Skip to main content
×
Home

Streptococcus suis infections in humans: the Chinese experience and the situation in North America

  • Marcelo Gottschalk (a1), Mariela Segura (a2) and Jiangu Xu (a3)
Abstract
Abstract

Infections caused by Streptococcus suis are considered a global problem in the swine industry. In this animal species, S. suis is associated with septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, arthritis and, occasionally, other infections. Moreover, it is an agent of zoonosis that afflicts people in close contact with infected pigs or pork-derived products. Although sporadic cases of S. suis infection in humans have been reported, a large outbreak due to S. suis serotype 2 emerged in the summer of 2005 in Sichuan, China. A similar outbreak was observed in another Chinese province in 1998. Symptoms reported in these two outbreaks include high fever, malaise, nausea and vomiting, followed by nervous symptoms, subcutaneous hemorrhage, septic shock and coma in severe cases. The increased severity of S. suis infections in humans, such as a shorter incubation time, more rapid disease progression and higher rate of mortality, underscores the critical need to better understand the factors associated with pathogenesis of S. suis infection. From the 35 capsular serotypes currently known, serotype 2 is considered the most virulent and frequently isolated in both swine and humans. Here, we review the epidemiological, clinical and immunopathological features of S. suis infection in humans.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. E-mail: marcelo.gottschalk@umontreal.ca
References
Hide All
Al-Numani D, Segura M, Dore M and Gottschalk M (2003). Up-regulation of ICAM-1, CD11a/CD18 and CD11c/CD18 on human THP-1 monocytes stimulated by Streptococcus suis serotype 2. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 133: 6777.
Allen AG, Bolitho S, Lindsay H, Khan S, Bryant C, Norton P, Ward P, Leigh J, Morgan J, Riches H, Eastty S and Maskell D (2001). Generation and characterization of a defined mutant of Streptococcus suis lacking suilysin. Infection and Immunity 69: 27322735.
Allen AG, Lindsay H, Seilly D, Bolitho S, Peters SE and Maskell DJ (2004). Identification and characterisation of hyaluronate lyase from Streptococcus suis. Microbial Pathogenesis 36: 327335.
Alonso-Socas M, Aleman-Valls R, Roldan-Delgado H and Gomez-Sirvent JL (2006). [Endocarditis and spondylodiscitis caused by Streptococcus suis]. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 24: 354355.
Alouf JE and Muller-Alouf H (2003). Staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigens: molecular, biological and clinical aspects. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 292: 429440.
Arends JP and Zanen HC (1988). Meningitis caused by Streptococcus suis in humans. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 10: 131137.
Asensi JM, Asensi V, Arias M, Moreno A, Perez F and Navarro R (2001). [Streptococcus suis meningitis. Report of two cases and literature review]. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 19: 186188.
Auer J, Berent R, Porodko M and Eber B (2001). Streptococcus infection and splenectomy. Lancet 357: 1130.
Baddeley PG (1995). Streptococcus suis infection. Occupational Medicine (London) 45: 222.
Baums CG, Kaim U, Fulde M, Ramachandran G, Goethe R and Valentin-Weigand P (2006). Identification of a novel virulence determinant with serum opacification activity in Streptococcus suis. Infection and Immunity 74: 61546162.
Baums CG, Verkuhlen GJ, Rehm T, Silva LM, Beyerbach M, Pohlmeyer K and Valentin-Weigand P (2007). Prevalence of Streptococcus suis genotypes in wild boars of Northwestern Germany. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73: 711717.
Beaudoin M, Higgins R, Harel J and Gottschalk M (1992). Studies on a murine model for evaluation of virulence of Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 isolates. FEMS Microbiology Letters 78: 111116.
Benga L, Goethe R, Beilage EG and Valentin-Weigand P (2004). Immunogenicity of murein-associated proteins from temperature-stressed Streptococcus suis cultures. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. B, Infectious Diseases and Veterinary Public Health 51: 272277.
Benga L, Friedl P and Valentin-Weigand P (2005). Adherence of Streptococcus suis to porcine endothelial cells. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. B, Infectious Diseases and Veterinary Public Health 52: 392395.
Benkirane R, Gottschalk MG and Dubreuil JD (1997). Identification of a Streptococcus suis 60-kDa heat-shock protein using western blotting. FEMS Microbiology Letters 153: 379385.
Benkirane R, Gottschalk MG, Jacques M and Dubreuil JD (1998). Immunochemical characterization of an IgG-binding protein of Streptococcus suis. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 20: 121127.
Berthelot-Herault F, Morvan H, Keribin AM, Gottschalk M and Kobisch M (2000). Production of muraminidase-released protein (MRP), extracellular factor (EF) and suilysin by field isolates of Streptococcus suis capsular types 2, 1/2, 9, 7 and 3 isolated from swine in France. Veterinary Research 31: 473479.
Berthelot-Herault F, Marois C, Gottschalk M and Kobisch M (2002). Genetic diversity of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from pigs and humans as revealed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 40: 615619.
