Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Effect of increasing the proportion of chicory in forage-based diets on intake and digestion by sheep

  • V. Niderkorn (a1), C. Martin (a1), M. Bernard (a2), A. Le Morvan (a1), Y. Rochette (a1) and R. Baumont (a1)...
Abstract

There is a lot of evidence that chicory could be a highly palatable and nutritious source of forage for ruminants, well adapted to climate change and dry conditions in summer, thanks to its resistance to drought and high water content. This study aimed to describe the effect of incorporating chicory to ryegrass or to a ryegrass–white clover mixture on feeding behaviour, digestive parameters, nitrogen (N) balance and methane (CH4) emissions in sheep. In total, three swards of ryegrass, white clover and chicory were established and managed in a manner ensuring the forage use at a constant vegetative stage throughout the experiment. In all, four dietary treatments (pure ryegrass; binary mixture: 50% ryegrass–50% chicory; ternary mixture: 50% ryegrass–25% white clover–25% chicory; and pure chicory) were evaluated in a 4×4 replicated Latin square design with eight young castrated Texel sheep. Each experimental period consisted of an 8-day diet adaptation phase, followed by a 6-day measuring phase during which intake dynamics, chewing activity, digestibility, rumen liquid passage rate, fermentation end-products, N balance and CH4 emissions were determined. Data were analysed using a mixed model and orthogonal contrasts were used to detect the potential associative effects between ryegrass and chicory. The daily voluntary dry matter intake was lower for pure ryegrass than for diets containing chicory (P<0.001) and increased quadratically from 1.39 to 1.74 kg/day with increasing proportion of chicory. Huge positive quadratic effects (P<0.001) between ryegrass and chicory were detected on eating time and eating rate just after feeding indicating an increase of the motivation to eat with mixtures, whereas rumination activity decreased linearly with the proportion of chicory (P<0.001). The organic matter digestibility was similar among treatments (around 80%), but a strong positive quadratic P<0.001) effect was observed on liquid passage rate suggesting that chicory allowed fast particle breakdown in the rumen. Animals fed with the ryegrass–white clover–chicory mixture had the higher urinary N losses (P<0.001), whereas retained N per day or per g N intake was greater when the proportion of chicory was at least 50% (P<0.001) being ~40% greater than for the other treatments. The CH4 yield was lower with pure chicory than with the other treatments (P<0.001) for which emissions were similar. In conclusion, mixing ryegrass and chicory in equal proportions produces a synergy on voluntary intake and an improved N use efficiency likely due to complementarity in chemical composition, increased motivation to eat and faster ruminal particle breakdown.

Copyright
Corresponding author
References
Hide All
Arnell, NW 2004. Climate change and global water resources: SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environmental Change 14, 3152.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 1995. Official methods of analysis, 16th edition. AOAC, Arlington, VA, USA.
Barry, T 1998. The feeding value of chicory (Cichorium intybus) for ruminant livestock. The Journal of Agricultural Science 131, 251257.
Baumont, R, Chenost, M and Demarquilly, C 2004. Measurement of herbage intake and ingestive behaviour by housed animals. In Herbage intake handbook (ed. PD Penning), pp. 121–150, 2nd edition. British Grassland Society, Reading, UK.
Dumont, B, Andueza, D, Niderkorn, V, Lüscher, A, Porqueddu, C and Picon‐Cochard, C 2015. A meta‐analysis of climate change effects on forage quality in grasslands: specificities of mountain and Mediterranean areas. Grass and Forage Science 70, 239254.
Estrada, JC, Delagarde, R, Faverdin, P and Peyraud, J 2004. Dry matter intake and eating rate of grass by dairy cows is restricted by internal, but not external water. Animal Feed Science and Technology 114, 5974.
Gilgen, A and Buchmann, N 2009. Response of temperate grasslands at different altitudes to simulated summer drought differed but scaled with annual precipitation. Biogeosciences 6, 25252539.
Gregorini, P, Minnee, E, Griffiths, W and Lee, J 2013. Dairy cows increase ingestive mastication and reduce ruminative chewing when grazing chicory and plantain. Journal of Dairy Science 96, 77987805.
Hegarty, R 2004. Genotype differences and their impact on digestive tract function of ruminants: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 44, 459467.
Howden, SM, Soussana, J-F, Tubiello, FN, Chhetri, N, Dunlop, M and Meinke, H 2007. Adapting agriculture to climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, 1969119696.
Hutton, P, Kenyon, P, Bedi, M, Kemp, P, Stafford, K, West, D and Morris, S 2011. A herb and legume sward mix increased ewe milk production and ewe and lamb live weight gain to weaning compared to a ryegrass dominant sward. Animal Feed Science and Technology 164, 17.
Jarrige, R 1978. Principes de la nutrition et de l’alimentation des ruminants; besoins alimentaires des animaux, valeur nutritive des aliments. INRA Publications, Versailles, France.
Komolong, MK 1994. Nutrient supply for lamb growth from grasslands Puna chicory (Cichorium intybus) and Wana cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata). Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 52, 8587.
Kusmartono, SA and Barry, TN 1997. Rumen digestion and rumen outflow rate in deer fed fresh chicory (Cichorium intybus) or perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Journal of Agricultural Science 128, 8794.
Li, G and Kemp, PD 2005. Forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.): a review of its agronomy and animal production. Advances in Agronomy 88, 187222.
Marley, CL, Fychan, R, Davies, JW, Scollan, ND, Richardson, RI, Theobald, VJ, Genever, E, Forbes, AB and Sanderson, R 2014. Effects of chicory/perennial ryegrass swards compared with perennial ryegrass swards on the performance and carcass quality of grazing beef steers. PLoS One 9, e86259.
Martin, C, Rouel, J, Jouany, JP, Doreau, M and Chilliard, Y 2008. Methane output and diet digestibility in response to feeding dairy cows crude linseed, extruded linseed, or linseed oil. Journal of Animal Science 86, 26422650.
Mertens, D 1987. Predicting intake and digestibility using mathematical models of ruminal function. Journal of Animal Science 64, 15481558.
Morgavi, DP, Boudra, H, Jouany, JP and Graviou, D 2003. Prevention of patulin toxicity on rumen microbial fermentation by SH-containing reducing agents. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51, 69066910.
Niderkorn, V, Baumont, R, Le Morvan, A and Macheboeuf, D 2011. Occurrence of associative effects between grasses and legumes in binary mixtures on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics. Journal of Animal Science 89, 11381145.
Niderkorn, V, Martin, C, Le Morvan, A, Rochette, Y, Awad, M and Baumont, R 2017. Associative effects between fresh perennial ryegrass and white clover on dynamics of intake and digestion in sheep. Grass and Forage Science 72, 691699.
Niderkorn, V, Martin, C, Rochette, Y, Julien, S and Baumont, R 2015. Associative effects between orchardgrass and red clover silages on voluntary intake and digestion in sheep: evidence of a synergy on digestible dry matter intake. Journal of Animal Science 93, 49674976.
Pinares-Patiño, C, Baumont, R and Martin, C 2003. Methane emissions by Charolais cows grazing a monospecific pasture of timothy at four stages of maturity. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 83, 769777.
Roca-Fernández, A, Peyraud, J-L, Delaby, L and Delagarde, R 2016. Pasture intake and milk production of dairy cows rotationally grazing on multi-species swards. Animal 10, 14481456.
SAS 2013. Statistical analysis systems (SAS Enterprise guide software). SAS® Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
Sun, X, Hoskin, S, Zhang, G, Molano, G, Muetzel, S, Pinares-Patiño, C, Clark, H and Pacheco, D 2012. Sheep fed forage chicory (Cichorium intybus) or perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) have similar methane emissions. Animal Feed Science and Technology 172, 217225.
Swainson, N, Hoskin, S, Clark, H and Brookes, I 2008. The effect of coconut oil and monensin on methane emissions from sheep fed either fresh perennial ryegrass pasture or chicory. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48, lxxviiilxxviii.
Totty, V, Greenwood, S, Bryant, R and Edwards, G 2013. Nitrogen partitioning and milk production of dairy cows grazing simple and diverse pastures. Journal of Dairy Science 96, 141149.
Van Soest, PJ, Robertson, JB and Lewis, BA 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 35833597.
Waghorn, G, Tavendale, M and Woodfield, D 2002. Methanogenisis from forages fed to sheep. Proceedings of the New Zealand grassland Association 64, 167171.
Weatherburn, M 1967. Phenol-hypochlorite reaction for determination of ammonia. Analytical Chemistry 39, 971974.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

animal
  • ISSN: 1751-7311
  • EISSN: 1751-732X
  • URL: /core/journals/animal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed