American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL). (1986). ACTFL proficiency guidelines—Listening. Yonkers, NY: Author.
Anderson, R. C., & Li, W. (2006). A cross-language perspective on learning to read. In McKeough, A., Phillips, L., Timmons, V., & Lupart, J. L. (Eds.), Understanding literacy development (pp. 65–94). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bacon, M. (2007, June). ELLOPA/SOPA/COPE assessment results—May 2007. Presentation at the University of Minnesota's Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) Summer Institute: Immersion 101 for Chinese and Japanese, Minneapolis, MN.
Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G. (1985). Teaching vocabulary: Making the instruction fit the goal. Educational Perspectives, 23
Bulté, B., & Housen, A. (2012). Defining and operationalising L2 complexity. In Housen, A., Kuiken, F., & Vedder, I. (Eds.), Dimensions of L2 performance and proficiency: Complexity, accuracy and fluency in SLA (pp. 21–46). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins.
Bulté, B., Housen, A., Pierrard, M., & Van Daele, S. (2008). Investigating lexical proficiency development over time–the case of Dutch-speaking learners of French in Brussels. Journal of French Language Studies, 18
Bygate, M. (1999). Quality of language and purpose of task: Patterns of learners’ language on two oral communication tasks. Language Teaching Research, 3, 185–214. doi:10.1177/136216889900300302
Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL). (2010). The CAL oral proficiency exam and student oral proficiency assessment rating scale (draft Chinese version). Washington, DC: Author.
Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL). (2017). The directory of foreign language immersion programs in U.S. schools. Retrieved from http://webapp.cal.org/Immersion/
Cohen, J. (1960) A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 37–46.
Duff, P., Anderson, T., Ilnyckyj, R., VanGaya, E., Wang, R. T., & Yates, E. (2013). Learning Chinese: Linguistic, sociocultural, and narrative perspectives. Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter.
Ellis, R., & Barkhuizen, G. P. (2005). Analysing learner language. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Fortune, T. W., & Song, W. (2016). Academic achievement and language proficiency in early total Mandarin immersion education. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 4
Fortune, T. W., & Tedick, D. J. (2015). Oral proficiency development of K-8 Spanish immersion students. Modern Language Journal, 99
Foster, P., Tonkyn, A., & Wigglesworth, G. (2000). Measuring spoken language: A unit for all reasons. Applied Linguistics, 21
Garman, M. A. G. (1990). Psycholinguistics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Genesee, F., & Lindholm-Leary, K. (2013). Two case studies of content-based language education. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 1
Geva, E. (2006). Second-language oral proficiency and second-language literacy. In August, D. & Shanahan, T. (Eds.), Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth (pp. 123–139). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Guiraud, P. (1954). Les caractères statistiques du vocabulaire. Paris, France: Presses universitaires de France.
Harley, B. (1992). Patterns of second language development in French immersion. Journal of French Language Studies, 2, 159–183.
Harley, B. (1993). Instructional strategies and SLA in early French immersion. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 245–259.
Harley, B., Cummins, J., Swain, M., & Allen, P. (1990). The nature of language proficiency. In Harley, B., Allen, P., Cummins, J., & Swain, M. (Eds.), The development of second-language proficiency (pp. 7–25). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Hart, D., Lapkin, S., & Swain, M. (1991). Secondary level immersion French skills: A possible plateau effect. In Malave, L. & Duquette, G. (Eds.), Language, culture and cognition (Vol. 69, pp. 250–265). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Housen, A., Kuiken, F., & Vedder, I. (Eds.). (2012). Dimensions of L2 performance and proficiency: Complexity, accuracy and fluency in SLA. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
Koda, K. (2013). Development of second language reading skills: Cross-linguistic perspectives. In (pp. 303–318). In Gass, S. M. & Mackey, A. (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 303–318). New York, NY: Routledge.
Li, H., Rao, N., & Tse, S. K. (2012). Adapting Western pedagogies for Chinese literacy instruction: Case studies of Hong Kong Shenzhen, and Singapore preschools. Early Education and Development, 23
Li, C., & Thompson, S. A. (1981). Mandarin Chinese: A functional reference grammar. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Lindholm-Leary, K. (2011). Student outcomes in Chinese two-way immersion programs: Language proficiency, academic achievement, and student attitudes. In Tedick, D. J., Christian, D., & Fortune, T. W. (Eds.), Immersion education: Practices, policies, possibilities (pp. 81–103). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
MacIntyre, P. D., Burns, C., Jessome, A. (2011). Ambivalence about communicating in a second language: A qualitative study of French immersion students’ willingness to communicate. Modern Language Journal, 95, 81–96.
Met, M. (2008). Paying attention to language: Literacy, language and academic achievement. In Fortune, T. W. & Tedick, D. J. (Eds.), Pathways to multilingualism: Evolving perspectives on immersion education (pp. 22–45). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Montrul, S., & Potowski, K. (2007). Command of gender agreement in school-age Spanish-English bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingualism, 11, 301–328.
Packard, J. L. (2000). The morphology of Chinese: A linguistic and cognitive approach. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Padilla, A. M., Fan, L., Xu, X., & Silva, D. (2013). A Mandarin/English two‐way immersion program: Language proficiency and academic achievement. Foreign Language Annals, 46
(4), 661– 679.
Perfetti, C. A., Cao, F., & Booth, J. (2013). Specialization and universals in the development of reading skills: How Chinese research informs a universal science of reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 17
Pienemann, M. (1998). Language processing and second language development: Processability theory. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins.
Rabiteau, K., & Taft, H. (1985). Provisional modified ACTFL/ETS oral proficiency scale for junior high school students. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Rhodes, N., & Thompson, L. (1990). An oral assessment instrument for immersion students: COPE. In Padilla, A., Fairchild, H., & Valadez, C. (Eds.), Foreign language education: Issues and strategies. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Tarone, E., & Swierzbin, B. (2009). Exploring learner language. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Tavakoli, P., & Foster, P. (2008). Task design and second language performance: The effect of narrative type on learner output. Language Learning, 58
Thompson, L. E., Boyson, B. A., & Rhodes, N. C. (2006). Administrator's manual for CAL foreign language assessments, Grades K–8: Early Language Listening and Oral Proficiency Assessment (ELLOPA), Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA), and CAL Oral Proficiency Exam (COPE). Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics and Iowa State University National K–12 Foreign Language Resource Center: Ames, IA.
Tukey, J. W. (1977). Exploratory data analysis. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Valentino, R., & Reardon, S. F. (2014). Effectiveness of four instructional programs designed to serve English language learners: Variation by ethnicity and initial English proficiency. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 37
Wang, Y., & Feng, L. (2014). Research on acquisition difficulty of relative clauses in Chinese as L2. In Nan, J. (Ed.), Advances in Chinese as a second language: Acquisition and processing (pp. 254–270). Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars.
Xiao, R., Rayson, P., & McEnery, T. (2009). A frequency dictionary of Mandarin Chinese: Core vocabulary for learners. New York, NY: Routledge.
Xu, T. (1991). Zi he hanyu de yuyi jufa [Word and Chinese semantics and syntax]. In Ma, Q., (Ed.), Yufa yanjiu rumen [Introduction to grammar research]. Beijing, China: Commercial Press.
Yates, E. (2012). Characterizing oral proficiency and language use of long-time learners of Chinese as an additional language using computer technology (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Yuan, F. (2009). Measuring learner language in L2 Chinese in fluency, accuracy, and complexity. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association, 44
Zhu, D. (1982). Yufa jiangyi [Grammar notes]. Beijing, China: Commercial Press.