Berthelot-Herault F, Gottschalk M, Morvan H and Kobisch M (2005). Dilemma of virulence of Streptococcus suis: Canadian isolate 89-1591 characterized as a virulent strain using a standardized experimental model in pigs. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 69: 236240.
Brassard J, Gottschalk M and Quessy S (2001). Decrease of the adhesion of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 mutants to embryonic bovine tracheal cells and porcine tracheal rings. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 65: 156160.
Brassard J, Gottschalk M and Quessy S (2004). Cloning and purification of the Streptococcus suis serotype 2 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and its involvement as an adhesin. Veterinary Microbiology 102: 8794.
Breton J, Mitchell WR and Rosendal S (1986). Streptococcus suis in slaughter pigs and abattoir workers. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 50: 338341.
Brousseau R, Hill JE, Prefontaine G, Goh SH, Harel J and Hemmingsen SM (2001). Streptococcus suis serotypes characterized by analysis of chaperonin 60 gene sequences. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67: 48284833.
Bungener W and Bialek R (1989). Fatal Streptococcus suis septicemia in an abattoir worker. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 8: 306308.
Busque P, Higgins R, Caya F and Quessy S (1997). Immunization of pigs against Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infection using a live avirulent strain. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 61: 275279.
Caumont H, Gerard N, Depernet B, Brasme L, Eschard JP and Etienne JC (1996). [Streptococcus suis L3–L4 spondylodiscitis in a butcher]. Presse Médicale 25: 1348.
Chabot-Roy G, Willson P, Segura M, Lacouture S and Gottschalk M (2006). Phagocytosis and killing of Streptococcus suis by porcine neutrophils. Microbial Pathogenesis 41: 2132.
Chan YC, Wilder-Smith A, Ong BK, Kumarasinghe G and Wilder-Smith E (2002). Adult community acquired bacterial meningitis in a Singaporean teaching hospital. A seven-year overview (1993–2000). Singapore Medical Journal 43: 632636.
Chang B, Wada A, Ikebe T, Ohnishi M, Mita K, Endo M, Matsuo H, Asatsuma Y, Kuramoto S, Sekiguchi H, Yamazaki M, Yoshikawa H, Watabe N, Yamada H, Kurita S, Imai Y and Watanabe H (2006). Characteristics of Streptococcus suis isolated from patients in Japan. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases 59: 397399.
Charland N, Jacques M, Lacouture S and Gottschalk M (1997). Characterization and protective activity of a monoclonal antibody against a capsular epitope shared by Streptococcus suis serotypes 1, 2 and 1/2. Microbiology 143: 36073614.
Charland N, Harel J, Kobisch M, Lacasse S and Gottschalk M (1998). Streptococcus suis serotype 2 mutants deficient in capsular expression. Microbiology 144: 325332.
Charland N, Nizet V, Rubens CE, Kim KS, Lacouture S and Gottschalk M (2000). Streptococcus suis serotype 2 interactions with human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Infection and Immunity 68: 637643.
Chatellier S, Gottschalk M, Higgins R, Brousseau R and Harel J (1999). Relatedness of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 isolates from different geographic origins as evaluated by molecular fingerprinting and phenotyping. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 37: 362366.
Chau PY, Huang CY and Kay R (1983). Streptococcus suis meningitis. An important underdiagnosed disease in Hong Kong. The Medical Journal of Australia 1: 414417.
Christensen P and Kronvall G (1985). [A case of Streptococcus suis meningitis – a new occupational disease in Sweden?]. Lakartidningen 82: 119.
Clifton-Hadley FA and Enright MR (1984). Factors affecting the survival of Streptococcus suis type 2. Veterinary Record 114: 584586.
Clifton-Hadley FA, Alexander TJ and Enright MR (1986). Monitoring herds for Streptococcus suis type 2: chance contamination of slaughter pigs. Veterinary Record 118: 274.
Cloutier G, D'Allaire S, Martinez G, Surprenant C, Lacouture S and Gottschalk M (2003). Epidemiology of Streptococcus suis serotype 5 infection in a pig herd with and without clinical disease. Veterinary Microbiology 97: 135151.
Cohen J (2002). The immunopathogenesis of sepsis. Nature 420: 885891.
Colaert J, Allewaert M, Magerman H, Vandeven J and Vandepitte J (1985). Streptococcus suis meningitis in man. First reported observation in Belgium. Acta Clinica Belgica 40: 314317.
de Greeff A, Buys H, Verhaar R, Dijkstra J, van Alphen L and Smith HE (2002). Contribution of fibronectin-binding protein to pathogenesis of Streptococcus suis serotype 2. Infection and Immunity 70: 13191325.
de Greeff A, Hamilton A, Sutcliffe IC, Buys H, Van Alphen L and Smith HE (2003). Lipoprotein signal peptidase of Streptococcus suis serotype 2. Microbiology 149: 13991407.
de la Hoz Adame ME, de la Rubia Martin F, Dominguez Fuentes B and Garcia Gil D (2005). [Acute meningitis caused by Streptococcus suis: review of a case in a splenectomized patient]. Anales de Medicina Interna 22: 507.
de Moor CE (1963). Septicaemic infections in pigs, caused by haemolytic streptococci of new Lancefield groups designated R, S and T. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Journal of Microbiology and Serology 29: 272280.
del Campo Sepulveda EM, Altman E, Kobisch M, D'Allaire S and Gottschalk M (1996). Detection of antibodies against Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 using a purified capsular polysaccharide antigen-based indirect ELISA. Veterinary Microbiology 52: 113125.
Devriese LA and Haesebrouck F (1992). Streptococcus suis infections in horses and cats. Veterinary Record 130: 380.
Devriese LA, Sustronck B, Maenhout T and Haesebrouck F (1990). Streptococcus suis meningitis in a horse. Veterinary Record 127: 68.
Devriese LA, Ceyssens K, Hommez J, Kilpper-Balz R and Schleifer KH (1991). Characteristics of different Streptococcus suis ecovars and description of a simplified identification method. Veterinary Microbiology 26: 141150.
Devriese LA, Hommez J, Pot B and Haesebrouck F (1994). Identification and composition of the streptococcal and enterococcal flora of tonsils, intestines and faeces of pigs. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 77: 3136.
Dickie AS, Bremner DA, Wong PY, North JD and Robertson ID (1987). Streptococcus suis bacteraemia. The New Zealand Medical Journal 100: 677678.
Dominguez-Punaro MC, Segura M, Plante M, Lacouture S, Rivest S and Gottschalk M (2007). Streptococcus suis serotype 2, an important swine and human pathogen, induces strong systemic and cerebral inflammatory responses in a mouse model of infection. Journal of Immunology, In press.
Donsakul K, Dejthevaporn C and Witoonpanich R (2003). Streptococcus suis infection: clinical features and diagnostic pitfalls. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 34: 154158.
Dupas D, Vignon M and Geraut C (1992). Streptococcus suis meningitis. A severe noncompensated occupational disease. Journal of Occupational Medicine 34: 11021105.
Elbers AR, Vecht U, Osterhaus AD, Groen J, Wisselink HJ, Diepersloot RJ and Tielen MJ (1999). Low prevalence of antibodies against the zoonotic agents Brucella abortus, Leptospira spp., Streptococcus suis serotype II, hantavirus, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus among veterinarians and pig farmers in the southern part of The Netherlands. The Veterinary Quarterly 21: 5054.
Elliott SD, McCarty M and Lancefield RC (1977). Teichoic acids of group D streptococci with special reference to strains from pig meningitis (Streptococcus suis). Journal of Experimental Medicine 145: 490499.
Elliott SD and Tai JY (1978). The type-specific polysaccharides of Streptococcus suis. Journal of Experimental Medicine 148: 16991704.
Facklam R (2002). What happened to the streptococci: overview of taxonomic and nomenclature changes. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 15: 613630.
Feng W, Laster SM, Tompkins M, Brown T, Xu JS, Altier C, Gomez W, Benfield D and McCaw MB (2001). In utero infection by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is sufficient to increase susceptibility of piglets to challenge by Streptococcus suis type II. Journal of Virology 75: 48894895.
Fongcom A, Pruksakorn S, Mongkol R, Tharavichitkul P and Yoonim N (2001). Streptococcus suis infection in northern Thailand. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 84: 15021508.
Fontaine MC, Perez-Casal J and Willson PJ (2004). Investigation of a novel DNase of Streptococcus suis serotype 2. Infection and Immunity 72: 774781.
Francois B, Gissot V, Ploy MC and Vignon P (1998). Recurrent septic shock due to Streptococcus suis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 36: 2395.
Galina L, Collins JE and Pijoan C (1992). Porcine Streptococcus suis in Minnesota. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 4: 195196.
Galina L, Vecht U, Wisselink HJ and Pijoan C (1996). Prevalence of various phenotypes of Streptococcus suis isolated from swine in the U.S.A. based on the presence of muraminidase-released protein and extracellular factor. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 60: 7274.
Gallagher F (2001). Streptococcus infection and splenectomy. Lancet 357: 11291130.
Gottschalk M and Segura M (2000). The pathogenesis of the meningitis caused by Streptococcus suis: the unresolved questions. Veterinary Microbiology 76: 259272.
Gottschalk M, Higgins R, Jacques M, Mittal KR and Henrichsen J (1989). Description of 14 new capsular types of Streptococcus suis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 27: 26332636.
Gottschalk M, Higgins R, Jacques M, Beaudoin M and Henrichsen J (1991). Isolation and characterization of Streptococcus suis capsular types 9–22. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 3: 6065.
Gottschalk M, Lebrun A, Wisselink H, Dubreuil JD, Smith H and Vecht U (1998). Production of virulence-related proteins by Canadian strains of Streptococcus suis capsular type 2. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 62: 7579.
Gottschalk M, Higgins R and Quessy S (1999). Dilemma of the virulence of Streptococcus suis strains. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 37: 42024203.
Gottschalk MG, Lacouture S and Dubreuil JD (1995). Characterization of Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 haemolysin. Microbiology 141: 189195.
Graveline R, Segura M, Radzioch D and Gottschalk M (2007). TLR2-dependent recognition of Streptococcus suis is modulated by the presence of capsular polysaccharide which modifies macrophage responsiveness. International Journal of Immunology 19: 375389, 2007.
Grebe T, Bergenthal D, Fahr AM and Scheja HW (1997). [Meningitis caused by Streptococcus suis type 2 in an adult]. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 122: 12441247.
Haataja S, Tikkanen K, Hytonen J and Finne J (1996). The Gal alpha 1-4 Gal-binding adhesin of Streptococcus suis, a Gram-positive meningitis-associated bacterium. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 408: 2534.
Halaby T, Hoitsma E, Hupperts R, Spanjaard L, Luirink M and Jacobs J (2000). Streptococcus suis meningitis, a poacher's risk. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 19: 943945.
Halbur P, Thanawongnuwech R, Brown G, Kinyon J, Roth J, Thacker E and Thacker B (2000). Efficacy of antimicrobial treatments and vaccination regimens for control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Streptococcus suis coinfection of nursery pigs. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 38: 11561160.
Hampson DJ, Trott DJ, Clarke IL, Mwaniki CG and Robertson ID (1993). Population structure of Australian isolates of Streptococcus suis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 31: 28952900.
Hashikawa S, Iinuma Y, Furushita M, Ohkura T, Nada T, Torii K, Hasegawa T and Ohta M (2004). Characterization of group C and G streptococcal strains that cause streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 42: 186192.
Heath PJ, Hunt BW, Duff JP and Wilkinson JD (1996). Streptococcus suis serotype 14 as a cause of pig disease in the UK. Veterinary Record 139: 450451.
Heidt MC, Mohamed W, Hain T, Vogt PR, Chakraborty T and Domann E (2005). Human infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus suis serotype 2. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 43: 48984901.
Herwald H, Cramer H, Morgelin M, Russell W, Sollenberg U, Norrby-Teglund A, Flodgaard H, Lindbom L and Bjorck L (2004). M protein, a classical bacterial virulence determinant, forms complexes with fibrinogen that induce vascular leakage. Cell 116: 367379.
Higgins R and Gottschalk M (2001). Distribution of Streptococcus suis capsular types in 2000. Canadian Veterinary Journal 42: 223.
Higgins R and Gottschalk M (2005). Streptococcal Diseases. In: Straw BE, D'Allaire S, Mengeling WL and Taylor DJ (eds) Diseases of Swine. Ames, IA: Iowa State University, pp. 769783.
Hill JE, Gottschalk M, Brousseau R, Harel J, Hemmingsen SM and Goh SH (2005). Biochemical analysis, cpn60 and 16S rDNA sequence data indicate that Streptococcus suis serotypes 32 and 34, isolated from pigs, are Streptococcus orisratti. Veterinary Microbiology 107: 6369.
Ho AK, Woo KS, Tse KK and French GL (1990). Infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus suis serotype 2. Journal of Infection 21: 209211.
Hommez J, Wullepit J, Cassimon P, Castryck F, Ceyssens K and Devriese LA (1988). Streptococcus suis and other streptococcal species as a cause of extramammary infection in ruminants. Veterinary Record 123: 626627.
Huang YT, Teng LJ, Ho SW and Hsueh PR (2005). Streptococcus suis infection. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection 38: 306313.
Hui AC, Ng KC, Tong PY, Mok V, Chow KM, Wu A and Wong LK (2005). Bacterial meningitis in Hong Kong: 10-years' experience. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 107: 366370.
Ip M, Fung KS, Chi F, Cheuk ES, Chau SS, Wong BW, Lui S, Hui M, Lai RW and Chan PK (2007). Streptococcus suis in Hong Kong. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 57: 1520.
Jacobs AA, Loeffen PL, van den Berg AJ and Storm PK (1994). Identification, purification, and characterization of a thiol-activated hemolysin (suilysin) of Streptococcus suis. Infection and Immunity 62: 17421748.
Jobin MC and Grenier D (2003). Identification and characterization of four proteases produced by Streptococcus suis. FEMS Microbiology Letters 220: 113119.
Jobin MC, Fortin J, Willson PJ, Gottschalk M and Grenier D (2005a). Acquisition of plasmin activity and induction of arachidonic acid release by Streptococcus suis in contact with human brain microvascular endothelial cells. FEMS Microbiology Letters 252: 105111.
Jobin MC, Martinez G, Motard J, Gottschalk M and Grenier D (2005b). Cloning, purification, and enzymatic properties of dipeptidyl peptidase IV from the swine pathogen Streptococcus suis. Journal of Bacteriology 187: 795799.
Jobin MC, Gottschalk M and Grenier D (2006). Upregulation of prostaglandin E2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 production by human macrophage-like cells: synergistic effect of capsular material and cell wall from Streptococcus suis. Microbial Pathogenesis 40: 2934.
Kataoka Y, Haritani M, Mori M, Kishima M, Sugimoto C, Nakazawa M and Yamamoto K (1991). Experimental infections of mice and pigs with Streptococcus suis type 2. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 53: 10431049.
Kataoka Y, Sugimoto C, Nakazawa M, Morozumi T and Kashiwazaki M (1993). The epidemiological studies of Streptococcus suis infections in Japan from 1987 to 1991. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 55: 623626.
Kay R, Cheng AF and Tse CY (1995). Streptococcus suis infection in Hong Kong. Journal of the Association of Physicians 88: 3947.
Keymer IF, Heath SE and Wood JG (1983). Streptococcus suis type II infection in a raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) family Canidae. Veterinary Record 113: 624.
Kilpper-Bälz R and Schleifer KH (1987). Streptococcus suis sp. nov., nom. rev. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 37: 160162.
King SJ, Leigh JA, Heath PJ, Luque I, Tarradas C, Dowson CG and Whatmore AM (2002). Development of a multilocus sequence typing scheme for the pig pathogen Streptococcus suis: identification of virulent clones and potential capsular serotype exchange. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 40: 36713680.
Kopic J, Paradzik MT and Pandak N (2002). Streptococcus suis infection as a cause of severe illness: 2 cases from Croatia. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 34: 683684.
Lalonde M, Segura M, Lacouture S and Gottschalk M (2000). Interactions between Streptococcus suis serotype 2 and different epithelial cell lines. Microbiology 146: 19131921.
Langford P, Williams AE and Kroll JS (1991). Superoxide dismutases of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Streptococcus suis type 2 isolates. FEMS Microbiology Letters 61: 347350.
Lopreto C, Lopardo HA, Bardi MC and Gottschalk M (2005). [Primary Streptococcus suis meningitis: first case in humans described in Latin America]. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 23: 110.
Lun S, Perez-Casal J, Connor W and Willson PJ (2003). Role of suilysin in pathogenesis of Streptococcus suis capsular serotype 2. Microbial Pathogenesis 34: 2737.
Lutticken R, Temme N, Hahn G and Bartelheimer EW (1986). Meningitis caused by Streptococcus suis: case report and review of the literature. Infection 14: 181185.
Madsen LW, Svensmark B, Elvestad K, Aalbaek B and Jensen HE (2002). Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infection in pigs: new diagnostic and pathogenetic aspects. Journal of Comparative Pathology 126: 5765.
Marois C, Le Devendec L, Gottschalk M and Kobisch M (2006). Molecular characterization of Streptococcus suis strains by 16S–23S intergenic spacer polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 70: 94104.
Marois C, Le Devendec L, Gottschalk M and Kobisch M (2007). Detection and molecular typing of Streptococcus suis in tonsils from live pigs in France. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 71: 1422.
Martinez G, Harel J, Lacouture S and Gottschalk M (2002). Genetic diversity of Streptococcus suis serotypes 2 and 1/2 isolates recovered from carrier pigs in closed herds. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 66: 240248.
Martinez G, Harel J, Lacouture S and Gottschalk M (2003). Cloning and partial characterization of the gene encoding the putative elongation factor Ts of Streptococcus suis serotype 2. Archives of Microbiology 180: 298302.
Meecham JS and Worth RC (1992). Persistent diplopia following Streptococcus suis type 2 meningitis. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 85: 579580.
Michaud S, Duperval R and Higgins R (1996). Streptococcus suis meningitis: first case reported in Quebec. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases 7: 329331.
Normile D (2005). Infectious diseases. WHO probes deadliness of China's pig-borne disease. Science 309: 13081309.
Norton PM, Rolph C, Ward PN, Bentley RW and Leigh JA (1999). Epithelial invasion and cell lysis by virulent strains of Streptococcus suis is enhanced by the presence of suilysin. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 26: 2535.
Okwumabua O and Chinnapapakkagari S (2005). Identification of the gene encoding a 38-kilodalton immunogenic and protective antigen of Streptococcus suis. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 12: 484490.
Okwumabua O, O'Connor M and Shull E (2003). A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay specific for Streptococcus suis based on the gene encoding the glutamate dehydrogenase. FEMS Microbiology Letters 218: 7984.
Okwumabua O, Persaud JS and Reddy PG (2001). Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding the glutamate dehydrogenase of Streptococcus suis serotype 2. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 8: 251257.
Osaki M, Takamatsu D, Shimoji Y and Sekizaki T (2002). Characterization of Streptococcus suis genes encoding proteins homologous to sortase of Gram-positive bacteria. Journal of Bacteriology 184: 971982.
Osaki M, Takamatsu D, Tsuji N and Sekizaki T (2000). Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding O-acetylserine lyase from Streptococcus suis. Current Microbiology 40: 6771.
Pallares FJ, Halbur PG, Schmitt CS, Roth JA, Opriessnig T, Thomas PJ, Kinyon JM, Murphy D, Frank DE and Hoffman LJ (2003). Comparison of experimental models for Streptococcus suis infection of conventional pigs. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 67: 225228.
Pedroli S, Kobisch M, Beauchet O, Chaussinand JP and Lucht F (2003). [Streptococcus suis bacteremia]. Presse Médicale 32: 599601.
Peetermans WE, Moffie BG and Thompson J (1989). Bacterial endocarditis caused by Streptococcus suis type 2. Journal of Infectious Diseases 159: 595596.
Perch B, Kristjansen P and Skadhauge K (1968). Group R streptococci pathogenic for man: two cases of meningitis and one fatal case of sepsis. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica 74: 6976.
Perch B, Pedersen KB and Henrichsen J (1983). Serology of capsulated streptococci pathogenic for pigs: six new serotypes of Streptococcus suis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 17: 993996.
Perseghin P, Bezzi G, Troupioti P and Gallina M (1995). Streptococcus suis meningitis in an Italian blood donor. Lancet 346: 13051306.
Quessy S, Dubreuil JD and Higgins R (1994). Immunization of mice against Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infections using a live avirulent strain. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 58: 299301.
Quessy S, Busque P, Higgins R, Jacques M and Dubreuil JD (1997). Description of an albumin binding activity for Streptococcus suis serotype 2. FEMS Microbiology Letters 147: 245250.
Reams RY, Harrington DD, Glickman LT, Thacker HL and Bowersock TL (1996). Multiple serotypes and strains of Streptococcus suis in naturally infected swine herds. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 8: 119121.
Rehm T, Baums CG, Strommenger B, Beyerbach M, Valentin-Weigand P and Goethe R (2007). Amplified fragment length polymorphism of Streptococcus suis strains correlates with their profile of virulence-associated genes and clinical background. Journal of Medical Microbiology 56: 102109.
Robertson ID and Blackmore DK (1989). Occupational exposure to Streptococcus suis type 2. Epidemiology and Infection 103: 157164.
Rojas M, Gottschalk M and Ordonez V (2001). Evaluacion de la virulencia y serotipos de Streptococcus suis aislados de trabajadores de rastros en el valle de Toluca, Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Veterinaria Mexico 32: 201205.
Rosenkranz M, Elsner HA, Sturenburg HJ, Weiller C, Rother J and Sobottka I (2003). Streptococcus suis meningitis and septicemia contracted from a wild boar in Germany. Journal of Neurology 250: 869870.
Sala V, Colombo A and Gerola L (1989). Infection risks of Streptococcus suis type 2 localizations in slaughtered swines. Archivio Veterinario Italiano 40: 180184.
Sanford SE and Tilker ME (1982). Streptococcus suis type II-associated diseases in swine: observations of a one-year study. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 181: 673676.
Segers RP, Kenter T, de Haan LA and Jacobs AA (1998). Characterisation of the gene encoding suilysin from Streptococcus suis and expression in field strains. FEMS Microbiology Letters 167: 255261.
Segura M and Gottschalk M (2002). Streptococcus suis interactions with the murine macrophage cell line J774: adhesion and cytotoxicity. Infection and Immunity 70: 43124322.
Segura M, Stankova J and Gottschalk M (1999). Heat-killed Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 strains stimulate tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 production by murine macrophages. Infection and Immunity 67: 46464654.
Segura M, Vadeboncoeur N and Gottschalk M (2002). CD14-dependent and -independent cytokine and chemokine production by human THP-1 monocytes stimulated by Streptococcus suis capsular type 2. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 127: 243254.
Segura M, Gottschalk M and Olivier M (2004). Encapsulated Streptococcus suis inhibits activation of signaling pathways involved in phagocytosis. Infection and Immunity 72: 53225330.
Segura M, Vanier G, Al-Numani D, Lacouture S, Olivier M and Gottschalk M (2006). Pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine modulation by Streptococcus suis in a whole-blood culture system. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 47: 92106.
Segura MA, Cleroux P and Gottschalk M (1998). Streptococcus suis and group B Streptococcus differ in their interactions with murine macrophages. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 21: 189195.
Serhir B, Higgins R, Foiry B and Jacques M (1993). Detection of immunoglobulin-G-binding proteins in Streptococcus suis. Journal of General Microbiology 139: 29532958.
Sihvonen L, Kurl DN and Henrichsen J (1988). Streptococcus suis isolated from pigs in Finland. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 29: 913.
Sims KD and Barton TD (2006). Group B streptococcal toxic shock syndrome in an asplenic patient: case report and literature review. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 25: 208210.
Smith HE, Vecht U, Wisselink HJ, Stockhofe-Zurwieden N, Biermann Y and Smits MA (1996). Mutants of Streptococcus suis types 1 and 2 impaired in expression of muramidase-released protein and extracellular protein induce disease in newborn germfree pigs. Infection and Immunity 64: 44094412.
Smith HE, Wisselink HJ, Stockhofe-Zurwieden N, Vecht U and Smits MM (1997). Virulence markers of Streptococcus suis type 1 and 2. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 418: 651655.
Smith HE, Damman M, van der Velde J, Wagenaar F, Wisselink HJ, Stockhofe-Zurwieden N and Smits MA (1999). Identification and characterization of the cps locus of Streptococcus suis serotype 2: the capsule protects against phagocytosis and is an important virulence factor. Infection and Immunity 67: 17501756.
Spiss HK, Kofler M, Hausdorfer H, Pfausler B and Schmutzhard E (1999). [Streptococcus suis meningitis and neurophysiology of the acoustic system. First case report from Austria]. Nervenarzt 70: 738741.
Sriskandan S and Slater JD (2006). Invasive disease and toxic shock due to zoonotic Streptococcus suis: an emerging infection in the East? PLoS Medicine 3: e187.
Staats JJ, Feder I, Okwumabua O and Chengappa MM (1997). Streptococcus suis: past and present. Veterinary Research Communications 21: 381407.
Strangmann E, Froleke H and Kohse KP (2002). Septic shock caused by Streptococcus suis: case report and investigation of a risk group. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 205: 385392.
Suankratay C, Intalapaporn P, Nunthapisud P, Arunyingmongkol K and Wilde H (2004). Streptococcus suis meningitis in Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 35: 868876.
Tambyah PA and Lee KO (2001). Streptococcus infection and splenectomy. Lancet 357: 11301131.
Tang J, Wang C, Feng Y, Yang W, Song H, Chen Z, Yu H, Pan X, Zhou X, Wang H, Wu B, Wang H, Zhao H, Lin Y, Yue J, Wu Z, He X, Gao F, Khan AH, Wang J, Zhao GP, Wang Y, Wang X, Chen Z and Gao GF (2006). Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by Streptococcus suis serotype 2. PLoS Medicine 3: e151.
Tarradas C, Borge C, Arenas A, Maldonado A, Astorga R, Miranda A and Luque I (2001a). Suilysin production by Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased and healthy carrier pigs in Spain. Veterinary Record 148: 183184.
Tarradas C, Luque I, de Andres D, Abdel-Aziz Shahein YE, Pons P, Gonzalez F, Borge C and Perea A (2001b). Epidemiological relationship of human and swine Streptococcus suis isolates. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. B, Infectious Diseases and Veterinary Public health 48: 347355.
Tayoro J, Besnier JM, Laudat P, Cattier B and Choutet P (1996). Infective endocarditis due to Streptococcus suis serotype 2. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 15: 765766.
Tenenbaum T, Adam R, Eggelnpohler I, Matalon D, Seibt A, Novotny GEK, Galla HJ and Schroten H (2005). Strain-dependent disruption of blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier by Streptoccocus suis in vitro. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 44: 2534.
Tenenbaum T, Essmann F, Adam R, Seibt A, Janicke RU, Novotny GE, Galla HJ and Schroten H (2006). Cell death, caspase activation, and HMGB1 release of porcine choroid plexus epithelial cells during Streptococcus suis infection in vitro. Brain Research 1100: 112.
Thanawongnuwech R, Brown GB, Halbur PG, Roth JA, Royer RL and Thacker BJ (2000). Pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-induced increase in susceptibility to Streptococcus suis infection. Veterinary Pathology 37: 143152.
Tian Y, Aarestrup FM and Lu CP (2004). Characterization of Streptococcus suis serotype 7 isolates from diseased pigs in Denmark. Veterinary Microbiology 103: 5562.
Trottier S, Higgins R, Brochu G and Gottschalk M (1991). A case of human endocarditis due to Streptococcus suis in North America. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 13: 12511252.
Tsai HC, Lee SS, Wann SR, Huang TS, Chen YS and Liu YC (2005). Streptococcus suis meningitis with ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection and spondylodiscitis. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 104: 948950.
Twort CH (1981). Group R streptococcal meningitis (Streptococcus suis type II): a new industrial disease? British Medical Journal 282: 523524.
Ulloa L and Tracey KJ (2005). The ‘cytokine profile’: a code for sepsis. Trends in Molecular Medicine 11: 5663.
Vadeboncoeur N, Segura M, Al-Numani D, Vanier G and Gottschalk M (2003). Pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release by human brain microvascular endothelial cells stimulated by Streptococcus suis serotype 2. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 35: 4958.
Valentin-Weigand P (2004). Intracellular invasion and persistence: survival strategies of Streptococcus suis and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 117: 459463.
van Jaarsveld BC, van Kregten E, van Kesteren RG, Rozenberg-Arska M and Bartelink AK (1990). [Fulminant sepsis caused by Streptococcus suis]. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde 134: 14621464.
Vanier G, Segura M, Friedl P, Lacouture S and Gottschalk M (2004). Invasion of porcine brain microvascular endothelial cells by Streptococcus suis serotype 2. Infection and Immunity 72: 14411449.
Vecht U, Wisselink HJ, Jellema ML and Smith HE (1991). Identification of two proteins associated with virulence of Streptococcus suis type 2. Infection and Immunity 59: 31563162.
Vecht U, Stockhofe-Zurwieden N, Tetenburg BJ, Wisselink HJ and Smith HE (1997). Virulence of Streptococcus suis type 2 for mice and pigs appeared host-specific. Veterinary Microbiology 58: 5360.
Verhoef J and Mattsson E (1995). The role of cytokines in Gram-positive bacterial shock. Trends in Microbiology 3: 136140.
Vilaichone RK, Mahachai V and Nunthapisud P (2000). Streptococcus suis peritonitis: case report. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 83: 12741277.
Vilaichone RK, Vilaichone W, Nunthapisud P and Wilde H (2002). Streptococcus suis infection in Thailand. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 85 (suppl. 1): S109S117.
Voutsadakis IA (2006). Streptococcus suis endocarditis and colon carcinoma: a case report. Clinical Colorectal Cancer 6: 226228.
Walsh B, Williams AE and Satsangi J (1992). Streptococcus suis type 2: pathogenesis and clinical disease. Reviews in Medical Microbiology 3: 6571.
Wangkaew S, Chaiwarith R, Tharavichitkul P and Supparatpinyo K (2006). Streptococcus suis infection: a series of 41 cases from Chiang Mai University Hospital. Journal of Infection 52: 455460.
Watkins EJ, Brooksby P, Schweiger MS and Enright SM (2001). Septicaemia in a pig-farm worker. Lancet 357: 38.
Willenburg KS, Sentochnik DE and Zadoks RN (2006). Human Streptococcus suis meningitis in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine 354: 1325.
Williams AE (1990). Relationship between intracellular survival in macrophages and pathogenicity of Streptococcus suis type 2 isolates. Microbial Pathogenesis 8: 189196.
Williams AE and Blakemore WF (1990). Pathogenesis of meningitis caused by Streptococcus suis type 2. Journal of Infectious Diseases 162: 474481.
Wilson TL, Jeffers J, Rapp-Gabrielson VJ, Martin S, Klein LK, Lowery DE and Fuller TE (2007). A novel signature-tagged mutagenesis system for Streptococcus suis serotype 2. Veterinary Microbiology, In press.
Winterhoff N, Goethe R, Gruening P, Rohde M, Kalisz H, Smith HE and Valentin-Weigand P (2002). Identification and characterization of two temperature-induced surface-associated proteins of Streptococcus suis with high homologies to members of the Arginine Deiminase system of Streptococcus pyogenes. Journal of Bacteriology 184: 67686776.
Wisselink HJ, Smith HE, Stockhofe-Zurwieden N, Peperkamp K and Vecht U (2000). Distribution of capsular types and production of muramidase-released protein (MRP) and extracellular factor (EF) of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries. Veterinary Microbiology 74: 237248.
Woo J and Li EK (1987). Streptococcus suis meningitis requires prolonged treatment with penicillin. Infection 15: 129130.
Ye C, Zhu X, Jing H, Du H, Segura M, Zheng H, Kan B, Wang L, Bai X, Zhou Y, Cui Z, Zhang S, Jin D, Sun N, Luo X, Zhang J, Gong Z, Wang X, Wang L, Sun H, Li Z, Sun Q, Liu H, Dong B, Ke C, Yuan H, Wang H, Tian K, Wang Y, Gottschalk M and Xu J (2006). Streptococcus suis sequence type 7 outbreak, Sichuan, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12: 12031208.
Yen MY, Liu YC, Wang JH, Chen YS, Wang YH and Cheng DL (1994). Streptococcus suis meningitis complicated with permanent perceptive deafness: report of a case. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 93: 349351.
Yu H, Jing H, Chen Z, Zheng H, Zhu X, Wang H, Wang S, Liu L, Zu R, Luo L, Xiang N, Liu H, Liu X, Shu Y, Lee SS, Chuang SK, Wang Y, Xu J and Yang W (2006). Human Streptococcus suis outbreak, Sichuan, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12: 914920.
Zhu F, Yang H, Hu X, Wang H, Wang G, Song Y and Yang R (2000). [Homogeneity study on the Streptococcus suis isolated from human and swine]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 21: 427429.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Animal Health Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 1466-2523
  • EISSN: 1475-2654
  • URL: /core/journals/animal-health-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 7
Total number of PDF views: 62 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 543 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 12th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.