Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Modelling the Antarctic marine cryosphere at the Last Glacial Maximum

  • Kazuya Kusahara (a1) (a2), Tatsuru Sato (a1), Akira Oka (a3), Takashi Obase (a3), Ralf Greve (a1), Ayako Abe-Ouchi (a3) and Hiroyasu Hasumi (a3)...
Abstract

We estimate the sea-ice extent and basal melt of Antarctic ice shelves at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) using a coupled ice-shelf-sea-ice-ocean model. The shape of Antarctic ice shelves, ocean conditions and atmospheric surface conditions at the LGM are different from those in the present day; these are derived from an ice-shelf-ice-sheet model, a sea-ice-ocean model and a climate model for glacial simulations, respectively. The winter sea ice in the LGM is shown to extend up to ∼7° of latitude further equatorward than in the present day. For the LGM summer, the model shows extensive sea-ice cover in the Atlantic sector and little sea ice in the other sectors. These modelled sea-ice features are consistent with those reconstructed from sea-floor sedimentary records. Total basal melt of Antarctic ice shelves in the LGM was ∼2147 Gt a–1, which is much larger than the present-day value. More warm waters originating from Circumpolar Deep Water could be easily transported into ice-shelf cavities during the LGM because the full glacial grounding line extended to shelf break regions and ice shelves overhung continental slopes. This increased transport of warm water masses underneath an ice shelf and into their basal cavities led to the high basal melt of ice shelves in the LGM.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Modelling the Antarctic marine cryosphere at the Last Glacial Maximum
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Modelling the Antarctic marine cryosphere at the Last Glacial Maximum
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Modelling the Antarctic marine cryosphere at the Last Glacial Maximum
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
Anderson, JB Shipp, SS Lowe, AL Wellner JS and Mosola AB (2002) The Antarctic ice sheet during the last glacial maximum and its subsequent retreat history: a review. Quat. Sci. Rev., 21(1–3), 4970
Bindschadler, RA and 27 others (2013) Ice-sheet model sensitivities to environmental forcing and their use in projecting future sea level (the SeaRISE project). J. Glaciol., 59(214), 195224 (doi: 10.3189/2013JoG12J125)
Braconnot, P and others (2012) Evaluation of climate models using palaeoclimatic data. Nature Climate Change, 2(6), 417-424 (doi: 10.1038/nclimate1456)
Calov, R, Ganopolski, A, Petoukhov, V, Claussen, M and Greve, R (2002) Large-scale instabilities of the Laurentide ice sheet simulated in a fully coupled climate-system model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(24), 2216 (doi: 10.1029/2002GL016078)
Clark, PU and 9 others (2009)The Last Glacial Maximum. Science, 325(5941), 710-714 (doi: 10.1126/science.1172873)
Curry, WB and Oppo, DW(2005)Glacial water mass geometry and the distribution of d13C of ECO2 in the western Atlantic Ocean. Paleoceanography, 20(1), PA1017 (doi: 10.1029/ 2004PA001021)
Denton, GH and Hughes, TJ (2002)Reconstructing the Antarctic Ice Sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum. Quat. Sci. Rev., 21(1-3), 193202 (doi: 10.1016/S0277-3791(01)00090-7)
Depoorter, MA and 6 others (2013) Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves. Nature, 502(7469), 89-92 (doi: 10.1038/nature12567)
Forsström, P-L and Greve, R (2004)Simulation of the Eurasian ice sheet dynamics during the last glaciation. Global Planet. Change, 42(1-4), 5981 (doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2003.11.003)
Forsström, PL Sallasmaa, O, Greve, R and Zwinger, T (2003)Simulation of fast-flow features of the Fennoscandian ice sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum. Ann. Glaciol., 37, 383389 (doi: 10.3189/172756403781815500)
Gersonde, R, Crosta, X, Abelmann, A and Armand, L (2005)Sea-surface temperature and sea ice distribution of the Southern Ocean at the EPILOG Last Glacial Maximum: a circum-Antarctic view based on siliceous microfossil records. Quat. Sci. Rev., 24(7-9), 869896 (doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2004. 07.015)
Greve, R (1997a) Application of a polythermal three-dimensional ice sheet model to the Greenland ice sheet: response to steady-state and transient climate scenarios. J. Climate, 10(5), 901918 (doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<0901.AOAPTD>2.0.CO;2)
Greve, R (1997b) A continuum-mechanical formulation for shallow polythermal ice sheets. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 355(1726), 921974 (doi: 10.1098/rsta.1997.0050)
Hasumi, H (2006)CCSR ocean component model (COCO) version 4. (CCSR Report 25) Center for Climate System Research, University of Tokyo, Tokyo
Hasumi, H and Emori, S (2004) K-1 coupled model (MIROC) description. (Technical report) Center for Climate System Research, University of Tokyo, Tokyo
Hattermann, T, Nøst, OA Lilly, JM and Smedsrud, LH (2012)Two years of oceanic observations below the Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Geophys. Res. Lett, 39(12), L12605 (doi: 10.1029/ 2012GL051012)
Hellmer, HH (2004) Impact of Antarctic ice shelf basal melting on sea ice and deep ocean properties. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(10), (L10307) (doi: 10.1029/2004GL019506)
Hellmer, HH and Olbers DJ (1989) A two-dimensional model for the thermohaline circulation under an ice shelf. Antarct. Sci., 1(4), 325336 (doi: 10.1017/S0954102089000490)
Hellmer, H, Kauker, F, Timmermann, R, Determann, J and Rae, J (2012) Twenty-first-century warming of a large Antarctic ice-shelf cavity by a redirected coastal current. Nature, 485(7397), 225228 (doi: 10.1038/nature11064)
Holland, DM and Jenkins, A (1999) Modeling thermodynamic ice– ocean interactions at the base of an ice shelf. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29(8), 17871800 (doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(1999)029<1787: MTIOIA>2.0.CO;2)
Hooke RLe, B (2005) Principles of glacier mechanics,. 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Jacobs, SS Hellmer, HH Doake CSM, Jenkins, A and Frolich RM (1992) Melting of ice shelves and the mass balance of Antarctica. J. Glaciol., 38(130), 375387
Jacobs, SS Hellmer HH and Jenkins, A (1996) Antarctic ice sheet melting in the southeast Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23(9), (957– 960) (doi: 10.1029/96GL00723)
Kern, S (2009) Wintertime Antarctic coastal polynya area: 1992– 2008. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36(14), L14501 (doi: 10.1029/ 2009GL038062)
Kusahara, K and Hasumi, H (2013) Modeling Antarctic ice shelf responses to future climate changes and impacts on the ocean. J. Geophys, Res., 118(5), 24542475 (doi: 10.1002/jgrc.20166)
Kusahara, K, Hasumi, H and Tamura, T (2010) Modeling sea ice production and dense shelf water formation in coastal polynyas around East Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res., 115(C10), (C10006 (doi: 10.1029/2010JC006133)
Kusahara, K, Hasumi, H and Williams GD) (2011) Dense shelf water formation and brine-driven circulation in the Adélie and George V Land region. Ocean Model., 37(3–4), 122138 (doi: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2011.01.008)
Le Brocq, AM Payne, AJ and Vieli, A (2010) An improved Antarctic dataset for high resolution numerical ice sheet models (ALBMAP v1). Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2(2), 247260 (doi: 10.5194/essd-2-247-2010) ESSD
Lynch-Stieglitz, J and 17 others (2007) Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum. Science, 316(5821), 6669 (doi: 10.1126/science.1137127)
Marsland, SJ Bindoff, NL Williams GD and Budd WF (2004) Modeling water mass formation in the Mertz Glacier Polynya and Adélie Depression, East Antarctica. J. Geophys, Res., 109(C11), (C11003) (doi: 10.1029/2004JC002441)
Massom, RA Harris, PT Michael KJ and Potter MJ (1998) The distribution and formative processes of latent-heat polynyas in East Antarctica. Ann. Glaciol.. 27, 420426
Morales, Maqueda, MA Willmott AJ and Biggs NRT (2004) Polynya dynamics: a review of observations and modeling. Rev. Geophys., 42(RG1), (RG1004) (doi: 10.1029/2002RG000116)
Nowicki, S and 30 others (2013) Insights into spatial sensitivities of ice mass response to environmental change from the SeaRISE ice sheet modeling project I: Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res., 118(F2), (1002–1024) (doi: 10.1002/jgrf.20081)
Oka, A, Hasumi, H and Abe-Ouchi, A (2012) The thermal threshold of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and its control by wind stress forcing during glacial climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39(9), (L09709) (doi: 10.1029/2012GL051421)
Orsi, AH Johnson GC and Bullister JL (1999) Circulation, mixing, and production of Antarctic Bottom Water. Progr. Oceanogr., 43(1), 55109 (doi: 10.1016/S0079-6611(99)00004-X)
Petit, JR and 18 others (1999) Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica. Nature, 399(6735), 429436 (doi: 10.1038/20859)
Pollard, D and DeConto RM (2009) Modelling West Antarctic ice sheet growth and collapse through the past five million years. Nature, 458(7236), 329332 (doi: 10.1038/nature07809)
Pritchard, HD Arthern, RJ Vaughan DG and Edwards LA (2009) Extensive dynamic thinning on the margins of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Nature, 461(7266), 971975 (doi: 10.1038/nature08471)
Rignot, E and 6 others (2008) Recent Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modelling. Nature Geosci., 1(2), 106110 (doi: 10.1038/ngeo102)
Rignot, E, Velicogna, I, Van den Broeke, MR Monaghan, A and Lenaerts, J (2011) Acceleration of the contribution of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to sea level rise. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38(5), (L05503) (doi: 10.1029/2011GL046583)
Rignot, E, Jacobs, S, Mouginot, J and Scheuchl, B (2013) Ice shelf melting around Antarctica. Science, 341(6143), 266270 (doi: 10.1126/science.1235798)
sRöke, F (2006) A global heat and freshwater forcing dataset for ocean models. Ocean Model., 11(3–4), (235–297) (doi: 10.1016/ j.ocemod.2004.12.005)
Sato, T and Greve, R (2012) Sensitivity experiments for the Antarctic ice sheet with varied sub-ice-shelf melting rates. Ann. Glaciol., 53(60 Pt 2), (221–228) (doi: 10.3189/2012AoG60∆042)
Schoof, C (2007) Ice sheet grounding line dynamics: steady states, stability, and hysteresis. J. Geophys. Res., 112(F3), (F03S28) (doi: 10.1029/2006JF000664)
Steele, M, Morley, R and Ermold, W (2001) PHC: a global ocean hydrography with a high-quality Arctic Ocean. J. Climate, 14(9), 20792087 (doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<2079.PA-GOHW>2.0.CO;2)
Tamura, T, Ohshima KI and Nihashi, S (2008) Mapping of sea ice production for Antarctic coastal polynyas. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35(7), (L07606) (doi: 10.1029/2007GL032903)
Timmermann, R and Hellmer HH (2013) Southern Ocean warming and increased ice shelf basal melting in the twenty-first and twenty-second centuries based on coupled ice–ocean finite-element modelling. Ocean Dyn., 63(9–10), (1011–1026) (doi: 10.1007/s10236-013-0642-0)
Timmermann, R and 16 others (2010) A consistent data set of Antarctic ice sheet topography, cavity geometry, and global bathymetry. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2(2), 261273 (doi: 10.5194/ essd-2-261-2010)
Timmermann, R, Wang, Q and Hellmer HH (2012) Ice-shelf basal melting in a global finite-element sea-ice/ice-shelf/ocean model. Ann. Glaciol., 53(60 Pt 2), (303–314) (doi: 10.3189/ 2012AoG60∆156)
Weber, SL and 8 others (2007) The modern and glacial overturning circulation in the Atlantic ocean in PMIP coupled model simulations. Climate Past, 3(1), 5164 (doi: 10.5194/cp-3-51-2007)
Zachos, J, Pagani, M, Sloan, L, Thomas, E and Billups, K (2001) Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science, 292(5517), 686693
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Annals of Glaciology
  • ISSN: 0260-3055
  • EISSN: 1727-5644
  • URL: /core/journals/annals-of-glaciology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 7
Total number of PDF views: 58 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 125 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 26th July 2017 - 20th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.