Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-sjtt6 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-15T21:42:18.908Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

The oldest ever brush hut plant remains from Ohalo II, Jordan Valley, Israel (19,000 BP)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 January 2015

Dani Nadel
Nadel, Zinman Institute of Archaeology, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel
Ella Werker
Department of Botany, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel


Detailed excavation and analysis of a brush hut from Ohalo II, Jordan Valley, Israel, provides an extraordinary view of camp construction 19,000 years ago. This report offers an important contribution to studies of Palaeolithic camp sites.

Copyright © Antiquity Publications Ltd. 1999

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Arensburg, B. & Bar-Yosef, O.. 1973. Human remains from Ein Gev I, Jordan Valley, Israel, Paleorient 1: 2016.Google Scholar
Bar-Yosef, O. 1978. Man — an outline of the prehistory of the Kinneret area, in Semrya, C. (ed.), Monographiae Biologicae 32: 44764. The Hague.Google Scholar
Bar-Yosef, O. & Belfer-Cohen, A.. 1989. The origins of sedentism and farming communities in the Levant, Journal of World Prehistory 3(4): 44798.Google Scholar
Bar-Yosef, O. & Belfer-Cohen, A.. 1992. From foraging to farming in the Mediterranean Levant, in Gebauer, A.B. & Price, T.D. (ed.), Transitions to agriculture in prehistory: 2148. Madison (WI): Prehistory Press.Google Scholar
Belmaker, M., Nadel, D. & Tchernov, E.. 1998. Microfauna and paleoecological research in open air archaeological sites. A paper presented at the 4th International Conference of Archaeozoology of South-West Asia and Adjacent Areas, 29 June-3 July, Paris.Google Scholar
Garrard, A.N., Baird, D. & Byrd, B.F.. 1994. The chronological basis and significance of the late Palaeolithic and Neolithic sequence in the Azraq Basin, Jordan, in Bar-Yosef, O. & Kra, R. (ed.), Late Quaternary chronology and palaeoclimates of the Eastern Mediterranean: 17799. Tuscon (AZ): Radiocarbon.Google Scholar
Goring-Morris, A.N. 1995. Complex hunter-gatherers at the end of the Palaeolithic (20,000–10,000 BP), in Levi, T.E. (ed.), The archaeology of society in the Holy Land: 14164. London: Leicester University Press.Google Scholar
Henry, D.O. 1989. From foraging to agriculture, The Levant at the end of the Ice Age. Philadelphia (PA): University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
Hershkovitz, I., Edelson, G. Spiers, M.S. Arensburg, B.., Nadel, D. & Levi, B.. 1993. Ohalo II man — unusual findings in the anterior rib cage and shoulder girdle of a 19,000 years-old specimen, International Journal of Osteo-archaeology 3: 17788.Google Scholar
Hershkovitz, I., Spiers, M.S. Frayer, D. Nadel, D. Wish-Baratz, S. & Arensburg, B.. 1995. Ohalo II —a 19,000 years old skeleton from a water-logged site at the Sea of Galilee, American Journal of Physical Anthropology 96(3): 21534.Google Scholar
Kislev, M.E., Nadel, D. & Carmi, I.. 1992. Epipalaeolithic (19,000 BP) cereal and fruit diet at Ohalo II, Sea of Galilee, Israel, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 73(14): 1616.Google Scholar
Leroi-Gourhan, A. & Brezillon, M.. 1972. Fouilles de Pincevent: Essai d’analyse ethnographique d’un habitat Magdalénien (la section 36). Paris: C.N.R.S. VIIe Supplement á Gallia Práhistoire.Google Scholar
Lieberman, D.E. 1993. The rise and fall of seasonal mobility among hunter-gatherers, Current Anthropology 34(5): 599631.Google Scholar
Lipschitz, N. & Nadel, D.. 1997. Charred wood remains from Ohalo II (19,000 BP), Sea of Galilee, Israel, Mitekufat Haeven, Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 27: 518.Google Scholar
Marks, A. (ed.). 1976. Prehistory and palaeoenvironments in the Central Negev, Israel 1. Dallas (TX): SMU Press.Google Scholar
Marks, A. (Ed.). 1977. Prehistory and palaeoenvironments in the Central Negev, Israel 2. Dallas (TX): SMU Press.Google Scholar
Nadel, D. 1994. Levantine Upper Palaeolithic-Early Epipalaeolithic burial customs: Ohalo Il as a case study, Paleorient 20(1): 11321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nadel, D. 1995. The visibility of prehistoric burials in the Southern Levant: how rare are the Upper Palaeolithic/Early Epipalaeolithic graves? in Campbell, S. & Green, A. (ed.), The archaeology of death in the ancient Near East: 18. Oxford: Oxbow. Monograph 51.Google Scholar
Nadel, D. 1996. The organization of space in a fisher-hunter-gatherers’ camp at Ohalo II, Israel, in Otte, M. (ed.), Nature et culture: 37388. Liege: University of Liáge. E.R.A.U.L. 68.Google Scholar
Nadel, D. 1997. The spatial organization of prehistoric sites in the Jordan Valley. Kebaran, Natufian and Neolithic case studies. Unpublished Ph.D thesis, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem. (In Hebrew.)Google Scholar
Nadel, D. In press. The scalene triangles from Ohalo II, Mitekufat Haeven, Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society Google Scholar
Nadel, D., Carmi, I. & Segal, D.. 1995. Radiocarbon dating of Ohalo II: archaeological and methodological implications, Journal of Archaeological Science 22(6): 81122.Google Scholar
Nadel, D., Danin, A. Werker, E. Schick, T. Kislev, M.E. & Stewart, K.. 1994. 19,000 years-old twisted fibers from Ohalo II, Current Anthropology 35(4): 4518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nadel, D. & Hershkovitzy, I.. 1991. New subsistence data and human remains from the earliest Levantine Epipalaeolithic, Current Anthropology 32(5): 6315.Google Scholar
Rabinovitch, R. 1998. Patterns of animal exploitation and subsistence in Israel, during the Upper Palaeolithic and Epipalaeolithic (40,000–12,500 BP), based upon selected case studies. Unpublished Ph.D thesis, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
Rabinovitch, R. & Nadel, D.. 1994–5. Bone tools from Ohalo II — a morphological and functional study, Mitekufat Haeven, Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 26: 3262.Google Scholar
Simchoni, O. 1997. Reconstruction of the landscape and human economy 19,000 BP in the Upper Jordan Valley by the Botanical Remains Found at Ohalo II. Unpublished Ph.D thesis, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan. (In Hebrew.)Google Scholar
Simmons, T. & Nadel, D.. 1998. The avifauna of the early Epipalaeolithic site of Ohalo II (19,400 BP), Israel: species diversity, habitat and seasonality, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 8(2): 7996.Google Scholar
Soffer, O. & Praslov, N.D. (ed.). 1993. From Kostenki to Clovis. Upper Palaeolithic-Palaeolndian adaptations. New York (NY): Plenum Press.Google Scholar
Spencer, B. & Gillen, F.J.. 1998 [1898] (renewed print). The natives of central Australia. New York (NY): Dover Publications Inc.Google Scholar
Valla, F.R. 1988. Aspects du sol de l’abri 131 de Mallaha (Eynan), Paleorient 14(2): 28396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yellen, J.E. 1976. Archaeological approaches to the present. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar