Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-x24gv Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-22T01:38:07.331Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

The anterior tooth development of cattle presented for slaughter: an analysis of age, sex and breed

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 April 2013

K. J. Whiting
Affiliation:
Corners, Smithincott, Cullompton EX15 3DG, UK
S. N. Brown
Affiliation:
School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU, UK
W. J. Browne
Affiliation:
School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU, UK
P. J. Hadley
Affiliation:
EBLEX AHDB, The Loadstone Suite, Creech Castle, Bathpool, Taunton TA1 2DX, UK
T. G. Knowles*
Affiliation:
School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU, UK
Get access

Abstract

In a cross-sectional study, data from records of cattle slaughtered over a 1-year period at a large abattoir in South West England were analysed using an ordered category response model to investigate the inter-relationships between age, sex and breed on development of the permanent anterior (PA) teeth. Using the model, transition points at which there was a 50% probability of membership of each category of paired PA teeth were identified. Data from ∼60 000 animals were initially analysed for age and sex effect. The age transition was found to be ∼23 months moving from zero to two teeth; 30 months for two to four teeth; 37 months for four to six teeth and 42 months for six to eight teeth. Males were found to develop, on average, ∼22 days earlier than females across all stages. A reduced data set of ∼23 000 animals registered as pure-bred only was used to compare breed and type interactions and to investigate sex effects within the sub-categories. Breeds were grouped into dairy and beef-type and beef breeds split into native and continental. It was found that dairy-types moved through the transition points earlier than beef-types across all stages (interval varying between ∼8 and 12 weeks) and that collectively, native beef breeds moved through the transition points by up to 3 weeks earlier than the continental beef breeds. Interestingly, in contrast to beef animals, dairy females matured before dairy males. However, the magnitude of the difference between dairy females and males diminished at the later stages of development. Differences were found between breeds. Across the first three stages, Ayrshires and Guernseys developed between 3 and 6 weeks later than Friesian/Holsteins and Simmental, Limousin and Blonde Aquitaine 6 and 8 weeks later than Aberdeen Angus. Herefords, Charolais and South Devon developed later but by a smaller interval and Red Devon and Galloway showed the largest individual effect with transition delayed by 8 to 12 weeks.

Type
Physiology and functional biology of systems
Copyright
Copyright © The Animal Consortium 2013 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Andrews, AH 1974. A comparison of two different survey methods for the study of intra-oral development of the anterior teeth in cattle. Veterinary Record 94, 130138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andrews, AH 1975. The relationship between age and development of the anterior teeth in cattle as determined by the oral examination of 2900 animals between the ages of 12 and 60 months. British Veterinary Journal 131, 152159.Google Scholar
Andrews, AH, Wedderburn, RWM 1977. Breed and sex differences in the age of appearance of the bovine central incisor teeth. British Veterinary Journal 133, 543547.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brooks, AJ, Hodges, J 1979. Breed, nutritional and heterotic effects on age of teeth emergence in cattle. Journal of Agricultural Science 93, 681685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dodt, RM, O'Rourke, PK 1988. Dentition in beef cattle in northern Australia. Journal of Agricultural Animal Science 45, 5356.Google Scholar
English Beef and Lamb Executive (EBLEX) 2007. Beef briefing bulletin number 07/13. 19th November 2007. EBLEX, Warwickshire, UK.Google Scholar
Graham, WC, Price, MA 1982. Dentition as a measure of physiological age in cows of different breed types. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 62, 745750.Google Scholar
Lawrence, TE, Whatley, JD, Montgomery, TH, Perino, LJ 2001. A comparison of the USDA ossification- based maturity system to a system based on dentition. Journal of Animal Science 79, 16831690.Google Scholar
Rasbash, J, Browne, WJ, Healy, M, Cameron, B, Charlton, C 2010. MLwiN version 2.20, Centre for Multilevel Modelling. University of Bristol, UK.Google Scholar
Tulloh, NM 1962. A study of the incisor teeth of beef cattle. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 13, 350361.Google Scholar
Weiner, G, Forster, J 1982. Variation in age at emergence of incisor teeth in cattle of different breeds. Animal Production 35, 367373.Google Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Whiting Supplementary Material

Figure S1

Download Whiting Supplementary Material(File)
File 130 KB
Supplementary material: File

Whiting Supplementary Material

Figure S2

Download Whiting Supplementary Material(File)
File 133.6 KB