caverni, Francesco Mangili, Piermario and Tonucci, Franco 2016. Effect of farm characteristics and practices on hygienic quality of ovine raw milk used for artisan cheese production in central Italy. Animal Science Journal, Vol. 87, Issue. 4, p. 591.

    McReynolds, Sara W. Sanderson, Michael W. Reeves, Aaron and Hill, Ashley E. 2014. Modeling the impact of vaccination control strategies on a foot and mouth disease outbreak in the Central United States. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 117, Issue. 3-4, p. 487.

    Sinkala, Yona Simuunza, Martin Muma, John B. Pfeiffer, Dirk U. Kasanga, Christopher J. and Mweene, Aaron 2014. Foot and mouth disease in Zambia: Spatial and temporal distributions of outbreaks, assessment of clusters and implications for control. Onderstepoort J Vet Res, Vol. 81, Issue. 2,


Epidemiological simulation modeling and spatial analysis for foot-and-mouth disease control strategies: a comprehensive review

  • Sith Premashthira (a1), Mo D. Salman (a1), Ashley E. Hill (a1) (a2), Robin M. Reich (a3) and Bruce A. Wagner (a1) (a4)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 09 December 2011

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most serious transboundary, contagious viral diseases of cloven-hoofed livestock, because it can spread rapidly with high morbidity rates when introduced into disease-free herds or areas. Epidemiological simulation modeling can be developed to study the hypothetical spread of FMD and to evaluate potential disease control strategies that can be implemented to decrease the impact of an outbreak or to eradicate the virus from an area. Spatial analysis, a study of the distributions of events in space, can be applied to an area to investigate the spread of animal disease. Hypothetical FMD outbreaks can be spatially analyzed to evaluate the effect of the event under different control strategies. The main objective of this paper is to review FMD-related articles on FMD epidemiology, epidemiological simulation modeling and spatial analysis with the focus on disease control. This review will contribute to the development of models used to simulate FMD outbreaks under various control strategies, and to the application of spatial analysis to assess the outcome of FMD spread and its control.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

TW Bates , MC Thurmond and TE Carpenter (2001). Direct and indirect contact rates among beef, dairy, goat, sheep, and swine herds in three California counties, with reference to control of potential foot-and-mouth disease transmission. American Journal of Veterinary Research 62: 11211129.

TW Bates , MC Thurmond and TE Carpenter (2003b). Results of epidemic simulation modeling to evaluate strategies to control an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. American Journal of Veterinary Research 64: 205210.

PR Bessell , DJ Shaw , NJ Savill and ME Woolhouse (2008). Geographic and topographic determinants of local FMD transmission applied to the 2001 UK FMD epidemic. BMC Veterinary Research 4: 40.

JF Bithell (1990). An application of density estimation to geographical epidemiology. Statistics in Medicine 9: 691701.

AG Bors and N Nasios (2009). Kernel bandwidth estimation for nonparametric modeling. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man Cybernetics Part B: Cybernetics 39: 15431555.

TE Carpenter , MC Thurmond and TW Bates (2004). A simulation model of intraherd transmission of foot and mouth disease with reference to disease spread before and after clinical diagnosis. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 16: 1116.

BK Chhetri , AM Perez and MC Thurmond (2010). Factors associated with spatial clustering of foot-and-mouth disease in Nepal. Tropical Animal Health and Production 42: 14411449.

S Forman , F Le Gall , D Belton , D Evans , JL Franqois , G Murray , D Sheesley , A Vandersmissen and S Yoshimura (2009). Moving towards the global control of foot and mouth disease: an opportunity for donors. Revue Scientifique et Technique – Office International des Épizooties 28: 883896.

G Gerbier , JN Bacro , R Pouillot , B Durand , F Moutou and J Chadoeuf (2002). A point pattern model of the spread of foot-and-mouth disease. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 56: 3349.

N Harvey , A Reeves , MA Schoenbaum , FJ Zagmutt-Vergara , C Dubé , AE Hill , BA Corso , WB McNab , CI Cartwright and MD Salman (2007). The North American Animal Disease Spread Model: a simulation model to assist decision making in evaluating animal disease incursions. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 82: 176197.

AB Lawson and H Zhou (2005). Spatial statistical modeling of disease outbreaks with particular reference to the UK foot and mouth disease (FMD) epidemic of 2001. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 71: 141156.

B Martinez-Lopez , AM Perez and JM Sanchez-Vizcaino (2010). A simulation model for the potential spread of foot-and-mouth disease in the Castile and Leon region of Spain. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 96: 1929.

A Mukherjee , S Kumar , R Mittal and NC Saxena (2002). An application of the technique of density estimation in geographical epidemiology of goitre in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar state of India. Statistics in Medicine 21: 24032407.

DJ Paton , KJ Sumption and B Charleston (2009). Options for control of foot-and-mouth disease: knowledge, capability and policy. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 364: 26572667.

S Riley (2007). Large-scale spatial-transmission models of infectious disease. Science 316: 12981301.

AL Rivas , SD Smith , PJ Sullivan , B Gardner , JP Aparicio , AL Hoogesteijn and C Castillo-Chavez (2003). Identification of geographic factors associated with early spread of foot-and-mouth disease. American Journal of Veterinary Research 64: 15191527.

MA Schoenbaum and WT Disney (2003). Modeling alternative mitigation strategies for a hypothetical outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the United States. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 58: 2552.

MP Ward , D Maftei , C Apostu and A Suru (2008). Geostatistical visualisation and spatial statistics for evaluation of the dispersion of epidemic highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1. Veterinary Research 39: 22.

K Wongsathapornchai , MD Salman , JR Edwards , PS Morley , TJ Keefe , H Van Campen , S Weber and S Premashthira (2008). Use of epidemiologic risk modeling to evaluate control of foot-and-mouth disease in southern Thailand. American Journal of Veterinary Research 69: 240251.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Animal Health Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 1466-2523
  • EISSN: 1475-2654
  • URL: /core/journals/animal-health-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *